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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750371/mitochondrial-fission-inhibitors-suppress-endothelin-1-induced-artery-constriction
#1
Chang Chen, Jin-Lai Gao, Ming-Yu Liu, Shan-Liang Li, Xiu-Chen Xuan, Xin-Zi Zhang, Xi-Yue Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Wei, Chang-Lin Zhen, Jing Jin, Xin Shen, De-Li Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelin-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. Our previous study found that inhibition of mitochondrial fission of smooth muscle cells suppressed phenylephrine- and high K+-induced artery constriction. Here, we studied the effects of mitochondrial fission inhibitors on endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction. METHODS: The tension of rat mesenteric arteries and thoracic aorta was measured by using a multi-wire myograph system...
July 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716920/vamp3-and-snap23-mediate-the-disturbed-flow-induced-endothelial-microrna-secretion-and-smooth-muscle-hyperplasia
#2
Juan-Juan Zhu, Yue-Feng Liu, Yun-Peng Zhang, Chuan-Rong Zhao, Wei-Juan Yao, Yi-Shuan Li, Kuei-Chun Wang, Tse-Shun Huang, Wei Pang, Xi-Fu Wang, Xian Wang, Shu Chien, Jing Zhou
Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) at arterial branches and curvatures experience disturbed blood flow and induce a quiescent-to-activated phenotypic transition of the adjacent smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and a subsequent smooth muscle hyperplasia. However, the mechanism underlying the flow pattern-specific initiation of EC-to-SMC signaling remains elusive. Our previous study demonstrated that endothelial microRNA-126-3p (miR-126-3p) acts as a key intercellular molecule to increase turnover of the recipient SMCs, and that its release is reduced by atheroprotective laminar shear (12 dynes/cm(2)) to ECs...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592413/recruitment-of-endosomal-signaling-mediates-the-forskolin-modulation-of-guinea-pig-cardiac-neuron-excitability
#3
Jean C Hardwick, Todd A Clason, John D Tompkins, Beatrice M Girard, Caitlin N Baran, Laura A Merriam, Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Forskolin, a selective activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), commonly is used to establish actions of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are initiated primarily through activation of AC/cAMP signaling pathways. In the present study, forskolin was used to evaluate the potential role of AC/cAMP, which is a major signaling mechanism for the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor, in the regulation of guinea pig cardiac neuronal excitability. Forskolin (5-10 µM) increases excitability in ~60% of the cardiac neurons...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576970/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-promotes-cell-motility-through-vinculin-controlled-rac1-gtpase-activity
#4
Paul Atherton, Franziska Lausecker, Andrew Harrison, Christoph Ballestrem
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a therapy used clinically to promote healing. Using live-cell imaging we show that LIPUS stimulation, acting through integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions, rapidly induces Rac1 activation associated with dramatic actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. Our study demonstrates that the mechanosensitive focal adhesion (FA) protein vinculin, and both focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2) and Rab5 (both the Rab5a and Rab5b isoforms) have key roles in regulating these effects...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520088/clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-is-required-for-ane-30-100k-induced-autophagy
#5
Mei-Huei Lin, Young-Chau Liu, Shyun-Yeu Liu, Fang-Chi Chen, Pei-Jung Yang, Guan-Hua Li, Pang-Yen Liu, Ching-Yu Yen
BACKGROUND: We identified an autophagy-inducing areca nut (AN) ingredient (AIAI) in the 30-100 kDa fraction of AN extract (ANE 30-100K). This study was to analyze the role of endocytosis in ANE 30-100K-induced autophagy. METHODS: We used benzyl alcohol, dynasore, and shRNA of clathrin and dynamin to assess whether ANE 30-100K-induced cytotoxicity and accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II were affected in oral (OECM-1) and esophageal (CE81T/VGH) carcinoma cells...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515429/endocytic-uptake-of-monomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-is-clathrin-and-dynamin-independent-and-results-in-selective-accumulation-of-a%C3%AE-1-42-compared-to-a%C3%AE-1-40
#6
Emelie Wesén, Gavin D M Jeffries, Maria Matson Dzebo, Elin K Esbjörner
Intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides represent an early pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease. We have therefore utilized flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in combination with endocytosis inhibition to explore the internalisation efficiency and uptake mechanisms of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) monomers in cultured SH-SY5Y cells. We find that both variants are constitutively internalised via endocytosis and that their uptake is proportional to cellular endocytic rate. Moreover, SH-SY5Y cells internalise consistently twice the amount of Aβ(1-42) compared to Aβ(1-40); an imaging-based quantification showed that cells treated with 1 µM peptide for 8 h contained 800,000 peptides of Aβ(1-42) and 400,000 of Aβ(1-40)...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424784/evaluation-of-connexin-43-redistribution-and-endocytosis-in-astrocytes-subjected-to-ischemia-reperfusion-or-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation
#7
Hongyan Xie, Yu Cui, Shuai Hou, Juan Wang, Jing Miao, Fang Deng, Jiachun Feng
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the major component protein in astrocytic gap junction communication. Recent studies have shown the cellular processes of gap junction internalization and degradation, but many details remain unknown. This study investigated the distribution of Cx43 and its mechanism after ischemic insult. Astrocyte culture system and a model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) or oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGDR) were established. Cx43 distribution was observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy under different cultivation conditions...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358887/dynasore-blocks-evoked-release-while-augmenting-spontaneous-synaptic-transmission-from-primary-visceral-afferents
#8
Mackenzie E Hofmann, Michael C Andresen
The recycling of vesicle membrane fused during exocytosis is essential to maintaining neurotransmission. The GTPase dynamin is involved in pinching off membrane to complete endocytosis and can be inhibited by dynasore resulting in activity-dependent depletion of release-competent synaptic vesicles. In rat brainstem slices, we examined the effects of dynasore on three different modes of glutamate release-spontaneous, evoked, and asynchronous release-at solitary tract (ST) inputs to neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349243/endocytic-trafficking-of-hiv-gp120-is-mediated-by-dynamin-and-plays-a-role-in-gp120-neurotoxicity
#9
Erin D Wenzel, Alessia Bachis, Valeria Avdoshina, Francesca Taraballi, Ennio Tasciotti, Italo Mocchetti
Neurons that endocytose the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) protein gp120 exhibit neurite retraction and activation of caspase-3, suggesting that the endocytic process may be crucial for gp120-mediated neuronal injury. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that internalization and accumulation of gp120 play a role in its neurotoxic effects. In mammalian cells, endocytosis is primarily a dynamin-dependent process. To establish whether gp120 is endocytosed in a dynamin-dependent manner, we used fibroblasts in which deletion of dynamins was induced by tamoxifen...
September 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327657/dynasore-impairs-vegfr2-signalling-in-an-endocytosis-independent-manner
#10
Dimitris Basagiannis, Sofia Zografou, Katerina Galanopoulou, Savvas Christoforidis
VEGFR2 is a critical angiogenic receptor playing a key role in vascular homeostasis. Upon activation by VEGF, VEGFR2 becomes endocytosed. Internalisation of VEGFR2 is facilitated, in part, through clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME), the role of which in VEGFR2 function is debated. Here, we confirm the contribution of CME in VEGFR2 uptake. However, curiously, we find that different approaches of inhibition of CME exert contradictory effects on VEGF signalling; knockdown of clathrin, or of dynamin, or overexpression of dynamin K44A, do not affect VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, while dynasore causes strong inhibition...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323206/ligands-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-promote-glutamate-transporter-1-endocytosis-in-astrocytes
#11
Hui-Ting Huang, Chih-Kai Liao, Wen-Tai Chiu, Shun-Fen Tzeng
Astrocytes, a stellate-shape glial population in the central nervous system (CNS), maintain glutamate homeostasis in adult CNS by undergoing glutamate uptake at the synapse through their glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) can be activated by endogenous saturated fatty acids to regulate astrocytic lipid metabolism and functions. However, it is unclear if PPARα can exert the regulatory action on GLT-1 expression in astrocytes. This study showed that treatment with palmitic acid (PA) and the other two PPARα agonists (GW 7647 and WY 14,643) caused no change in the morphology of astrocytes, whereas membranous GLT-1 protein levels in astrocytes were significantly decreased by PA and PPARα agonists...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#12
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT type B (BoNT/B) most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonisation such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188849/endocytosis-contributes-to-bmp2-induced-smad-signalling-and-neuronal-growth
#13
Shane V Hegarty, Aideen M Sullivan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a neurotrophic factor which induces the growth of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo, and its neurotrophic effects have been shown to be dependent on activation of BMP receptors (BMPRs) and Smad 1/5/8 signalling. However, the precise intracellular cascades that regulate BMP2-BMPR-Smad-signalling-induced neurite growth remain unknown. Endocytosis has been shown to regulate Smad 1/5/8 signalling and differentiation induced by BMPs. However, these studies were carried out in non-neural cells...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179028/betanodavirus-like-particles-enter-host-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-in-a-cholesterol-ph-and-cytoskeleton-dependent-manner
#14
Runqing Huang, Guohua Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yuxiong Lai, Yu Xu, Jianguo He, Junfeng Xie
Betanodavirus, also referred to nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is the causative agent of the fatal disease, viral nervous necrosis and has brought significant economic losses in marine and freshwater cultured fish, especially larvae and juveniles. Here, we used an established invasion model with virus-like particle (VLP)-cells, mimicking orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), to investigate the crucial events of virus entry. VLP were observed in the perinuclear regions of Asian sea bass (SB) cells within 1...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131869/quantifying-receptor-trafficking-and-colocalization-with-confocal-microscopy
#15
Jeremy A Pike, Iain B Styles, Joshua Z Rappoport, John K Heath
Confocal microscopy is a powerful tool for the study of cellular receptor trafficking and endocytosis. Unbiased and robust image analysis workflows are required for the identification, and study, of aberrant trafficking. After a brief review of related strategies, identifying both good and bad practice, custom workflows for the analysis of live cell 3D time-lapse data are presented. Strategies for data pre-processing, including denoising and background subtraction are considered. We use a 3D level set protocol to accurately segment cells using only the signal from fluorescently labelled receptor...
January 26, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131082/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-type-2-diabetes-pathophysiological-implications
#16
REVIEW
Susana Rovira-Llopis, Celia Bañuls, Noelia Diaz-Morales, Antonio Hernandez-Mijares, Milagros Rocha, Victor M Victor
Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cellular metabolic homeostasis. These organelles have a high plasticity and are involved in dynamic processes such as mitochondrial fusion and fission, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction, high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and low levels of ATP. Mitochondrial fusion is modulated by different proteins, including mitofusin-1 (MFN1), mitofusin-2 (MFN2) and optic atrophy (OPA-1), while fission is controlled by mitochondrial fission 1 (FIS1), dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) and mitochondrial fission factor (MFF)...
April 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059487/%C3%AE-tocopheryl-phosphate-induces-vegf-expression-via-cd36-pi3k%C3%AE-in-thp-1-monocytes
#17
Jean-Marc Zingg, Angelo Azzi, Mohsen Meydani
The CD36 scavenger receptor binds several ligands and mediates ligand uptake and ligand-dependent signal transduction and gene expression, events that may involve CD36 internalization. Here we show that CD36 internalization in THP-1 monocytes is triggered by α-tocopherol (αT) and more strongly by α-tocopheryl phosphate (αTP) and EPC-K1, a phosphate diester of αTP and L-ascorbic acid. αTP-triggered CD36 internalization is prevented by the specific covalent inhibitor of selective lipid transport by CD36, sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919959/dynamin-2-inhibitors-as-novel-therapeutic-agents-against-cervical-cancer-cells
#18
Yoo-Young Lee, Hye-Kyung Jeon, Jungeun Lee, Ji Eun Hong, In-Gu Do, Chel Hun Choi, Tae-Joong Kim, Byoung-Gie Kim, Duk-Soo Bae, Yong-Chul Kim, Jeong-Won Lee
AIM: We investigated the feasibility of dynamin 2 as a potential treatment target in cervical cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed tissue microarray for dynamin 2 expression in 208 patients with early cervical cancer and in vitro in HeLa cells with dynamin 2 inhibitors MiTMAB, OcTMAB, Dynasore, and DD-6. RESULTS: Tumor size greater than 2 cm or tumor invasion of more than half of the entire cervix was associated with expression of dynamin 2 compared to no expression (p=0...
2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847966/therapeutic-potential-of-pro-angiogenic-bpc157-is-associated-with-vegfr2-activation-and-up-regulation
#19
Ming-Jer Hsieh, Hsien-Ta Liu, Chao-Nin Wang, Hsiu-Yun Huang, Yuling Lin, Yu-Shien Ko, Jong-Shyan Wang, Vincent Hung-Shu Chang, Jong-Hwei S Pang
BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide with extensive healing effects, has recently been suggested to contribute to angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. The present study aimed to explore the potential therapeutic effect and pro-angiogenic mechanism of BPC 157. As demonstrated by the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and endothelial tube formation assay, BPC 157 could increase the vessel density both in vivo and in vitro, respectively. BPC 157 could also accelerate the recovery of blood flow in the ischemic muscle of the rat hind limb as detected by laser Doppler scanning, indicating the promotion of angiogenesis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835898/prognostic-significance-of-usp33-in-advanced-colorectal-cancer-patients-new-insights-into-%C3%AE-arrestin-dependent-erk-signaling
#20
Hongda Liu, Qun Zhang, Kangshuai Li, Zheng Gong, Zhaochen Liu, Yunfei Xu, Mary Hannah Swaney, Kunhong Xiao, Yuxin Chen
Patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer (CRCLM) have a poorer prognosis compared to colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in local stage. Evaluating the recurrence and overall survival of advanced patients is critical in improving disease treatment and clinical outcome. Here we investigated the expression pattern of USP33, a deubiquitinating enzyme, in both primary CRC tissues and liver metastases tissues. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified that low expression of USP33 in CRCLM tissues indicated high recurrence risk and poor overall prognosis...
December 6, 2016: Oncotarget
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