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Lipid rafts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323721/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-modulates-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-apolipoprotein-e-synthesis-in-human-cell-models-of-astrocytes-and-neurons
#1
Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Aldo Donizetti, Lucia Iannotta, Vincenza Aliperti, Chiara Cupidi, Amalia Cecilia Bruni, Luisa Cigliano
In the central nervous system, cholesterol is critical to maintain membrane plasticity, cellular function, and synaptic integrity. In recent years, much attention was focused on the role of cholesterol in brain since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was previously reported to elicit cholesterol biosynthesis and promote the accumulation of presynaptic proteins in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, but no data are available on its ability to modulate physiological mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320683/changes-in-cholesterol-level-alter-integrin-sequestration-in-raft-mimicking-lipid-mixtures
#2
Yifan Ge, Jiayun Gao, Rainer Jordan, Christoph A Naumann
The influence of cholesterol (CHOL) level on integrin sequestration in raft-mimicking lipid mixtures forming coexisting liquid-ordered (lo) and liquid-disordered (ld) lipid domains is investigated using complementary, single-molecule-sensitive, confocal detection methods. Systematic analysis of membrane protein distribution in such a model membrane environment demonstrates that variation of CHOL level has a profound influence on lo-ld sequestration of integrins, thereby exhibiting overall ld preference in the absence of ligands and lo affinity upon vitronectin addition...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320202/nanoscale-heterogeneities-drives-enhanced-binding-and-anomalous-diffusion-of-nanoparticles-in-model-biomembranes
#3
Roobala Chelladurai, Koushik Debnath, Nikhil R Jana, Jaydeep Kumar Basu
Interaction of functional nanoparticles with cells and model biomembranes have been widely studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the particles as potential drug delivery vehicles and bio-imaging labels as well as in understanding nanoparticle cytotoxicity effects. Charged nanoparticles, in particular, with tunable surface charge have been found to be effective in targeting cellular membranes as well as the sub-cellular matrix. However, a microscopic understanding of the underlying physical principles which govern nanoparticle binding, uptake or diffusion on cells is lacking...
January 10, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317695/alterations-in-the-properties-of-the-cell-membrane-due-to-glycosphingolipid-accumulation-in-a-model-of-gaucher-disease
#4
Gyula Batta, Lilla Soltész, Tamás Kovács, Tamás Bozó, Zoltán Mészár, Miklós Kellermayer, János Szöllősi, Peter Nagy
Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the malfunction of glucocerebrosidase resulting in the accumulation of glucosylceramide and other sphingolipids in certain cells. Although the disease symptoms are usually attributed to the storage of undigested substrate in lysosomes, here we show that glycosphingolipids accumulating in the plasma membrane cause profound changes in the properties of the membrane. The fluidity of the sphingolipid-enriched membrane decreased accompanied by the enlargement of raft-like ordered membrane domains...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313392/improved-intestinal-absorption-of-paclitaxel-by-mixed-micelles-self-assembled-from-vitamin-e-succinate-based-amphiphilic-polymers-and-their-transcellular-transport-mechanism-and-intracellular-trafficking-routes
#5
Xiaoyou Qu, Yang Zou, Chuyu He, Yuanhang Zhou, Yao Jin, Yunqiang Deng, Ziqi Wang, Xinru Li, Yanxia Zhou, Yan Liu
To ensure that antitumor drugs can be effectively transported across intestinal barrier and then quickly released in tumor cells, mixed polymeric micelles (Mix-PMs) were designed and fabricated by combining poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-vitamin E succinate (PEOz-VES) with TPGS1000 for enhancing intestinal absorption of paclitaxel. PEOz-VES exhibited an extremely low critical micelle concentration and negligible cytotoxicity. The Mix-PMs were characterized to have about 20 nm in diameter, uniform spherical morphology, high drug-loading content and sustained drug release profile with a retained pH-sensitivity...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312832/lipid-raft-localization-of-tlr2-and-its-co-receptors-is-independent-of-membrane-lipid-composition
#6
Christine Hellwing, Axel Schoeniger, Claudia Roessler, Anja Leimert, Julia Schumann
Background: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an important and evolutionary conserved class of pattern recognition receptors associated with innate immunity. The recognition of Gram-positive cell wall constituents strongly depends on TLR2. In order to be functional, TLR2 predominantly forms a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 within specialized membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts. The membrane lipid composition and the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts are subject to modification by exogenous fatty acids...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312596/ra-and-%C3%AF-3-pufa-co-treatment-activates-autophagy-in-cancer-cells
#7
Shenglong Zhu, Guangxiao Lin, Ci Song, Yikuan Wu, Ninghan Feng, Wei Chen, Zhao He, Yong Q Chen
Retinoic acid (RA), is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. However, metabolic disorders and drug resistance reduce the efficacy of RA. In this study, we found that RA and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) synergistically induced cell death in vitro and in vivo and autophagy activation. Moreover, RA-induced hypercholesterolemia was completely corrected by ω-3 PUFA supplementation. In addition, we demonstrated that the effects of this combination on the autophagic flux were independent of the two major canonic regulatory complexes controlling autophagic vesicle formation...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311523/effect-of-dialkyl-ammonium-cationic-surfactants-on-the-microfluidity-of-membranes-containing-raft-domains
#8
Makoto Uyama, Kaori Inoue, Koichi Kinoshita, Reiji Miyahara, Hirokazu Yokoyama, Minoru Nakano
It has been reported that a lot of receptors localize in lipid raft domains and that the microfluidity of these domains regulates the activation of these receptors. In this study, we focused on the lipid raft and in order to evaluate the physicochemical effects of surfactants on microfluidity of lipid membranes, we used liposomes comprising of egg-yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine, egg-yolk sphingomyelin, and cholesterol as a model of cell membranes containing raft domains. The microfluidity of the domains was characterized by fluorescence spectrometry using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and 2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene...
2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311511/a-peptide-glycolipid-interaction-probed-by-retroinverso-peptide-analogues
#9
Kaori Sakurai
Cell surface glycolipids are implicated in the formation of lipid rafts and membrane microdomains, where they interact with protein receptors to mediate a variety of cellular processes such as cell-cell recognition, cell adhesion, and membrane signaling. Studies of glycolipid function at the local membrane structures have not been straightforward to date, because the locally clustered structures are labile and their protein binding affinities tend to be weak. While specific glycolipid-binding proteins have been employed as molecular probes for detecting lipid rafts, small peptides may be more suitable for probing glycolipids at the cell surface due to their small size as well as their ease of synthetic preparation and functionalization...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306438/revealing-the-raft-domain-organization-in-the-plasma-membrane-by-single-molecule-imaging-of-fluorescent-ganglioside-analogs
#10
Kenichi G N Suzuki, Hiromune Ando, Naoko Komura, Miku Konishi, Akihiro Imamura, Hideharu Ishida, Makoto Kiso, Takahiro K Fujiwara, Akihiro Kusumi
Gangliosides have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, particularly in the formation and function of raft domains in the plasma membrane. However, the scarcity of suitable fluorescent ganglioside analogs had long prevented us from determining exactly how gangliosides perform their functions in the live-cell plasma membrane. With the development of new fluorescent ganglioside analogs, as described by Komura et al. (2017), this barrier has been broken. We can now address the dynamic behaviors of gangliosides in the live-cell plasma membrane, using fluorescence microscopy, particularly by single-fluorescent molecule imaging and tracking...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304557/abnormal-golgi-ph-homeostasis-in-cancer-cells-impairs-apical-targeting-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-ceacam5-by-inhibiting-its-gpi-anchor-mediated-association-with-lipid-rafts
#11
Nina Kokkonen, Elham Khosrowabadi, Antti Hassinen, Deborah Harrus, Tuomo Glumoff, Thomas Kietzmann, Sakari Kellokumpu
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEACAM5, CEA) is a known tumor marker for colorectal cancer that localizes in a polarized manner to the apical surface in normal colon epithelial cells while in cancer cells it is present at both the apical and basolateral surfaces of the cells. Since the Golgi apparatus sorts and transports most proteins to these cell surface domains, we set out here to investigate whether any of the factors commonly associated with tumorigenesis including hypoxia, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered redox homeostasis or an altered Golgi pH, are responsible for mistargeting of CEA to the basolateral surface in cancer cells...
January 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280621/study-of-fret-to-lipid-domain-markers-ascertains-partitioning-of-semisynthetic-lipidated-n-ras-in-lipid-raft-nanodomains
#12
Anna K Shishina, Elizaveta A Kovrigina, Azamat R Galiakhmetov, Rajendra Rathore, Evgenii L Kovrigin
Cellular membranes are heterogeneous planar lipid bilayers displaying lateral phase separation with the nanometer-scale liquid-ordered phase (aka "lipid rafts") surrounded by the liquid-disordered phase. Many membrane-associated proteins were found to permanently integrate in the lipid rafts, which is critical for their biological function. Isoforms H and N of Ras GTPase possess a unique ability to switch their lipid domain preference depending on the type of the bound guanine nucleotide (GDP or GTP). This behavior, however, has never been demonstrated in vitro in model bilayers with recombinant proteins, and therefore has been attributed to the action of Ras binding to other proteins at the membrane surface...
December 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277006/hiv-internalization-into-oral-and-genital-epithelial-cells-by-endocytosis-and-macropinocytosis-leads-to-viral-sequestration-in-the-vesicles
#13
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Recently, we showed that HIV-1 is sequestered, i.e., trapped, in the intracellular vesicles of oral and genital epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HIV-1 sequestration in vesicles of polarized tonsil, foreskin and cervical epithelial cells. HIV-1 internalization into epithelial cells is initiated by multiple entry pathways, including clathrin-, caveolin/lipid raft-associated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Inhibition of HIV-1 attachment to galactosylceramide and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and virus endocytosis and macropinocytosis reduced HIV-1 sequestration by 30-40%...
December 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273450/helicobacter-pylori-depletes-cholesterol-in-gastric-glands-to-prevent-interferon-gamma-signaling-and-escape-the-inflammatory-response
#14
Pau Morey, Lennart Pfannkuch, Ervinna Pang, Francesco Boccellato, Michael Sigal, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Victoria Dyer, Manuel Koch, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Philipp Schlaermann, Thomas F Meyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite inducing an inflammatory response, Helicobacter pylori can persist in the gastric mucosa for decades. H pylori expression of cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase (encoded by cgt) is required for gastric colonization and T-cell activation. We investigated how cgt affects gastric epithelial cells and the host immune response. METHODS: MKN45 gastric epithelial cells, AGS cells, and human primary gastric epithelial cells (obtained from patients undergoing gastrectomy or sleeve resection or gastric antral organoids) were incubated with interferon gamma (IFNG) or IFNB and exposed to H pylori, including cagPAI and cgt mutant strains...
December 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262367/composition-fluctuations-in-lipid-bilayers
#15
Svetlana Baoukina, Dmitri Rozmanov, D Peter Tieleman
Cell membranes contain multiple lipid and protein components having heterogeneous in-plane (lateral) distribution. Nanoscale rafts are believed to play an important functional role, but their phase state-domains of coexisting phases or composition fluctuations-is unknown. As a step toward understanding lateral organization of cell membranes, we investigate the difference between nanoscale domains of coexisting phases and composition fluctuations in lipid bilayers. We simulate model lipid bilayers with the MARTINI coarse-grained force field on length scales of tens of nanometers and timescales of tens of microseconds...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262264/pde8-is-expressed-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-and-selectively-regulates-camp-signaling-by-%C3%AE-2ar-ac6
#16
Timothy B Johnstone, Kaitlyn H Smith, Cynthia J Koziol-White, Fengying Li, Austin G Kazarian, Maia L Corpuz, Maya Shumyatcher, Frederick J Ehlert, Blanca E Himes, Reynold A Panettieri, Rennolds S Ostrom
Two cAMP signaling compartments centering around adenylyl cyclase (AC) exist in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells, one containing ß2AR-AC6 and another containing E prostanoid receptors (EPR)-AC2. We hypothesized that different phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes selectively regulate cAMP signaling in each compartment. According to RNA-seq data, 18 of 24 PDE genes were expressed in primary HASM cells derived from age- and gender-matched donors with and without asthma. PDE8A was the third most abundant of the cAMP-degrading PDE genes, after PDE4A and PDE1A...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261109/%C3%AF-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-sensitizing-agents-and-multidrug-resistance-revertants-in-cancer-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Paola Antonia Corsetto, Irma Colombo, Joanna Kopecka, Angela Maria Rizzo, Chiara Riganti
Chemotherapy efficacy is strictly limited by the resistance of cancer cells. The ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFAs) are considered chemosensitizing agents and revertants of multidrug resistance by pleiotropic, but not still well elucidated, mechanisms. Nowadays, it is accepted that alteration in gene expression, modulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation, induction of apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation are involved in ω-3 LCPUFA chemosensitizing effects...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250031/new-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-soluble-klotho
#18
REVIEW
George D Dalton, Jian Xie, Sung-Wan An, Chou-Long Huang
The klotho gene encodes a type I single-pass transmembrane protein that contains a large extracellular domain, a membrane spanning segment, and a short intracellular domain. Klotho protein exists in several forms including the full-length membrane form (mKl) and a soluble circulating form [soluble klotho (sKl)]. mKl complexes with fibroblast growth factor receptors to form coreceptors for FGF23, which allows it to participate in FGF23-mediated signal transduction and regulation of phosphate and calcium homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249211/remodelling-of-primary-human-cd4-t-cell-plasma-membrane-order-by-n-3-pufa
#19
Yang-Yi Fan, Natividad R Fuentes, Tim Y Hou, Rola Barhoumi, Xian C Li, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Marielle P K J Engelen, David N McMurray, Robert S Chapkin
Cell membrane fatty acids influence fundamental properties of the plasma membrane, including membrane fluidity, protein functionality, and lipid raft signalling. Evidence suggests that dietary n-3 PUFA may target the plasma membrane of immune cells by altering plasma membrane lipid dynamics, thereby regulating the attenuation of immune cell activation and suppression of inflammation. As lipid-based immunotherapy might be a promising new clinical strategy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the effects of n-3 PUFA on CD4+ T cell membrane order, mitochondrial bioenergetics and lymphoproliferation...
December 18, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244740/chirality-dependent-interaction-of-d-and-l-menthol-with-biomembrane-models
#20
Pooja Gusain, Shinya Ohki, Kunihide Hoshino, Yoshio Tsujino, Naofumi Shimokawa, Masahiro Takagi
Chirality plays a vital role in biological membranes and has a significant effect depending on the type and arrangement of the isomer. Menthol has two typical chiral forms, d- and l-, which exhibit different behaviours. l-Menthol is known for its physiological effect on sensitivity (i.e. a cooling effect), whereas d-menthol causes skin irritation. Menthol molecules may affect not only the thermoreceptors on biomembranes, but also the membrane itself. Membrane heterogeneity (lipid rafts, phase separation) depends on lipid packing and acyl chain ordering...
December 15, 2017: Membranes
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