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Lipid rafts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921554/dj-1-deficiency-impairs-autophagy-and-reduces-alpha-synuclein-phagocytosis-by-microglia
#1
Yuval Nash, Eran Schmukler, Dorit Trudler, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Dan Frenkel
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, of which 1% of the hereditary cases are linked to mutations in DJ-1, an oxidative stress sensor. The pathological hallmark of PD is intercellular inclusions termed Lewy Bodies, composed mainly of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein. Recent findings have shown that α-Syn can be transmitted from cell to cell, suggesting an important role of microglia, as the main scavenger cells of the brain, in clearing α-Syn. We previously reported that the knock down (KD) of DJ-1 in microglia increased cells' neurotoxicity to dopaminergic neurons...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920748/investigation-of-the-transport-and-absorption-of-angelica-sinensis-polysaccharide-through-gastrointestinal-tract-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Kaiping Wang, Fang Cheng, Xianglin Pan, Tao Zhou, Xiqiu Liu, Ziming Zheng, Li Luo, Yu Zhang
To investigate the absorption and delivery of ASP in gastrointestinal (GI) tract, cASP was successfully synthesized by chemically modifying with succinic anhydride and then conjugating with a near infrared fluorescent dye Cy5.5. Then, the capacity of oral absorption of cASP was evaluated. The results demonstrated that cASP had low toxicity and no disruption on the integrity of cell membrane. The endocytosis of cASP into the epithelial cells was time- and energy-dependent, which was mediated by macropinocytosis pathway and clathrin- and caveolae (or lipid raft)-related routes...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915267/cooling-induces-phase-separation-in-membranes-derived-from-isolated-cns-myelin
#3
Julio M Pusterla, Emanuel Schneck, Sérgio S Funari, Bruno Démé, Motomu Tanaka, Rafael G Oliveira
Purified myelin membranes (PMMs) are the starting material for biochemical analyses such as the isolation of detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-rich domains (DIGs), which are believed to be representatives of functional lipid rafts. The normal DIGs isolation protocol involves the extraction of lipids under moderate cooling. Here, we thus address the influence of cooling on the structure of PMMs and its sub-fractions. Thermodynamic and structural aspects of periodic, multilamellar PMMs are examined between 4°C and 45°C and in various biologically relevant aqueous solutions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912680/fyn-signaling-is-compartmentalized-to-dopamine-d1-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-dorsal-medial-striatum
#4
Khanhky Phamluong, Emmanuel Darcq, Su Wu, Samuel A Sakhai, Dorit Ron
The tyrosine kinase Fyn plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Here we report that Fyn is activated in response to 15 min D1 receptor (D1R) but not D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation specifically in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of mice but not in the other substriatal regions, the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Once activated Fyn phosphorylates its substrate GluN2B, and we show that GluN2B is phosphorylated only in the DMS but not in the other striatal regions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911528/macrophages-in-oxidative-stress-and-models-to-evaluate-the-antioxidant-function-of-dietary-natural-compounds
#5
REVIEW
Omir Adrian Castaneda, Sheng-Chi Lee, Chi-Tang Ho, Tzou-Chi Huang
Antioxidant testing of natural products has attracted increasing interest in recent years, mainly due to the fact that an antioxidant-rich diet might provide health benefits. Activated macrophages are a major source of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and peroxynitrite generated through the so-called respiratory burst. Constitutively released proinflammatory cytokine, especially tumor necrosis factor-α, triggers nuclear factor-κB, and activator protein-1 translocation leading to the over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in macrophages...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906107/concepts-and-methods-of-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy-applied-to-biomembranes
#6
Trivikram R Molugu, Soohyun Lee, Michael F Brown
Concepts of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and applications to fluid membranes are reviewed in this paper. Membrane lipids with (2)H-labeled acyl chains or polar head groups are studied using (2)H NMR to yield knowledge of their atomistic structures in relation to equilibrium properties. This review demonstrates the principles and applications of solid-state NMR by unifying dipolar and quadrupolar interactions and highlights the unique features offered by solid-state (2)H NMR with experimental illustrations. For randomly oriented multilamellar lipids or aligned membranes, solid-state (2)H NMR enables direct measurement of residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C-(2)H-labeled segments...
September 14, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#7
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898996/the-expression-of-the-rare-caveolin-3-variant-t78m-alters-cardiac-ion-channels-function-and-membrane-excitability
#8
Giulia Campostrini, Mattia Bonzanni, Alessio Lissoni, Claudia Bazzini, Raffaella Milanesi, Elena Vezzoli, Maura Francolini, Mirko Baruscotti, Annalisa Bucchi, Ilaria Rivolta, Matteo Fantini, Stefano Severi, Riccardo Cappato, Lia Crotti, Peter J Schwartz, Dario DiFrancesco, Andrea Barbuti
Aims: Caveolinopathies are a family of genetic disorders arising from alterations of the caveolin-3 (cav-3) gene. The T78M cav-3 variant has been associated with both skeletal and cardiac muscle pathologies but its functional contribution, especially to cardiac diseases, is still controversial. Here, we evaluated the effect of the T78M cav-3 variant on cardiac ion channel function and membrane excitability. Methods and results: We transfected either the wild type (WT) or T78M cav-3 in caveolin-1 knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts and found by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy that both are expressed at the plasma membrane and form caveolae...
August 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892400/poly-vinyl-methyl-ether-maleic-anhydride-doped-peg-pla-nanoparticles-for-oral-paclitaxel-delivery-to-improve-bioadhesive-efficiency
#9
Qian Wang, Chan Li, Tianyang Ren, Shizhu Chen, Xiaoxia Ye, Hongbo Guo, Haibing He, Yu Zhang, Tian Yin, Xing-Jie Liang, Xing Tang
Bioadhesive nanoparticles based on PVMMA (poly (vinyl methyl ether/maleic anhydride)) and mPEG-b-PLA (Poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether - b - poly (D, L - lactic acid)) were produced by the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Paclitaxel was utilized as the model drug, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 90.2 ± 4.0%. The nanoparticles were uniform and spherical in shape, and exhibited a sustained drug release compared with Taxol®. M-NPs also exhibited favorable bioadhesive efficiency at the same time...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883505/channel-formation-and-membrane-deformation-via-sterol-aided-polymorphism-of-amphidinol-3
#10
Masayuki Iwamoto, Ayumi Sumino, Eri Shimada, Masanao Kinoshita, Nobuaki Matsumori, Shigetoshi Oiki
Amphidinol 3 (AM3) is an anti-fungal polyene extracted from a marine dinoflagellate. Here, we examined the ion channel activity and membrane-embedded structure of AM3 using a lipid bilayer method and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AM3 exhibited large-conductance (~1 nS) and non-selective single-channel activity only when sterols were present in the membrane leaflet of the AM3-added side. The variable conductance suggests the formation of a multimeric barrel-stave pore. At high AM3 concentrations, giant-conductance "jumbo" channels (~40 nS) emerged...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880957/mapping-the-stk4-hippo-signaling-network-in-prostate-cancer-cell
#11
Damien Ready, Kader Yagiz, Pooneh Amin, Yuksel Yildiz, Vincent Funari, Serdar Bozdag, Bekir Cinar
Dysregulation of MST1/STK4, a key kinase component of the Hippo-YAP pathway, is linked to the etiology of many cancers with poor prognosis. However, how STK4 restricts the emergence of aggressive cancer remains elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of STK4, primarily localized in the cytoplasm, lipid raft, and nucleus, on cell growth and gene expression in aggressive prostate cancer. We demonstrated that lipid raft and nuclear STK4 had superior suppressive effects on cell growth in vitro and in vivo compared with cytoplasmic STK4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880247/the-actin-cytoskeleton-is-involved-in-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-induced-ret-translocation-into-lipid-rafts-in-dopaminergic-neuronal-cells
#12
Li Li, Haijing Song, Peipei Mu, Ming Xu, Chaoxia Liu, Ying Wang, Yingsong Qin, Shen Sun, Jin Gao, Ting Wang, Dianshuai Gao
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potential therapeutic factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), exerts its biological effects through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. The redistribution of Ret into lipid rafts substantially influences Ret signaling, but the mechanisms underlying Ret translocation remain unclear. The purpose of our study was to further explore the signaling mechanisms of GDNF and to determine whether the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the GDNF-induced Ret translocation into lipid rafts...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876055/supramolecular-assembly-of-peptide-amphiphiles
#13
Mark P Hendricks, Kohei Sato, Liam C Palmer, Samuel I Stupp
Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are small molecules that contain hydrophobic components covalently conjugated to peptides. In this Account, we describe recent advances involving PAs that consist of a short peptide sequence linked to an aliphatic tail. The peptide sequence can be designed to form β-sheets among the amino acids near the alkyl tail, while the residues farthest from the tail are charged to promote solubility and in some cases contain a bioactive sequence. In water, β-sheet formation and hydrophobic collapse of the aliphatic tails induce assembly of the molecules into supramolecular one-dimensional nanostructures, commonly high-aspect-ratio cylindrical or ribbonlike nanofibers...
September 6, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863823/the-role-of-cholesterol-in-the-activation-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#14
John E Baenziger, Jaimee A Domville, J P Daniel Therien
Cholesterol is a potent modulator of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo. Here, we review current understanding of the mechanisms underlying cholesterol-nAChR interactions in the context of increasingly available high-resolution structural and functional data. Cholesterol and other lipids influence function by conformational selection and kinetic mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of activatable vs nonactivatable conformations, as well as influencing the rates of transitions between conformational states...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863820/sterol-regulation-of-voltage-gated-k-channels
#15
Andras Balajthy, Peter Hajdu, Gyorgy Panyi, Zoltan Varga
Cholesterol is an essential lipid building block of the cellular plasma membrane. In addition to its structural role, it regulates the fluidity and raft structure of the membrane and influences the course of numerous membrane-linked signaling pathways and the function of transmembrane proteins, including ion channels. This is supported by a vast body of scientific data, which demonstrates the modulation of ion channels with a great variety of ion selectivity, gating, and tissue distribution by changes in membrane cholesterol...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863817/regulation-of-p2x-purinergic-receptor-signaling-by-cholesterol
#16
Ruth D Murrell-Lagnado
P2X receptors are cation-selective channels that are activated by the binding of extracellular ATP. They have a high permeability to Ca(2+), Na(+), and K(+) and are expressed widely throughout the nervous, immune, cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and endocrine systems. Seven mammalian subtypes of P2X receptor subunits have been identified, P2X1-7, and those that function as homotrimeric receptors (P2X1, 2, 3, 4, and 7) are targeted to lipid rafts, although they show limited resistance to solubilization by Triton X-100...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863814/multiple-mechanisms-of-regulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-ion-channels-by-cholesterol
#17
Sara L Morales-Lázaro, Tamara Rosenbaum
The transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels is constituted by several nonselective cation channels that are activated by diverse stimuli and that function as polymodal receptors. TRP ion channels are expressed in neural and nonneural tissues where they play important roles in cell physiology. The activation of these ion channels is achieved through changes in temperature, osmolarity, voltage, pH, pressure, and by some natural or synthetic chemical compounds that directly bind to these proteins to regulate their activity...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858358/lipid-nanodomains-change-ion-channel-function
#18
Michael Weinrich, David L Worcester, Sergey M Bezrukov
Signaling proteins and neurotransmitter receptors often associate with saturated chain and cholesterol-rich domains of cell membranes, also known as lipid rafts. The saturated chains and high cholesterol environment in lipid rafts can modulate protein function, but evidence for such modulation of ion channel function in lipid rafts is lacking. Here, using raft-forming model membrane systems containing cholesterol, we show that lipid lateral phase separation at the nanoscale level directly affects the dissociation kinetics of the gramicidin dimer, a model ion channel...
September 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856727/cholesterol-regulates-polymodal-sensory-transduction-in-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#19
Monika Lakk, Oleg Yarishkin, Jackson M Baumann, Anthony Iuso, David Križaj
Over- and underexposure to cholesterol activates glia in neurodegenerative brain and retinal diseases but the molecular targets of cholesterol in glial cells are not known. Here, we report that disruption of unesterified membrane cholesterol content modulates the transduction of chemical, mechanical and temperature stimuli in mouse Müller cells. Activation of TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4), a nonselective polymodal cation channel was studied following the removal or supplementation of cholesterol using the methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) delivery vehicle...
August 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856243/presence-of-androgen-receptor-variant-in-neuronal-lipid-rafts
#20
Jo Garza-Contreras, Phong Duong, Brina D Snyder, Derek A Schreihofer, Rebecca L Cunningham
Fast, nongenomic androgen actions have been described in various cell types, including neurons. However, the receptor mediating this cell membrane-initiated rapid signaling remains unknown. This study found a putative androgen receptor splice variant in a dopaminergic N27 cell line and in several brain regions (substantia nigra pars compacta, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus) from gonadally intact and gonadectomized (young and middle-aged) male rats. This putative splice variant protein has a molecular weight of 45 kDa and lacks an N-terminal domain, indicating it is homologous to the human AR45 splice variant...
July 2017: ENeuro
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