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B M Popkin, T Reardon
The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region faces a major diet-related health problem accompanied by enormous economic and social costs. The shifts in diet are profound: major shifts in intake of less-healthful low-nutrient-density foods and sugary beverages, changes in away-from-home eating and snacking and rapid shifts towards very high levels of overweight and obesity among all ages along with, in some countries, high burdens of stunting. Diet changes have occurred in parallel to, and in two-way causality with, changes in the broad food system - the set of supply chains from farms, through midstream segments of processing, wholesale and logistics, to downstream segments of retail and food service (restaurants and fast food chains)...
April 24, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Xiao Han, Khalil T Hassan, Alan Harvey, Dejan Kulijer, Adrian Oila, Michael R C Hunt, Lidija Šiller
Aerogels are the least dense and most porous materials known to man, with potential applications from lightweight superinsulators to smart energy materials. To date their use has been seriously hampered by their synthesis methods, which are laborious and expensive. Taking inspiration from the life cycle of the damselfly, a novel ambient pressure-drying approach is demonstrated in which instead of employing low-surface-tension organic solvents to prevent pore collapse during drying, sodium bicarbonate solution is used to generate pore-supporting carbon dioxide in situ, significantly reducing energy, time, and cost in aerogel production...
April 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
Shunto Arai, Satoru Inoue, Takamasa Hamai, Reiji Kumai, Tatsuo Hasegawa
A unique solution-based technology to manufacture self-assembled ultrathin organic-semiconductor layers with ultrauniform single-molecular-bilayer thickness over an area as large as wafer scale is developed. A novel concept is adopted in this technique, based upon the idea of geometrical frustration, which can effectively suppress the interlayer stacking (or multilayer crystallization) while maintaining the assembly of the intralayer, which originates from the strong intermolecular interactions between π-conjugated molecules...
April 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jessica Bollyn, Bernd Willaert, Bart Kerré, Claudia Moens, Katrien Arijs, Jelle Mertens, Dean Leverett, Koen Oorts, Erik Smolders
Risk assessment of metallic nanoparticles (NP) is critically affected by the concern that toxicity goes beyond that of the metallic ion. This study addressed this concern for soils with silver (Ag)-NP using the Ag-sensitive nitrification assay. Three agricultural soils (A,B,C) were spiked with equivalent Ag doses of either Ag-NP (d = 13 nm) or AgNO3 . Soil solution was isolated and monitored over 97 days with due attention to accurate Ag fractionation at low (∼10 µg L-1 ) Ag concentrations. Truly dissolved (<1 kDa) Ag in the AgNO3 -amended soils decreased with reaction half-lives of 4 to 22 days depending on the soil, denoting important Ag-ageing reactions...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Daniel Abrams, Henk Haitjema
Transit time distributions (TTDs) have a number of applications in the hydrologic sciences. Our work aligns with the group of researchers who use groundwater flow models to assess the transit time distribution of groundwater, not considering the other components of flow that comprise stream water (Kauffman et al., 2008; Sanford et al., 2012; Engdahl, 2017). If the input of a solute is ubiquitous over the watershed and known through time, then a convolution of the TTD and solute input yields the output concentration of groundwater discharging to a well or stream in the watershed over time (Małoszewski and Zuber, 1982)...
April 24, 2018: Ground Water
Antoniac Iulian, Laptoiu Dan, Tecu Camelia, Milea Claudia, Gradinaru Sebastian
The objective of an articular cartilage repair treatment is to repair the affected surface of an articular joint's hyaline cartilage. Currently, both biological and tissue engineering research is concerned with discovering the clues needed to stimulate cells to regenerate tissues and organs totally or partially. The latest findings on nanotechnology advances along with the processability of synthetic biomaterials have succeeded in creating a new range of materials to develop into the desired biological responses to the cellular level...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mridul Majumder, Saeid Rajabnezhad, Ali Nokhodchi, Mohammed Maniruzzaman
The current study explores the first case of the implementation of solution calorimetry (SolCal) in order to determine the amorphous content of crystalline benzoyl-methoxy-methylindol-acetic acid (BMA)-a model poorly soluble drug, in the amorphous granules prepared via single-step continuous twin-screw dry granulations (TSG). Amorphous magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin®) (US2) was used as a novel inorganic carrier via a TwinLab 10 mm twin-screw extruder. The BMA/US2 blends were processed at 180 °C and varying drug: carrier ratios of 1:4, 1:2...
April 24, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Mark R Jones, Omar Viswanath, Jacquelin Peck, Alan D Kaye, Jatinder S Gill, Thomas T Simopoulos
The opioid epidemic has resulted from myriad causes and will not be solved by any simple solution. Consequent to a staggering increase in opioid-related deaths in the USA, various governmental inputs and stakeholder strategies have been proposed and implemented with varying success. This article summarizes the history of opioid use and explores the causes for the present day epidemic. Recent trends in opioid-related data demonstrate an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008. Tragically, opioids claimed over 64,000 lives just last year...
April 24, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Charrid Resgalla, Marcus Vinícius Máximo, Mirella do Nascimento Brasil, Marcos Luiz Pessatti
The aim of this study was to improve the methodological procedure for the evaluation of sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) sperm sensitivity in MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) enzyme reduction assays with the formation of formazan (purple color) in the interior of viable cells. Assays were carried out with the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), copper, zinc, cadmium and ammonium, using a sperm solution previously activated in sea water and a sperm solution prepared in sea water containing 400 μg L-1 verapamil, which enabled activation of the sperm to occur only when exposed to the toxicants...
April 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Kazuhiro Tokuda, Byron Baron, Yasuhiro Kuramitsu, Takao Kitagawa, Nobuko Tokuda, Naoyuki Morishige, Masaaki Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kimura, Kazuyuki Nakamura, Koh-Hei Sonoda
PURPOSE: Numerous fixative solutions are available but many are not amenable to the histomorphological preservation of retinae. The investigators specifically focused on retinal histological studies, which rather than 4% formaldehyde (FA), often use Davidson's fixative. However the latter has its limitations. The purpose of this study was to produce a new fixative which maintains retinae closer to the in vivo conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental design. METHODS: Four fixative formulations (4% paraformaldehyde, Davidson's fixative, modified Davidson's fixative and an in-house fixative - TB-Fix) were tested on retinae and the outcomes on histomorphology and immunohistochemical staining for selected antigenic markers was compared...
April 24, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Anthony M Muliwa, Taile Y Leswifi, Arjun Maity, Aoyi Ochieng, Maurice S Onyango
In the present study, a new composite adsorbent, chitosan/bentonite/manganese oxide (CBMnO) beads, cross-linked with tetraethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) was applied in a fixed-bed column for the removal of Mn (II) from water. The adsorbent was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, and moreover the point of zero charge (pHpzc ) was determined. The extend of Mn (II) breakthrough behaviour was investigated by varying bed mass, flow rate and influent concentration, and by using real environmental water samples...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shruthi Venugopal, Chieh Kao, Ritu Chandna, Konerirajapuram N Sulochana, Vivekanandan Subramanian, Mo Chen, R Manjunatha Kini, Ruowen Ge
Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an established therapeutic strategy for cancer. The endogenous angiogenic inhibitor angiostatin contains the first 3-4 kringle domains of plasminogen and inhibits both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We present here a 10-residue peptide, Angio-3, derived from plasminogen kringle 3, which retains the functions of angiostatin in inhibiting both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. NMR studies indicate that Angio-3 holds a solution structure similar to the corresponding region of kringle 3...
April 24, 2018: Angiogenesis
C Schüttler, N Buschhüter, C Döllinger, L Ebert, M Hummel, J Linde, H-U Prokosch, R Proynova, M Lablans
BACKGROUND: The large number of biobanks within Germany results in a high degree of heterogeneity with regard to the IT components used at the respective locations. Within the German Biobank Alliance (GBA), 13 biobanks implement harmonized processes for the provision of biomaterial and accompanying data. OBJECTIVES: The networking of the individual biobanks and the associated harmonisation of the IT infrastructure should facilitate access to biomaterial and related clinical data...
April 24, 2018: Der Pathologe
Ali A Ensafi, Maryam Amini, Behzad Rezaei
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were electrodeposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and then treated with a mixture of a thiolated DNA sequence (p-63; with high affinity for bisphenol A) and free bisphenol A (BPÀ). Pyrrole was then electropolymerizaed on the surface of the GCE to entrap the BPA@p-63 complex. BPA is then extracted with acetic acid solution to obtain MIP cavities where the embedded DNA sequence acts as the binding site for BPA. Scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were employed to characterize the surface of the modified GCE...
April 24, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
S Kalafatakis, S Braekevelt, A Lymperatou, A Zarebska, C Hélix-Nielsen, L Lange, I V Skiadas, H N Gavala
Forward osmosis (FO) is a low energy-intensive process since the driving force for water transport is the osmotic pressure difference, Δπ, between the feed and draw solutions, separated by the FO membrane, where πdraw  > πfeed . The potential of FO in wastewater treatment and desalination have been extensively studied; however, regeneration of the draw solution (thereby generating clean water) requires application of an energy-intensive process step like reverse osmosis (RO). In this study, the potential of applying FO for direct water recirculation from diluted fermentation effluent to concentrated feedstock, without the need for an energy-intensive regeneration step (e...
April 24, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Connor D Martin, Heather M Bool, Anthony M George, Katelyn A Carr, Leonard H Epstein, Larry W Hawk, Jerry B Richards
BACKGROUND: Stimulant drugs such as nicotine (NIC) and methylphenidate (MPH) are hypothesized to increase the reinforcing value of sensory stimuli, thus increasing the effectiveness of such reinforcers as alternatives to sucrose reinforcers. METHODS: Inbred Fischer-344 rats (n = 30) were assigned to three groups: saline (SAL; n = 10), nicotine (NIC; n = 10), or methylphenidate (MPH; n = 10). Testing was done in three phases: sucrose only, (SUC), sucrose and drug (SUC/DRUG), and sucrose, drug, and social reinforcement (SUC/DRUG/SOC)...
April 24, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Li-Yang Wan, Hong-Shui Zhu
PURPOSE: In this experiment, we applied hot alkaline solution (20%NaOH solutions) to treat the surfaces of zirconia ceramics in vitro, then evaluated the changes of bond strength of zirconia ceramics and resin cement. METHODS: Eighteen pieces of zirconia ceramic specimens were made, using the same method of grinding and polishing, and then randomly divided them into 3 groups: group A with hot alkali solution treatment (20%NaOH) (n=6), group B underwent sand blasting with a diameter of 110 ?m alumina particles (n=6), group C was as the control group...
December 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Anjali Malik, Harvijay Singh, Akshay Pareek, Shailly Tomar
The human protozoan pathogens possess the essential metalloenzyme arginase (Arg) which catalyses the catabolism of l-arginine to l-ornithine and urea. This being the first committed step in polyamine biosynthesis is a potential drug target for protozoan diseases. In pathogenic organisms, arginase plays a crucial role in depleting host l-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that participates in protective immunity, thereby evading host immune response. In this study, the metal binding spectrum of EhArg has been determined...
April 25, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Tianci Huang, Qi Yu, Shujuan Liu, Wei Huang, Qiang Zhao
This article highlights the utilization of phosphorescent iridium(iii) complexes for biosensing and photodynamic therapy. Comments on the effectiveness of these complexes in biological applications are included. Challenges and potential solutions are also discussed for further development and exploitation.
April 25, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Cai-Ping Ye, Gan Xu, Zheng Wang, Jie Han, Lian Xue, Fu-Yu Cao, Qi Zhang, Lin-Feng Yang, Li-Zhou Lin, Xu-Dong Chen
The functionalized ligand 9,10-anthraquinone-1,4-dicarboxylate acid (H2AQDC) was designed and synthesized in order to develop metal-organic coordination polymers as heterogeneous catalysts with a photosensitizing feature. Two major considerations of the ligand design are anthraquinone moieties for photosensitizing to harvest light and carboxylate groups for polymeric coordination toward less solubility. A series of transition metal complexes based on this ligand were synthesized subsequently, namely {Co(AQDC)(H2O)3·2H2O}n (Co-AQDC), {Ni(AQDC)(H2O)3·2H2O}n (Ni-AQDC), {[Cu(AQDC)(H2O)3][Cu(AQDC)(H2O)2(DMF)]·(H2O)4}n (Cu-AQDC), {Zn1...
April 25, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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