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Lipid rafts

Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Secondary alveolar septa are mostly generated after birth in humans and in mice this is completely accomplished postnatally, when mechanical stresses vary as airspace pressure oscillates. Alveolar mesenchymal cells deposit elastic fibers which limit cellular strain, but while the elastic fiber network is incomplete, this function is also served by the intracellular cytoskeleton. Intermediate filament proteins support deformation during cellular division and migration, which occur during septal elongation. Because platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFRα) signaling is essential for alveolar septation, we hypothesized that neuropilin-1 (NRP1) may link PDGFRα to cytoskeletal deformation...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Kotoku Kawaguchi, Ryo Hatano, Mitsunobu Matsubara, Shinji Asano
Moesin is expressed in several types of cells including epithelial and endothelial cells. Several groups reported that moesin plays important roles in the regulation of the cellular motility, and the process of internalization of membrane proteins. However, the physiological roles of moesin in the kidney still remain unclear. Herein, we examined the physiological function of moesin in the kidney using moesin knockout (Msn-/y ) mice. There was no obvious abnormality in the renal morphology of Msn-/y mice. However, we found that Msn-/y mice exhibited mild hyperchloremia, and reduced glomerular filtration rate compared to wild type (WT) mice...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Li-Na Wang, Mei-Hua Gao, Bing Wang, Bei-Bei Cong, Shu-Chao Zhang
Cluster of differentiation 59 (CD59) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Cross-linking of CD59 with specific monoclonal antibodies can cause a series of intracellular signal transduction events. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Linker for activation of T-cells (LAT) is a crucial adaptor protein in T-cell signaling, and its phosphorylation and palmitoylation are essential for its localization and function. In a previous study by the present authors, it was demonstrated that CD59 may be responsible for LAT palmitoylation, thereby regulating T-cell signal transduction...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Joyjyoti Das, Somnath Maji, Tarun Agarwal, Suman Chakraborty, Tapas K Maiti
During metastatic dissemination, cancer cells experience shear stresses in narrow confinements of in vivo vasculature. Such stresses are currently known to influence a gamut of cellular processes. While a host of cells emanating from a primary tumor perish in circulation due to shear, some cells manage to migrate to distant niches and form secondary tumors. Current research focuses on how cancer cells avert such mechanical stresses and adapt themselves in order to survive. This study deals with the autophagic response of cervical cancer cells HeLa and its subline HeLa 229, exposed to physiological shear stresses in vitro, and evaluates its role as a pro-survival mechanism...
March 13, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Anne Buffière, Théo Accogli, Laetitia Saint-Paul, Géraldine Lucchi, Benjamin Uzan, Paola Ballerini, Jean-Noël Bastie, Laurent Delva, Françoise Pflumio, Ronan Quéré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Krishnan Raghunathan, Nora J Foegeding, Anne M Campbell, Timothy L Cover, Melanie D Ohi, Anne K Kenworthy
Helicobacter pylori , a Gram-negative bacterium, is a well-known risk factor for gastric cancer. H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is a secreted pore-forming toxin that induces a wide range of cellular responses. Like many other bacterial toxins, VacA has been hypothesized to utilize lipid rafts to gain entry into host cells. Here, we use Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles (GPMVs) as a model system to understand the preferential partitioning of VacA into lipid rafts. We show that a wild-type toxin predominantly associates with the raft phase...
March 12, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Yoko Maruyama, Satoko Ueno, Mitsuhiro Morita, Fumio Hayashi, Shohei Maekawa
Neurons have well-developed membrane microdomains called "rafts" that are recovered as a detergent-resistant membrane microdomain fraction (DRM). NAP-22 is one of the major protein components of neuronal DRM. In a previous study, we showed that DRM-derived NAP-22 binds ganglioside and the inhibitory effect of ganglioside to calcineurin (CaN), a neuron-enriched calmodulin-regulated phosphoprotein phosphatase. Considering the important roles of CaN in neurons, identification of other cellular regulators of CaN could be a good clue to understand the molecular background of neuronal function...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Maria Fuller, Anthony H Futerman
Cholesterol, sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids are critical constituents of the brain, subserving neuronal membrane architecture and providing a platform for biochemical processes essential for proper neurodevelopment and function. When lysosomal defects arise in a lipid metabolic pathway, it is therefore easy to imagine that neurological decline will transpire, however for deficits in non-lipid pathways, this becomes harder to envisage. Here we suggest the working hypothesis that neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders might manifest as primary and/or secondary disorders of lipid metabolism...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Manuella Lévêque, Aubin Penna, Sophie Le Trionnaire, Chantal Belleguic, Benoît Desrues, Graziella Brinchault, Stéphane Jouneau, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Corinne Martin-Chouly
Whereas many phagocytosis steps involve ionic fluxes, the underlying ion channels remain poorly defined. As reported in mice, the calcium conducting TRPV2 channel impacts the phagocytic process. Macrophage phagocytosis is critical for defense against pathogens. In cystic fibrosis (CF), macrophages have lost their capacity to act as suppressor cells and thus play a significant role in the initiating stages leading to chronic inflammation/infection. In a previous study, we demonstrated that impaired function of CF macrophages is due to a deficient phagocytosis...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
I N Goronzy, R J Rawle, S G Boxer, P M Kasson
Influenza virus infects cells by binding to sialylated glycans on the cell surface. While the chemical structure of these glycans determines hemagglutinin-glycan binding affinity, bimolecular affinities are weak, so binding is avidity-dominated and driven by multivalent interactions. Here, we show that membrane spatial organization can control viral binding. Using single-virus fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that the sterol composition of the target membrane enhances viral binding avidity in a dose-dependent manner...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Ja-Hyun Koo, Heeseok Yoon, Won-Ju Kim, Donghun Cha, Je-Min Choi
Iduna is a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cellular responses such as proteasomal degradation and DNA repair upon interaction with its substrate. We identified a highly cationic region within the PAR-binding motif of Iduna; the region was similar among various species and showed amino acid sequence similarity with that of known cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). We hypothesized that this Iduna-derived cationic sequence-rich peptide (Iduna) could penetrate the cell membrane and deliver macromolecules into cells...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Małgorzata Jurak, Robert Mroczka, Rafał Łopucki
Lauryl gallate (LG) is an antioxidant agent. However, it exhibits poor solubility in water. Its interactions with the membrane result in structure evolution thus affecting the membrane functionality. In this paper the Brewster angle microscope coupled with the Langmuir trough was applied to determine the morphology, phase behaviour, thickness and miscibility of ternary Langmuir monolayers with equal mole fractions of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC); 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and an increasing mole fraction of LG...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Richard J Alsop, Sebastian Himbert, Alexander Dhaliwal, Karin Schmalzl, Maikel C Rheinstädter
Local structure and dynamics of lipid membranes play an important role in membrane function. The diffusion of small molecules, the curvature of lipids around a protein and the existence of cholesterol-rich lipid domains (rafts) are examples for the membrane to serve as a functional interface. The collective fluctuations of lipid tails, in particular, are relevant for diffusion of membrane constituents and small molecules in and across membranes, and for structure and formation of membrane domains. We studied the effect of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) on local structure and dynamics of membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphocholine (DMPC) and cholesterol...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Márcia Cristina Fernandes Messias, Giovana Colozza Mecatti, Denise Gonçalves Priolli, Patrícia de Oliveira Carvalho
The plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids which contain a vinyl-ether and an ester bond at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, respectively, in the glycerol backbone. They constitute 10 mol% of the total mass of phospholipids in humans, mainly as membrane structure components. Plasmalogens are important for the organization and stability of lipid raft microdomains and cholesterol-rich membrane regions involved in cellular signaling. In addition to their structural roles, a subset of ether lipids are thought to function as endogenous antioxidants and emerging studies suggest that they are involved in cell differentiation and signaling pathways...
March 7, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
H-M Burger, S Abel, W C A Gelderblom
Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), a group 2B natural occurring carcinogenic mycotoxin, modulated lipid and fatty acid (FA) constituents of lipid rafts isolated from primary hepatocytes following exposure to a cytotoxic concentration of FB1 (250 μM). The major effects observed in rafts, included a significant (p < 0.05) increase in raft cholesterol (CHOL) and glycerophospholipid such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), whereas sphingomyelin (SM) decreased (p < 0.05). Changes in lipid constituents resulted in the disruption of important membrane fluidity parameters represented as a decreased (p < 0...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xinxing Zhang, Kevin M Barraza, J L Beauchamp
The role of cholesterol in bilayer and monolayer lipid membranes has been of great interest. On the biophysical front, cholesterol significantly increases the order of the lipid packing, lowers the membrane permeability, and maintains membrane fluidity by forming liquid-ordered-phase lipid rafts. However, direct observation of any influence on membrane chemistry related to these cholesterol-induced physical properties has been absent. Here we report that the addition of 30 mol % cholesterol to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG) monolayers at the air-water interface greatly reduces the oxidation and ester linkage cleavage chemistries initiated by potent chemicals such as OH radicals and HCl vapor, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xu-Xu Liu, Wei-Dong Liu, Lei Wang, Bin Zhu, Xiao Shi, Zi-Xuan Peng, He-Cheng Zhu, Xing-Dong Liu, Mei-Zuo Zhong, Dan Xie, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Cai-Ping Ren
The identification and use of molecular biomarkers have greatly improved the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. However, a much deeper understanding of oncogenic proteins is needed for the benefit to cancer patients. The lipid raft marker proteins, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, were first found in goldfish retinal ganglion cells during axon regeneration. They have since been found in a variety of cells, mainly on the inner surface of cell membranes, and not only act as a skeleton to provide a platform for protein-protein interactions, but also are involved in signal transduction, nerve regeneration, endocytosis, and lymphocyte activation...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Bin Qiu, Qing Wang, Wei Liu, Tong-Cheng Xu, Li-Na Liu, Ai-Zhen Zong, Min Jia, Jing Li, Fang-Ling Du
A large number of recent studies are focused on evaluating the mechanism of action of trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the progression of apoptosis. A strong positive association has been reported between TFA and coronary heart disease (CHD), obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and so on. The present study reviewed the biological effects of trans fatty acids (TFA) and their possible roles in lipid rafts in regulating apoptosis. The following aspects of TFA were included: the research about TFA and diseases affecting serum lipid levels, inducing system inflammation and immune response, and the correlation between TFA and apoptosis...
March 3, 2018: Cell Biology International
Yu Cheng, Yongxi Song, Jinglei Qu, Xiaofang Che, Na Song, Yibo Fan, Ti Wen, Ling Xu, Jing Gong, Xiaoxun Wang, Chenlu Zhang, Xiujuan Qu, Yunpeng Liu
The C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) pathway can promote tumor metastasis but is dependent on cross talk with other signaling pathways. The MET proto-oncogene (c-MET) participates in metastasis and is highly expressed in gastric cancer. However, the relationship between CXCR4 and c-MET signaling and their mechanisms of action in gastric cancer metastasis remain unclear. In this study, in vitro experiments demonstrated that C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/CXCR4 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promotes migration in gastric cancer cells, which is accompanied by c-MET activation...
February 26, 2018: Translational Oncology
Ida Annunziata, Renata Sano, Alessandra d'Azzo
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) comprise a large group of disorders of catabolism, mostly due to deficiency of a single glycan-cleaving hydrolase. The consequent endo-lysosomal accumulation of undigested or partially digested substrates in cells of virtually all organs, including the nervous system, is diagnostic of these diseases and underlies pathogenesis. A subgroup of LSDs, the glycosphingolipidoses, are caused by deficiency of glycosidases that process/degrade sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids (GSLs)...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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