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Lipid rafts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236495/microvesicles-released-from-giardia-intestinalis-disturb-host-pathogen-response-in-vitro
#1
Ingrid Evans-Osses, Andres Mojoli, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Antonio Marcilla, Veronica Aran, Maria Amorim, Jameel Inal, Francesc E Borràs, Marcel I Ramirez
Giardia intestinalis (G.I), is an anaerobic protozoan and the aetiological agent of giardiasis, a diarrhoea present worldwide and associated with poverty. G.I has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Cysts are transmitted orally to the stomach and transform to trophozoites in the intestine by a multifactorial process. Recently, microvesicles (MVs) have been found to be released from a wide range of eukaryotic cells. We have observed a release of MVs during the life cycle of G.I., identifying MVs from active trophozoites and from trophozoites differentiating to the cyst form...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235801/the-scaffolding-protein-nherf1-regulates-the-stability-and-activity-of-the-tyrosine-kinase-her2
#2
Jaekwang Jeong, Joshua N Vanhouten, Wonnam Kim, Pamela Dann, Catherine Sullivan, Jungmin Choi, W Bruce Sneddon, Peter A Friedman, John J Wysolmerski
Unlike other ErbB family members, ErbB2/HER2/Neu (HER2) is not internalized but remains on the cell surface when activated. This allows for prolonged signaling and contributes to its transforming ability. Previous studies have shown that the calcium pump, PMCA2, interacts with HER2 within membrane protrusions and is required for the retention of HER2 on the cell surface. In this study, we knocked down NHERF1 expression in breast cancer cells lines and examined whether the scaffolding protein, NHERF1, interacts with PMCA2 and HER2...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223857/erythrocyte-nanovesicles-biogenesis-biological-roles-and-therapeutic-approach-erythrocyte-nanovesicles
#3
REVIEW
Gamaleldin I Harisa, Mohamed M Badran, Fars K Alanazi
Nanovesicles (NVs) represent a novel transporter for cell signals to modify functions of target cells. Therefore, NVs play many roles in both physiological and pathological processes. This report highlights biogenesis, composition and biological roles of erythrocytes derived nanovesicles (EDNVs). Furthermore, we address utilization of EDNVs as novel drug delivery cargo as well as therapeutic target. EDNVs are lipid bilayer vesicles rich in phospholipids, proteins, lipid raft, and hemoglobin. In vivo EDNVs biogenesis is triggered by an increase of intracellular calcium levels, ATP depletion and under effect of oxidative stress conditions...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218425/the-role-of-lipid-raft-translocation-of-prohibitin-in-regulation-of-akt-and-raf-protected-apoptosis-of-hacat-cells-upon-ultraviolet-b-irradiation
#4
Qiong Wu, Shiyong Wu
Prohibitin (PHB) plays a role in regulation of ultraviolet B light (UVB)-induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. The regulatory function of PHB appears to be associated with its lipid raft translocation. However, the detailed mechanism for PHB-mediated apoptosis of these keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation is not clear. In this report, we determined the role of lipid raft translocation of PHB in regulation of UVB-induced apoptosis. Our data show that upon UVB irradiation PHB is translocated from the non-raft membrane to the lipid rafts, which is correlated with a release of both Akt and Raf from membrane...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215712/palmitoylation-of-cysteine-415-of-cb1-receptor-affects-ligand-stimulated-internalization-and-selective-interaction-with-membrane-cholesterol-and-caveolin-1
#5
Sergio Oddi, Tomasz Maciej Stepniewski, Antonio Totaro, Jana Selent, Lucia Scipioni, Beatrice Dufrusine, Filomena Fezza, Enrico Dainese, Mauro Maccarrone
We previously demonstrated that CB1 receptor is palmitoylated at cysteine 415, and that such a post-translational modification affects its biological activity. To assess the molecular mechanisms responsible for modulation of CB1 receptor function by S-palmitoylation, in this study biochemical and morphological approaches were paralleled with computational analyses. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that this acyl chain stabilizes helix 8 as well as the interaction of CB1 receptor with membrane cholesterol...
February 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209512/n-glycan-dependent-cell-surface-expression-of-the-p2y2-receptor-and-n-glycan-independent-distribution-to-lipid-rafts
#6
Tetsuto Nakagawa, Chihiro Takahashi, Hitomi Matsuzaki, Shohei Takeyama, Shinpei Sato, Ayaka Sato, Yoshiyuki Kuroda, Hideyoshi Higashi
P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that couples with Gαq/11 and is stimulated by ATP and UTP. P2Y2R is involved in pain, proinflammatory changes, and blood pressure control. Some GPCRs are localized in lipid rafts for interaction with other signaling molecules. In this study, we prepared N-glycan-deficient mutants by mutating the two consensus Asn residues for N-glycosylation to Gln to examine intracellular localization and association with lipid rafts. Western blotting of the wild type (WT) protein and mutants (N9Q, N13Q, N9Q/N13Q) in COS-7 cells showed that both Asn residues were glycosylated in the WT...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208397/impact-of-lipid-rafts-on-the-t-cell-receptor-and-peptide-major-histocompatibility-complex-interactions-under-different-measurement-conditions
#7
Long Li, Guang-Kui Xu, Fan Song
The interactions between T-cell receptor (TCR) and peptide-major-histocompatibility complex (pMHC), which enable T-cell development and initiate adaptive immune responses, have been intensively studied. However, a central issue of how lipid rafts affect the TCR-pMHC interactions remains unclear. Here, by using a statistical-mechanical membrane model, we show that the binding affinity of TCR and pMHC anchored on two apposing cell membranes is significantly enhanced because of the lipid raft-induced signaling protein aggregation...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208292/nanoviscosity-measurements-revealing-domain-formation-in-biomimetic-membranes
#8
Imad Younus Hasan, Adam Mechler
Partitioning of lipid molecules in biomimetic membranes is a model system for the study of naturally occurring domains, such as rafts, in biological membranes. The existence of nanometer scale membrane domains in binary lipid mixtures has been shown with microscopy methods; however, the nature of these domains has not been established unequivocally. A common notion is to ascribe domain separation to thermodynamic phase equilibria. However, characterizing thermodynamic phases of single bilayer membranes has not been possible due to their extreme dimensions: the size of the domains falls to the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers whereas the membrane thickness is only a few nanometers...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207776/the-improved-efficacy-of-sifuvirtide-compared-with-enfuvirtide-might-be-related-to-its-selectivity-for-the-rigid-biomembrane-as-determined-through-surface-plasmon-resonance
#9
Ping Cao, Guifang Dou, Yuanguo Cheng, Jinjing Che
Most mechanistic studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) peptide fusion inhibitors have focused on the interactions between fusion inhibitors and viral envelope proteins. However, the interactions of fusion inhibitors with viral membranes are also essential for the efficacy of these drugs. Here, we utilized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology to study the interactions between the HIV fusion inhibitor peptides sifuvirtide and enfuvirtide and biomembrane models. Sifuvirtide presented selectivity toward biomembrane models composed of saturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (32-fold higher compared with unsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [POPC]) and sphingomyelin (SM) (31-fold higher compared with POPC), which are rigid compositions enriched in the HIV viral membrane...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207535/an-investigation-of-obesity-susceptibility-genes-in-northern-han-chinese-by-targeted-resequencing
#10
Yili Wu, Weijing Wang, Wenjie Jiang, Jie Yao, Dongfeng Zhang
Our earlier genome-wide linkage study of body mass index (BMI) showed strong signals from 7q36.3 and 8q21.13. This case-control study set to investigate 2 genomic regions which may harbor variants contributed to development of obesity.We employed targeted resequencing technology to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7q36.3 and 8q21.13 from 16 individuals with obesity. These were compared with 504 East Asians in the 1000 Genomes Project as a reference panel. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) block analysis was performed for the significant SNPs located near the same gene...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202765/the-lateral-organization-of-influenza-virus-proteins-in-the-budozone-region-of-the-plasma-membrane
#11
George P Leser, Robert A Lamb
Influenza virus assembles and buds at the plasma membrane of virus-infected cells. The viral proteins assemble at the same site on the plasma membrane for budding to occur. This involves a complex web of interactions among viral proteins. Some, like HA, NA, and M2 are integral membrane proteins. M1 is peripherally membrane associated, whereas NP associates with the viral RNA to form an RNP complex that associates with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Furthermore, HA and NP have been shown to be concentrated in cholesterol-rich membrane raft domains whereas M2, although containing a cholesterol binding motif, is not raft associated...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202758/endogenous-brain-lipids-inhibit-prion-amyloid-formation-in-vitro
#12
Clare E Hoover, Kristen A Davenport, Davin M Henderson, Mark D Zabel, Edward A Hoover
The normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) resides in detergent-resistant outer membrane lipid rafts in which conversion to the pathogenic misfolded form is believed to occur. Once misfolding occurs, the pathogenic isoform polymerizes into highly stable amyloid fibrils. In vitro assays have demonstrated an intimate association between prion conversion and lipids, specifically phosphatidylethanolamine, which is a critical cofactor in the formation of synthetic infectious prions. In the current work, we demonstrate an alternative inhibitory function of lipids in the prion conversion process as assessed in vitro by real-time, quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193781/real-time-imaging-of-sodium-glucose-transporter-sglt1-trafficking-and-activity-in-single-cells
#13
Chiara Ghezzi, Guillaume Calmettes, Pauline Morand, Bernard Ribalet, Scott John
The processes controlling targeting of glucose transporters to apical and basolateral membranes of polarized cells are complex and not-well understood. We have engineered SGLT1 and GLUT4 constructs linked to fluorescent proteins to highlight the differences in transporter expression and trafficking, in real time, in different cell types. Activity was assessed in parallel using a FRET glucose sensor. In COS cells and HEK cells, SGLT1 was distributed between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments, but there was little expression in CHO cells...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186394/mechanisms-of-ph-sensitivity-and-cellular-internalization-of-peoz-b-pla-micelles-with-varied-hydrophilic-hydrophobic-ratios-and-intracellular-trafficking-routes-and-fate-of-the-copolymer
#14
Dishi Wang, Yanxia Zhou, Xinru Li, Xiaoyou Qu, Yunqiang Deng, Ziqi Wang, Chuyu He, Yang Zou, Yiguang Jin, Yan Liu
pH-responsive polymeric micelles have shown promise for the targeted and intracellular delivery of antitumor agents. The present study aimed to elucidate the possible mechanisms of pH-sensitivity and cellular internalization of PEOz-b-PLA micelles in detail, further unravel the effect of hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio of the micelles on their cellular internalization, and examine the intracellular trafficking routes and fate of PEOz-b-PLA after internalization of the micelles. The results of variations in the size and Zeta potential of PEOz-b-PLA micelles and cross-sectional area of PEOz-b-PLA molecules with pH values suggested that electrostatic repulsion between PEOz chains resulting from ionization of the tertiary amide groups along PEOz chain at lower pH than its pKa was responsible for pH-sensitivity of PEOz-b-PLA micelles...
February 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186199/ubiquitination-mediates-kv1-3-endocytosis-as-a-mechanism-for-protein-kinase-c-dependent-modulation
#15
Ramón Martínez-Mármol, Katarzyna Styrczewska, Mireia Pérez-Verdaguer, Albert Vallejo-Gracia, Núria Comes, Alexander Sorkin, Antonio Felipe
The voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv1.3 plays essential physiological functions in the immune system. Kv1.3, regulating the membrane potential, facilitates downstream Ca(2+) -dependent pathways and becomes concentrated in specific membrane microdomains that serve as signaling platforms. Increased and/or delocalized expression of the channel is observed at the onset of several autoimmune diseases. In this work, we show that adenosine (ADO), which is a potent endogenous modulator, stimulates PKC, thereby causing immunosuppression...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185927/evidence-of-proteolipid-domain-formation-in-an-inner-mitochondrial-membrane-mimicking-model
#16
Mouhedine Cheniour, Jonathan Brewer, Luis Bagatolli, Olivier Marcillat, Thierry Granjon
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial Creatine kinase (mtCK) is highly abundant in mitochondria; its quantity is equimolecular to the Adenylic Nucleotide Translocator and represents 1% of the mitochondrial proteins. It is a multitask protein localized in the mitochondria intermembrane space where it binds to the specific cardiolipin (CL) phospholipid. If mtCK was initially thought to be exclusively implicated in energy transfer between mitochondria and cytosol through a mechanism referred to as the phosphocreatine shuttle, several recent studies suggested an additional role in maintaining mitochondria membrane structure...
February 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184226/clathrin-in-chara-australis-molecular-analysis-and-involvement-in-charasome-degradation-and-constitutive-endocytosis
#17
Marion C Hoepflinger, Margit Hoeftberger, Aniela Sommer, Christina Hametner, Ilse Foissner
Charasomes are convoluted plasma membrane domains in characean green algae. They are known to form in response to light via secretion of trans-Golgi network (TGN) vesicles and local inhibition of endocytosis. Charasomes are involved in the acidification of their aqueous environment, thereby facilitating photosynthesis-dependent carbon uptake. Charasome formation is reversible to allow cells to adapt to different light conditions. Here, we show that darkness-induced degradation of charasomes involves the formation of coated pits and coated vesicles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165468/thy-1-interaction-with-fas-in-lipid-rafts-regulates-fibroblast-apoptosis-and-lung-injury-resolution
#18
Xiaoqiu Liu, Simon S Wong, Carmen A Taype, Jeeyeon Kim, Tzu-Pin Shentu, Celia R Espinoza, J Cameron Finley, John E Bradley, Brian P Head, Hemal H Patel, Emma J Mah, James S Hagood
Thy-1-negative lung fibroblasts are resistant to apoptosis. The mechanisms governing this process and its relevance to fibrotic remodeling remain poorly understood. By using either sorted or transfected lung fibroblasts, we found that Thy-1 expression is associated with downregulation of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, as well as increased levels of cleaved caspase-9. Addition of rhFasL and staurosporine, well-known apoptosis inducers, caused significantly increased cleaved caspase-3, -8, and PARP in Thy-1-transfected cells...
February 6, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160078/proteomic-analysis-of-bmn-cell-lipid-rafts-reveals-roles-in-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-infection
#19
Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Dhiraj Kumar, Fei Chen, Liyuan Zhu, Sulan Kuang, Renyu Xue, Guangli Cao, Chengliang Gong
The mechanism of how Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enters cells is unknown. The primary components of membrane lipid rafts are proteins and cholesterol, and membrane lipid rafts are thought to be an active region for host-viral interactions. However, whether they contribute to the entry of BmNPV into silkworm cells remains unclear. In this study, we explored the membrane protein components of lipid rafts from BmN cells with mass spectrometry (MS). Proteins and cholesterol were investigated after establishing infection with BmNPV in BmN cells...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154260/identification-of-adenovirus-derived-cell-penetrating-peptide
#20
Takamasa Hirai, Yoshiaki Yamagishi, Naoya Koizumi, Miwa Nonaka, Rina Mochida, Kenta Shida, Tetsuya Nomura, Makiko Fujii, Fuminori Sakurai, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Yoshiteru Watanabe, Naoki Utoguchi
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been highly anticipated as an efficient delivery system due to their ability to cross biological membranes and transport various cargoes into cells. In the present study, we have identified adenovirus-derived CPPs using various capsid-mutant adenovirus (Ad) vectors. First, we examined the endocytosis-inducing ability of these vectors. A fiber-shaft substituted Ad vector, Ad type 5 vector with the fiber shaft domain replaced by that derived from Ad type 35, induced the highest fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran uptake into a human liver cell line, HepG2 cells...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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