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Lipid rafts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334537/multivalency-effect-of-tat-peptide-functionalized-nanoparticle-in-cellular-endocytosis-and-subcellular-trafficking
#1
Nikhil R Jana, Chumki Dalal
Although trans-activating transcription (TAT)-peptide functionalized nanoparticle/polymer/liposome is widely used for cellular transfection applications, the multivalency (number of attached peptide per particle) effect on cell uptake mechanism and subcellular targeting performance is largely unexplored. Here we show that multivalency of nanoparticle controls the cellular interaction, cellular entry/exit mechanism and subcellular targeting performance. We have synthesized TAT peptide functionalized quantum dot (QD) of 30-35 nm hydrodynamic diameter with varied multivalency from 10 to 75 (e...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327197/lipid-raft-mediated-mir-3908-inhibition-of-migration-of-breast-cancer-cell-line-mcf-7-by-regulating-the-interactions-between-adipor1-and-flotillin-1
#2
Yuan Li, Fei Shan, Jinglong Chen
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of lipid raft regulation by microRNAs in breast cancer are not fully understood. This work focused on the evaluation and identification of miR-3908, which may be a potential biomarker related to the migration of breast cancer cells, and elucidates lipid-raft-regulating cell migration in breast cancer. METHODS: To confirm the prediction that miR-3908 is matched with AdipoR1, we used 3'-UTR luciferase activity of AdipoR1 to assess this. Then, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was cultured in the absence or presence of the mimics or inhibitors of miR-3908, after which the biological functions of MCF-7 cells were analyzed...
March 21, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325782/aibp-limits-angiogenesis-thorough-%C3%AE-secretase-mediated-upregulation-of-notch-signaling
#3
Renfang Mao, Shu Meng, Qilin Gu, Raquel Araujo-Gutierrez, Sandeep Kumar, Qing Yan, Felicidad Almazan, Keith A Youker, Yingbin Fu, Henry J Pownall, John P Cooke, Yury I Miller, Longhou Fang
Rationale: Angiogenesis improves perfusion to the ischemic tissue following acute vascular obstruction. Angiogenesis in pathophysiological settings reactivates signaling pathways involved in developmental angiogenesis. We showed previously that apoA-I binding protein (AIBP)-regulated cholesterol efflux in endothelial cells (ECs) controls zebrafish embryonic angiogenesis. Objective: This study is to determine whether loss of AIBP affects angiogenesis in mice during development and under pathological conditions, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism...
March 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324651/line-activity-of-ganglioside-gm1-regulates-raft-size-distribution-in-a-cholesterol-dependent-manner
#4
Timur R Galimzyanov, Anna S Lyushnyak, Veronika V Aleksandrova, Liudmila A Shilova, Ilya I Mikhalyov, Irina M Molotkovskaya, Sergey A Akimov, Oleg V Batishchev
Liquid-ordered lipid domains, also called rafts, are assumed to be important players in different cellular processes, mainly signal transduction and membrane trafficking. They are thicker than the disordered part of the membrane and are thought to form for compensating the hydrophobic mismatch between transmembrane proteins and lipid environment. Despite the existence of such structures in vivo is still an open question, they are observed in model systems of multicomponent lipid bilayers. Moreover, the predictions obtained from model experiments allow explaining different physiological processes possibly involving rafts...
March 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323941/the-diverse-metabolic-roles-of-peripheral-serotonin
#5
Alyce M Martin, Richard L Young, Lex Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Nick J Spencer, Claire F Jessup, Damien J Keating
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a multi-functional bioamine with important signaling roles in a range of physiological pathways. Almost all the 5-HT in our body is synthesized in specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells provide all our circulating 5-HT. While we have long appreciated the important roles of 5-HT within the gut including the modulation of GI motility, there is recently emerging evidence of the physiological and clinical significance of gut-derived 5-HT outside of the gut...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317806/mycobacterium-lepraemurium-uses-tlr-6-and-mr-but-not-lipid-rafts-or-dc-sign-to-gain-access-into-mouse-macrophages
#6
Mayra Silva-Miranda, Patricia Arce-Paredes, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM), the etiologic agent of murine leprosy, is an intracellular parasite of macrophages; the mechanism used by this bacterium to enter macrophages is not known. The fate of the MLM phagosome inside macrophages is also unknown. This study was conducted to investigate how MLM enters macrophages and to define the maturation process of MLM phagosome inside macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages were incubated in the presence of mannan-bovine serum albumin (BSA), and antibodies to known macrophage receptors, including, anti-FcγRIII/RII (anti-CD16/32), anti-CD35 (anti-CR1), anti-TLR2, anti-TLR4, anti-TLR6, anti-CD14, and anti-dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295942/gangliosides-structure-biosynthesis-analysis-and-roles-in-cancer
#7
Sophie Groux-Degroote, Yann Guérardel, Philippe Delannoy
Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids containing one or more sialic acid residues. They are essential compounds at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane where they interact with phospholipids, cholesterol and transmembrane proteins, forming lipid rafts. They are involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and recognition processes, as well as in the modulation of signal transduction pathways. These functions are mainly supported by the glycan moiety and changes in the structure of gangliosides occur under pathological conditions, particularly in neuro-ectoderm-derived cancers...
March 15, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276242/cellular-uptake-mechanism-of-cationic-branched-polypeptides-with-poly-l-lys-backbone
#8
Rita Szabó, Mónika Sebestyén, György Kóczán, Ádám Orosz, Gábor Mező, Ferenc Hudecz
Cationic macromolecular carriers can be effective carriers for small molecular compounds, drugs, epitopes, or nucleic acids. Polylysine-based polymeric branched polypeptides have been systematically studied on the level of cells and organisms as well. In the present study, we report our findings on the cellular uptake characteristics of nine structurally related polylysine-based polypeptides with cationic side chains composed of (i) single amino acid (poly[Lys(Xi)], XiK) or (ii) oligo[dl-alanine] (poly[Lys(dl-Alam)], AK) or (iii) oligo[dl-alanine] with an additional amino acid (X) at the terminal position (poly[Lys(Xi-dl-Alam)] (XAK)) or (iv) at the position next to the polylysine backbone (poly[Lys(dl-Alam-Xi)] (AXK))...
March 9, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275881/unraveling-the-role-of-membrane-microdomains-during-microbial-infections
#9
REVIEW
Prathyusha Bagam, Dhirendra P Singh, Maria Eugenia Inda, Sanjay Batra
Infectious diseases pose major socioeconomic and health-related threats to millions of people across the globe. Strategies to combat infectious diseases derive from our understanding of the complex interactions between the host and specific bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that play important role in life cycle of microbes. Interaction of microbial pathogens with host membrane rafts influences not only their initial colonization but also their spread and the induction of inflammation...
March 9, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275160/extracellular-signals-induce-glycoprotein-m6a-clustering-of-lipid-rafts-and-associated-signaling-molecules
#10
Atsuko Honda, Yasuyuki Ito, Kazuko Takahashi-Niki, Natsuki Matsushita, Motohiro Nozumi, Hidenori Tabata, Kosei Takeuchi, Michihiro Igarashi
Lipid-raft domains, where sphingolipids and cholesterol are enriched, concentrate signaling molecules. To examine how signaling protein complexes are clustered in rafts, we focused on the functions of glycoprotein M6a (GPM6a), which is expressed at a high concentration in developing mouse neurons. Using imaging of lipid-rafts, we found that GPM6a congregated in rafts in a GPM6a palmitoylation-dependent manner, thereby contributing to lipid-raft clustering. Additionally, we found that signaling proteins downstream of GPM6a, i...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274922/membrane-lipid-rafts-disturbance-in-the-response-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-to-short-term-disuse
#11
Alexey M Petrov, Violetta V Kravtsova, Vladimir V Matchkov, Alexander N Vasiliev, Andrey L Zefirov, Alexander V Chibalin, Judith A Heiny, Igor I Krivoi
Marked loss of skeletal muscle mass occurs under various conditions of disuse, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to atrophy are not completely understood. We investigate early molecular events which might play a role in skeletal muscle remodeling during mechanical unloading (disuse). The effects of acute (6 - 12 h) hindlimb suspension on the soleus muscles from adult rats were examined. The integrity of plasma membrane lipid rafts was tested utilizing cholera toxin B subunit, or fluorescent sterols...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246299/on-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-the-mam-hypothesis
#12
REVIEW
Estela Area-Gomez, Eric A Schon
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently unclear and is the subject of much debate. The most widely accepted hypothesis designed to explain AD pathogenesis is the amyloid cascade, which invokes the accumulation of extracellular plaques and intracellular tangles as playing a fundamental role in the course and progression of the disease. However, besides plaques and tangles, other biochemical and morphological features are also present in AD, often manifesting early in the course of the disease before the accumulation of plaques and tangles...
March 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245069/synapsins-regulate-bdnf-mediated-synaptic-potentiation-and-axon-elongation-by-acting-on-membrane-rafts
#13
Hung-Teh Kao, Kanghyun Ryoo, Albert Lin, Stephen R Janoschka, George J Augustine, Barbara Porton
In neurons, intracellular membrane rafts are essential for specific actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which include the regulation of axon outgrowth, growth cone turning and synaptic transmission. Virtually all the actions of BDNF are mediated by binding to its receptor, TrkB. The association of TrkB with the tyrosine kinase, Fyn, is critical for its localization to intracellular membrane rafts. Here, we show that synapsins, a family of highly amphipathic neuronal phosphoproteins, regulate membrane raft lipid composition and consequently, the ability of BDNF to regulate axon/neurite development and potentiate synaptic transmission...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236495/microvesicles-released-from-giardia-intestinalis-disturb-host-pathogen-response-in-vitro
#14
Ingrid Evans-Osses, Andres Mojoli, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Antonio Marcilla, Veronica Aran, Maria Amorim, Jameel Inal, Francesc E Borràs, Marcel I Ramirez
Giardia intestinalis (G.I), is an anaerobic protozoan and the aetiological agent of giardiasis, a diarrhoea present worldwide and associated with poverty. G.I has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Cysts are transmitted orally to the stomach and transform to trophozoites in the intestine by a multifactorial process. Recently, microvesicles (MVs) have been found to be released from a wide range of eukaryotic cells. We have observed a release of MVs during the life cycle of G.I., identifying MVs from active trophozoites and from trophozoites differentiating to the cyst form...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235801/the-scaffolding-protein-nherf1-regulates-the-stability-and-activity-of-the-tyrosine-kinase-her2
#15
Jaekwang Jeong, Joshua N Vanhouten, Wonnam Kim, Pamela Dann, Catherine Sullivan, Jungmin Choi, W Bruce Sneddon, Peter A Friedman, John J Wysolmerski
Unlike other ErbB family members, ErbB2/HER2/Neu (HER2) is not internalized but remains on the cell surface when activated. This allows for prolonged signaling and contributes to its transforming ability. Previous studies have shown that the calcium pump, PMCA2, interacts with HER2 within membrane protrusions and is required for the retention of HER2 on the cell surface. In this study, we knocked down NHERF1 expression in breast cancer cells lines and examined whether the scaffolding protein, NHERF1, interacts with PMCA2 and HER2...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223857/erythrocyte-nanovesicles-biogenesis-biological-roles-and-therapeutic-approach-erythrocyte-nanovesicles
#16
REVIEW
Gamaleldin I Harisa, Mohamed M Badran, Fars K Alanazi
Nanovesicles (NVs) represent a novel transporter for cell signals to modify functions of target cells. Therefore, NVs play many roles in both physiological and pathological processes. This report highlights biogenesis, composition and biological roles of erythrocytes derived nanovesicles (EDNVs). Furthermore, we address utilization of EDNVs as novel drug delivery cargo as well as therapeutic target. EDNVs are lipid bilayer vesicles rich in phospholipids, proteins, lipid raft, and hemoglobin. In vivo EDNVs biogenesis is triggered by an increase of intracellular calcium levels, ATP depletion and under effect of oxidative stress conditions...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218425/the-role-of-lipid-raft-translocation-of-prohibitin-in-regulation-of-akt-and-raf-protected-apoptosis-of-hacat-cells-upon-ultraviolet-b-irradiation
#17
Qiong Wu, Shiyong Wu
Prohibitin (PHB) plays a role in regulation of ultraviolet B light (UVB)-induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. The regulatory function of PHB appears to be associated with its lipid raft translocation. However, the detailed mechanism for PHB-mediated apoptosis of these keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation is not clear. In this report, we determined the role of lipid raft translocation of PHB in regulation of UVB-induced apoptosis. Our data show that upon UVB irradiation PHB is translocated from the non-raft membrane to the lipid rafts, which is correlated with a release of both Akt and Raf from membrane...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215712/palmitoylation-of-cysteine-415-of-cb1-receptor-affects-ligand-stimulated-internalization-and-selective-interaction-with-membrane-cholesterol-and-caveolin-1
#18
Sergio Oddi, Tomasz Maciej Stepniewski, Antonio Totaro, Jana Selent, Lucia Scipioni, Beatrice Dufrusine, Filomena Fezza, Enrico Dainese, Mauro Maccarrone
We previously demonstrated that CB1 receptor is palmitoylated at cysteine 415, and that such a post-translational modification affects its biological activity. To assess the molecular mechanisms responsible for modulation of CB1 receptor function by S-palmitoylation, in this study biochemical and morphological approaches were paralleled with computational analyses. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that this acyl chain stabilizes helix 8 as well as the interaction of CB1 receptor with membrane cholesterol...
February 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209512/n-glycan-dependent-cell-surface-expression-of-the-p2y2-receptor-and-n-glycan-independent-distribution-to-lipid-rafts
#19
Tetsuto Nakagawa, Chihiro Takahashi, Hitomi Matsuzaki, Shohei Takeyama, Shinpei Sato, Ayaka Sato, Yoshiyuki Kuroda, Hideyoshi Higashi
P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that couples with Gαq/11 and is stimulated by ATP and UTP. P2Y2R is involved in pain, proinflammatory changes, and blood pressure control. Some GPCRs are localized in lipid rafts for interaction with other signaling molecules. In this study, we prepared N-glycan-deficient mutants by mutating the two consensus Asn residues for N-glycosylation to Gln to examine intracellular localization and association with lipid rafts. Western blotting of the wild type (WT) protein and mutants (N9Q, N13Q, N9Q/N13Q) in COS-7 cells showed that both Asn residues were glycosylated in the WT...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208397/impact-of-lipid-rafts-on-the-t-cell-receptor-and-peptide-major-histocompatibility-complex-interactions-under-different-measurement-conditions
#20
Long Li, Guang-Kui Xu, Fan Song
The interactions between T-cell receptor (TCR) and peptide-major-histocompatibility complex (pMHC), which enable T-cell development and initiate adaptive immune responses, have been intensively studied. However, a central issue of how lipid rafts affect the TCR-pMHC interactions remains unclear. Here, by using a statistical-mechanical membrane model, we show that the binding affinity of TCR and pMHC anchored on two apposing cell membranes is significantly enhanced because of the lipid raft-induced signaling protein aggregation...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
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