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Lipid rafts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739689/lxr-activation-down-regulates-lipid-raft-markers-flot2-and-dhhc5-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Delphine Carbonnelle, Trang H Luu, Chloe Chaillou, Jean-Michel Huvelin, Jean-Marie Bard, Hassan Nazih
BACKGROUND/AIM: Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains of the plasma membrane. Recent studies have underlined that their integrity is critical for cancer cell survival. Liver X receptor (LXR) has a central role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and its stimulation inhibits proliferation of several cancer cell lines. This study investigated whether LXR could modulate lipid rafts integrity and consequently alter proliferation of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on integrity of MCF-7 lipid rafts was examined by studying the expression of rafts marker flotillin-2 (FLOT2) and DHHC5, which palmitoylates FLOT2, and by studying the expression of phospho-Akt...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734966/development-of-new-ganglioside-probes-and-unraveling-of-raft-domain-structure-by-single-molecule-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Kenichi G N Suzuki, Hiromune Ando, Naoko Komura, Takahiro Fujiwara, Makoto Kiso, Akihiro Kusumi
Gangliosides are involved in a variety of biological roles and are a component of lipid rafts found in cell plasma membranes (PMs). Gangliosides are especially abundant in neuronal PMs and are essential to their physiological functions. However, the dynamic behaviors of gangliosides have not been investigated in living cells due to a lack of fluorescent probes that behave like their parental molecules. We have recently developed, using an entirely chemical method, four new ganglioside probes (GM1, GM2, GM3, and GD1b) that act similarly to their parental molecules in terms of raft partitioning and binding affinity...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734845/leveraging-siglec-8-endocytic-mechanisms-to-kill-human-eosinophils-and-malignant-mast-cells
#3
Jeremy A O'Sullivan, Daniela J Carroll, Yun Cao, Adriano N Salicru, Bruce S Bochner
BACKGROUND: Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-8 is a cell-surface protein expressed selectively on human eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils, making it an ideal target for the treatment of diseases involving these cell types. However, the effective delivery of therapeutic agents to these cells requires an understanding of the dynamics of Siglec-8 surface expression. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Siglec-8 is endocytosed in human eosinophils and malignant mast cells, identify mechanisms underlying its endocytosis, and demonstrate whether a toxin can be targeted to Siglec-8-bearing cells to kill these cells...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734079/post-translational-palmitoylation-controls-the-voltage-gating-and-lipid-raft-association-of-calhm1-channel
#4
Akiyuki Taruno, Hongxin Sun, Koichi Nakajo, Tatsuro Murakami, Yasuyoshi Ohsaki, Mizuho A Kido, Fumihito Ono, Yoshinori Marunaka
Emerging roles of CALHM1, a recently discovered voltage-gated ion channel, include purinergic neurotransmission of tastes in taste buds and memory formation in the brain, highlighting its physiological importance. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the CALHM1 channel remain entirely unexplored, hindering full understanding of its contribution in vivo. In fact, the different gating properties of CALHM1 in vivo and in vitro suggest undiscovered regulatory mechanisms. Here, in searching for post-translational regulatory mechanisms, we discovered the regulation of CALHM1 gating and association with lipid microdomains via protein S-palmitoylation, the only reversible lipid modification of proteins on cysteine residues...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729862/rad51-interacts-with-non-structural-3-protein-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-regulates-viral-production
#5
Kidong Son, Tram T T Nguyen, Jae-Woong Choi, Long V Pham, Trang T D Luong, Yun-Sook Lim, Soon B Hwang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease affecting over 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection with HCV progresses to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV exploits host cellular factors for viral propagation. To investigate the cellular factors required for HCV propagation, we screened a siRNA library targeting human cell cycle genes using cell culture grown HCV-infected cells. In the present study, we selected and characterized a gene encoding Rad51...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721844/cd81-large-extracellular-loop-containing-fusion-proteins-with-a-dominant-negative-effect-on-hcv-cell-spread-and-replication
#6
Boyan Grigorov, Jennifer Molle, Eric Rubinstein, Fabien Zoulim, Birke Bartosch
The roles of CD81 in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle are multiple but remain ill characterized. CD81 is known to interact with the HCV glycoproteins as an attachment factor. It also has an important role in the post-attachment entry process. Its interaction with claudin-1, for example, is vital for viral uptake and trafficking. Furthermore, CD81 and its role in membrane organization and trafficking are thought to play a pivotal role in HCV replication. Some of these functions are particularly limited to human CD81; others can be substituted with CD81 molecules from other species...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710349/lipid-driven-nanodomains-in-giant-lipid-vesicles-are-fluid-and-disordered
#7
Alena Koukalová, Mariana Amaro, Gokcan Aydogan, Gerhard Gröbner, Philip T F Williamson, Ilya Mikhalyov, Martin Hof, Radek Šachl
It is a fundamental question in cell biology and biophysics whether sphingomyelin (SM)- and cholesterol (Chol)- driven nanodomains exist in living cells and in model membranes. Biophysical studies on model membranes revealed SM and Chol driven micrometer-sized liquid-ordered domains. Although the existence of such microdomains has not been proven for the plasma membrane, such lipid mixtures have been often used as a model system for 'rafts'. On the other hand, recent super resolution and single molecule results indicate that the plasma membrane might organize into nanocompartments...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703789/capturing-suboptical-dynamic-structures-in-lipid-bilayer-patches-formed-from-free-standing-giant-unilamellar-vesicles
#8
Tripta Bhatia, Flemming Cornelius, John H Ipsen
There is accumulating evidence that the small-scale lateral organization of biological membranes has a crucial role in signaling and trafficking in cells. However, it has been difficult to characterize these features with existing methods for preparing and analyzing freestanding membranes, because the dynamics occurs below the optical resolution possible with these protocols. We have developed a protocol that permits the imaging of lipid nanodomains and lateral protein organization in membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs)...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699539/recent-advances-in-the-function-of-the-67-kda-laminin-receptor-and-its-targeting-for-personalized-therapy-in-cancer
#9
Ada Pesapane, Pia Ragno, Carmine Selleri, Nunzia Montuori
The 67 kDa high affinity laminin receptor (67LR) is a non integrin cell surface receptor for laminin, the major component of basement membranes. Interactions between 67LR and laminin play a major role in mediating cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. 67LR derives from homo- or hetero-dimerization of a 37 kDa cytosolic precursor (37LRP), most probably by fatty acid acylation. Interestingly, 37LRP, also called p40 or OFA/iLR (oncofetal antigen/immature laminin receptor), is a multifunctional protein with a dual activity in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697598/nox2-mediated-tfeb-activation-and-vacuolization-regulate-lysosome-associated-cell-death-induced-by-gypenoside-l-a-saponin-isolated-from-gynostemma-pentaphyllum
#10
Kai Zheng, Yingchun Jiang, Chenghui Liao, Xiaopeng Hu, Yan Li, Yong Zeng, Jian Zhang, Xuli Wu, Haiqiang Wu, Lizhong Liu, Yifei Wang, Zhendan He
Tumor cells frequently obtain their chemoresistance through deregulating apoptotic signaling and activating protective autophagy. Therefore, exploring efficient chemotherapeutic agents or isolating novel natural products that can trigger non-apoptotic and non-autophagic cell death such as lysosome-associated death is emergently required. We have recently shown that Gypenoside L (Gyp-L), a saponin isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, induces lysosome swelling and cell death in esophageal cancer cells. However, contributions of vacuolization and lysosome to cell death remain unclear...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696684/development-of-beta-carotene-loaded-organogel-based-nanoemulsion-with-improved-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-bioaccessibility
#11
Yuting Fan, Luyu Gao, Jiang Yi, Yuzhu Zhang, Wallace Yokoyama
Beta-carotene (BC), a naturally occurring lipophilic carotenoid, is beneficial for human health. However, its water solubility and bioavailability is low. In this study, organogel-based nanoemulsion was successfully prepared to improve BC's loading amount, solubility, and bioavailability. Corn oil was selected as oil phase for organogel due to the greatest release amount of BC. Tween 20 was optimized as the emulsifier based on the highest extent of lipolysis and BC bioaccessibility. The nanoemulsion was a better alternative than organogel according to both the extent of lipolysis and BC bioaccessibility...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696660/transient-nanoscopic-phase-separation-in-biological-lipid-membranes-resolved-by-planar-plasmonic-antennas
#12
Pamina Martina Winkler, Raju Regmi, Valentin Flauraud, Juergen Brugger, Herve Rigneault, Jerome Wenger, Maria F Garcia-Parajo
Nanoscale membrane assemblies of sphingolipids, cholesterol and certain proteins, also known as lipid rafts, play a crucial role in facilitating a broad range of important cell functions. Whereas on living cell membranes lipid rafts have been postulated to have nanoscopic dimensions and being highly transient, the existence of a similar type of dynamic nanodomains in multicomponent lipid bilayers has been questioned. Here, we perform fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on planar plasmonic antenna arrays with different nanogap sizes to assess the dynamic nanoscale organization of mimetic biological membranes...
July 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696315/size-and-mobility-of-lipid-domains-tuned-by-geometrical-constraints
#13
Ole M Schütte, Ingo Mey, Jörg Enderlein, Filip Savić, Burkhard Geil, Andreas Janshoff, Claudia Steinem
In the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, proteins and lipids are organized in clusters, the latter ones often called lipid domains or "lipid rafts." Recent findings highlight the dynamic nature of such domains and the key role of membrane geometry and spatial boundaries. In this study, we used porous substrates with different pore radii to address precisely the extent of the geometric constraint, permitting us to modulate and investigate the size and mobility of lipid domains in phase-separated continuous pore-spanning membranes (PSMs)...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688851/characterization-of-the-dominant-inheritance-mechanism-of-episodic-ataxia-type-2
#14
Kevin Dorgans, Julie Salvi, Federica Bertaso, Ludivine Bernard, Philippe Lory, Frederic Doussau, Alexandre Mezghrani
Episodic Ataxia type 2 (EA2) is an autosomal dominant neuronal disorder linked to mutations in the Cav2.1 subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels. In vitro studies have established that EA2 mutations induce loss of channel activity and that EA2 mutants can exert a dominant negative effect, suppressing normal Cav2.1 activity through protein misfolding and trafficking defects. To date, the role of this mechanism in the disease pathogenesis is unknown because no animal model exists. To address this issue, we have generated a mouse bearing the R1497X nonsense mutation in Cav2...
July 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687494/sphingolipid-abnormalities-in-cancer-multidrug-resistance-chicken-or-egg
#15
REVIEW
Wing-Kee Lee, Richard N Kolesnick
The cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype encompasses a myriad of molecular, genetic and cellular alterations resulting from progressive oncogenic transformation and selection. Drug efflux transporters, in particular the MDR P-glycoprotein ABCB1, play an important role in MDR but cannot confer the complete phenotype alone indicating parallel alterations are prerequisite. Sphingolipids are essential constituents of lipid raft domains and directly participate in functionalization of transmembrane proteins, including providing an optimal lipid microenvironment for multidrug transporters, and are also perturbed in cancer...
July 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687359/identification-and-characterization-of-the-lamprey-flotillin-1-gene-with-a-role-in-cell-adhesion
#16
Rong Xu, Xiaoping Song, Peng Su, Yue Pang, Qingwei Li
Flotillin-1 is a kind of localize into specific cholesterol rich microdomains in cellular membranes and highly conserved lipid rafts marker protein widely distributed in animals and plants. It provides a platform for the reaction of many proteins in signal transduction, as scaffolding plays an important role in transmembrane signaling and cell adhesion. Here, Flotillin-1 protein from lamprey was identified and characterized (designated as L-Flotillin-1). After a partial cDNA sequence of L-Flotillin-1 was identified in a lamprey supraneural body cDNA library, the full-length cDNA was obtained using 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
July 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686720/free-cholesterol-and-cholesterol-esters-in-bovine-oocytes-implications-in-survival-and-membrane-raft-organization-after-cryopreservation
#17
Jorgelina Buschiazzo, Glenda L Ríos, Jesica R Canizo, Silvia S Antollini, Ricardo H Alberio
Part of the damage caused by cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes occurs at the plasma membrane. The addition of cholesterol to cell membranes as a strategy to make it more tolerant to cryopreservation has been little addressed in oocytes. In order to increase the survival of bovine oocytes after cryopreservation, we proposed not only to increase cholesterol level of oocyte membranes before vitrification but also to remove the added cholesterol after warming, thus recovering its original level. Results from our study showed that modulation of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) did not affect the apoptotic status of oocytes and improved viability after vitrification yielding levels of apoptosis closer to those of fresh oocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685122/nano-engineered-skin-mesenchymal-stem-cells-potential-vehicles-for-tumour-targeted-quantum-dot-delivery
#18
Liga Saulite, Dominyka Dapkute, Karlis Pleiko, Ineta Popena, Simona Steponkiene, Ricardas Rotomskis, Una Riekstina
Nanotechnology-based drug design offers new possibilities for the use of nanoparticles in imaging and targeted therapy of tumours. Due to their tumour-homing ability, nano-engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be utilized as vectors to deliver diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles into a tumour. In the present study, uptake and functional effects of carboxyl-coated quantum dots QD655 were studied in human skin MSCs. The effect of QD on MSCs was examined using a cell viability assay, Ki67 expression analysis, and tri-lineage differentiation assay...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683327/exosomes-mediate-mobilization-of-autocrine-wnt10b-to-promote-axonal-regeneration-in-the-injured-cns
#19
Nardos G Tassew, Jason Charish, Alireza P Shabanzadeh, Valbona Luga, Hidekiyo Harada, Nahal Farhani, Philippe D'Onofrio, Brian Choi, Ahmad Ellabban, Philip E B Nickerson, Valerie A Wallace, Paulo D Koeberle, Jeffrey L Wrana, Philippe P Monnier
Developing strategies that promote axonal regeneration within the injured CNS is a major therapeutic challenge, as axonal outgrowth is potently inhibited by myelin and the glial scar. Although regeneration can be achieved using the genetic deletion of PTEN, a negative regulator of the mTOR pathway, this requires inactivation prior to nerve injury, thus precluding therapeutic application. Here, we show that, remarkably, fibroblast-derived exosomes (FD exosomes) enable neurite growth on CNS inhibitory proteins...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672048/slfn2-mutation-induced-loss-of-t-cell-quiescence-leads-to-elevated-de-novo-sterol-synthesis
#20
Ibrahim Omar, Oren Rom, Michael Aviram, Leonor Cohen-Daniel, Abraham K Gebre, John S Parks, Michael Berger
Acquisition of a "quiescence program" by naïve T cells is important to provide a stress-free environment and resistance to apoptosis while preserving their responsiveness to activating stimuli. Therefore, the survival and proper function of naïve T cells depends on their ability to maintain quiescence. Recently we demonstrated that by preventing chronic unresolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Schlafen2 (Slfn2) maintains a stress-free environment to conserve a pool of naïve T cells ready to respond to a microbial invasion...
July 3, 2017: Immunology
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