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Bryan E Shepherd, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Peter F Rebeiro, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan
Reproducible research is important for assessing the integrity of findings and disseminating methods, but it requires making original study data sets publicly available. This requirement is difficult to meet in settings with sensitive data, which can mean that resulting studies are not reproducible. For studies in which data cannot be shared, we propose a pragmatic approach to make research quasi-reproducible. On a publicly available website without restriction, researchers should post 1) analysis code used in the published study, 2) simulated data, and 3) results obtained by applying the analysis code used in the published study to the simulated data...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Foppe Smedes, Tatsiana P Rusina, Henry Beeltje, Philipp Mayer
Polymers are increasingly used for passive sampling of neutral hydrophobic organic substances (HOC) in environmental media including water, air, soil, sediment and even biological tissue. The equilibrium concentration of HOC in the polymer can be measured and then converted into equilibrium concentrations in other (defined) media, which however requires appropriate polymer to media partition coefficients. We determined thus polymer-lipid partition coefficients (KPL) of various PCB, PAH and organochlorine pesticides by equilibration of two silicones and low density polyethylene (LDPE) with fish oil and Triolein at 4 °C and 20 °C...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
Tomasz Toboła
Raman spectroscopy was applied to determine the degree of recrystallization and the influence of the secondary solution migration on the Oldest Halite (Na1) in Lubin-Głogów Copper District (LGOM). Numerous organic matter (OM) inclusions which generally show weak structural ordering was found in halite crystals. In this context they are similar to solid bitumens or carbonaceous matter of low thermal alteration. The difference in the Raman line-shape of OM indicated various thermal alteration of salt from the Oldest Halite formation due to hot fluid flow...
August 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Anna Szady-Chełmieniecka, Beata Kołodziej, Maja Morawiak, Bohdan Kamieński, Wojciech Schilf
The structural study of five Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) and 2-hydroxy carbonyl compounds was performed using (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR methods in solution and in the solid state as well. ATR-FTIR and X-Ray spectroscopies were used for confirmation of the results obtained by NMR method. The imine obtained from DAMN and benzaldehyde was synthesized as a model compound which lacks intramolecular hydrogen bond. Deprotonation of all synthesized compounds was done by treating with tetramethylguanidine (TMG)...
August 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Emilia Palo, Mikko Salomäki, Mika Lastusaari
Modificating and protecting the upconversion luminescence nanoparticles is important for their potential in various applications. In this work we demonstrate successful coating of the nanoparticles by a simple layer-by-layer method using negatively charged polyelectrolytes and neodymium ions. The layer fabrication conditions such as number of the bilayers, solution concentrations and selected polyelectrolytes were studied to find the most suitable conditions for the process. The bilayers were characterized and the presence of the desired components was studied and confirmed by various methods...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
V A Pellizzari, A C Michels, S T Luiz, E M de Souza, Cpm Tabchoury, R N Rached
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated in situ the potential of a glass ionomer and self-adhesive resin cements to inhibit enamel and dentin demineralization around indirect restorations exposed to cariogenic challenge. The cumulative fluoride release (CFR) of materials was measured in water and acid. METHODS: Seventy blocks cut from human molars received two indirect composite restorations (one in enamel and another in dentin) luted with Ketac Cem EasyMix (GIC, positive control), SeT (SeT), Maxcem Elite (Max), Smart Cem2 (Smart), and RelyX Unicem 2 (Unicem2)...
September 2017: Operative Dentistry
C Leevailoj, S Lawanrattanakul, K Mahatumarat
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) refers to a group of rare genetic disorders that involve tooth development and that are passed down through families as a dominant trait. This condition is characterized by abnormal enamel formation caused by gene mutations that alter the quality and/or quantity of enamel. This dental problem can impact both primary and permanent dentition, varies among affected individuals, and results in esthetic and functional problems. This condition caused the patient in the current case report to have a lack of confidence when speaking...
September 2017: Operative Dentistry
G Alex Ochakovski, Tobias Peters, Stylianos Michalakis, Barbara Wilhelm, Bernd Wissinger, Martin Biel, K Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, M Dominik Fischer
Purpose: Despite ever-growing adoption of subretinal (SRi) and intravitreal injections (IVTi) in ocular gene therapy trials, concerns regarding possible deleterious effects of the SRi on the outer retina are yet to be addressed. SRi offers several advantages over IVTi, such as a better photoreceptor transduction efficiency and a limited off-target exposure. We assessed structural changes in the outer retina in nonhuman primates following either SRi or IVTi of a gene therapeutic or control solution and compared both techniques in a noninferiority analysis...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stefano Focardi, Massimo Materassi, Giacomo Innocenti, Duccio Berzi
Scavenging is ubiquitous in nature, but its implications have rarely been investigated. We used camera traps on wolf kills to investigate the role of scavenging on predator and multiprey dynamics in a northern Apennine system in Italy. In contrast to North American systems, the omnivorous wild boar successfully competes with wolves for the meat of their kills. We developed a deterministic, multitrophic web model (wolf, vegetation, deer, and wild boar), tunable through a parameter that governs the impact of prey sharing between wolves and wild boar...
September 2017: American Naturalist
Yu Huang, Jianye Wang, Xiaoming Zhou, Ji Peng, Zhengliang Zhang, Lingxiao Shen, Frankliu Gao, Yunxia Cao
The currently used commercial cooling-rate control device is the liquid nitrogen controlled rate freezer (LNF), which has some shortcomings such as high cost, high liquid nitrogen consumption, and potential operational risks in quality control. Based on thermophysical properties of new materials, we improved, manufactured, and optimized a reliable yet simple device named the "passive cooling rate-controlled device (PCD)" with real-time temperature tracing. In this study, using the improved PCD we cryopreserved human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and compared the results with a standard commercial CryoMed LNF...
August 22, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Nicholas J Mayhall
An approximate wavefunction ansatz is presented which describes low-energy states of a highly clustered molecular system as a linear combination of multiple reduced-rank tensors. Using the Tucker decomposition as a way to obtain local clusters states, the exact solution is solved for in the space spanned by a small number of states on each cluster, with complete correlation occurring between limited numbers of clusters at a time. In this initial study, we report the implementation for a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian with numerical examples of regular grid spin lattices, and ab initio-derived spin-Hamiltonians used to analyze the approximation...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Fenglong Wang, Roong Jien Wong, Jie Hui Ho, Yijiao Jiang, Rose Amal
Au nanoparticles with different sizes (10 nm, 20 nm, 30 nm and 50 nm) were synthesized using a seed-assisted approach and anchored onto Pt/TiO2 employing 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the organic linker. The sizes of the Au nanoparticles were controlled within a narrow range so that the size-dependent surface plasmonic resonance effect on sensitizing Pt/TiO2 can be thoroughly studied. We found that 20 nm Au nanoparticles (Au20) gave the best performance in sensitizing Pt/TiO2 to generate H2 under visible light illumination...
August 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yadienka Martinez Rubi, Behnam Ashrafi, Michael B Jakubinek, Shan Zou, Kurtis Laqua, Michael Barnes, Benoit Simard
We have fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT)-polyurethane (TPU) sheets via a one-step filtration method that uses a TPU solvent/non-solvent combination. This solution method allows for control of the composition and processing conditions, significantly reducing both the filtration time and the need for large volumes of solvent to debundle the CNTs. Through an appropriate selection of the solvents and tuning the solvent/non-solvent ratio, it is possible to enhance the interaction between the CNTs and the polymer chains in solution and improve the CNT exfoliation in the nanocomposites...
August 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gregory W Peterson, Annie Xi Lu, Thomas H Epps Iii
This work investigates the processing-structure-activity relationships that ultimately facilitate the enhanced performance of UiO-66-NH2 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in electrospun polystyrene (PS) fibers for chemical warfare agent detoxification. Key electrospinning processing parameters including solvent type (dimethylformamide [DMF]) vs. DMF/ tetrahydrofuran [THF]), PS weight fraction in solution, and MOF weight fraction relative to PS were varied to optimize MOF incorporation into the fibers and ultimately improve composite performance...
August 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Stéphanie Vial, Jérôme Wenger
Conventional sandwich-type immunoassays are widely used for protein biomarker detection, yet their workflows are challenged by the need for multiple incubation steps separated by washing cycles. Conducting these immunoassays is thus rather time-consuming and labor-intensive. Moreover, the limited sensitivity around 0.1 ng mL(-1) is challenging the monitoring of cancer recurrence, for instance after radical prostatectomy in the case of prostate cancer. Here, we report a single-step homogeneous immunoassay using dual-color light scattering of metal nanoparticles...
August 22, 2017: Analyst
Adam J Rossano, Michael F Romero
Epithelial ion transport is vital to systemic ion homeostasis as well as maintenance of essential cellular electrochemical gradients. Intracellular pH (pHi) is influenced by many ion transporters and thus monitoring pHi is a useful tool for assessing transporter activity. Modern Genetically Encoded pH-Indicators (GEpHIs) provide optical quantification of pHi in intact cells on a cellular and subcellular scale. This protocol describes real-time quantification of cellular pHi regulation in Malpighian Tubules (MTs) of Drosophila melanogaster through ex vivo live-imaging of pHerry, a pseudo-ratiometric GEpHI with a pKa well-suited to track pH changes in the cytosol...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Toshimitsu Yamaoka, Motoi Ohba, Satoru Arata, Tohru Ohmori
Drug resistance is a major challenge in cancer therapy. The generation of resistant sublines in vitro is necessary for discovering novel mechanisms to overcome this challenge. Here, a 2-step dose-escalation method for establishing dual-resistance to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), gefitinib, and a MET-TKI, PHA665752, is described. This method is based on simple stepwise dose-escalation of inhibitors for inducing acquired resistance in cell lines. The alternate method for generating resistant sublines involves exposing the cells to high concentrations of the inhibitor in one step...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yu Shrike Zhang, Qingmeng Pi, Anne Metje van Genderen
Engineering vascularized tissue constructs and organoids has been historically challenging. Here we describe a novel method based on microfluidic bioprinting to generate a scaffold with multilayer interlacing hydrogel microfibers. To achieve smooth bioprinting, a core-sheath microfluidic printhead containing a composite bioink formulation extruded from the core flow and the crosslinking solution carried by the sheath flow, was designed and fitted onto the bioprinter. By blending gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) with alginate, a polysaccharide that undergoes instantaneous ionic crosslinking in the presence of select divalent ions, followed by a secondary photocrosslinking of the GelMA component to achieve permanent stabilization, a microfibrous scaffold could be obtained using this bioprinting strategy...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Imad A Haidar Ahmad, Andrei Blasko
The aim of this work is to identify the parameters that affect the recovery of pharmaceutical residues from the surface of stainless steel coupons. A series of factors were assessed, including drug product spike levels, spiking procedure, drug-excipient ratios, analyst-to-analyst variability, intraday variability, and cleaning procedure of the coupons. The lack of a well-defined procedure that consistently cleaned the coupon surface was identified as the major contributor to low and variable recoveries. Assessment of cleaning the surface of the coupons with clean-in-place solutions (CIP) gave high recovery (>90%) and reproducible results (Srel≤4%) regardless of the conditions that were assessed previously...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Juan de Toro-Martín, Benoit J Arsenault, Jean-Pierre Després, Marie-Claude Vohl
The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritional solutions for individuals or population sub-groups. Likewise, a concerted effort among basic, clinical scientists and health professionals will be needed to establish a comprehensive framework allowing the implementation of these new findings at the population level...
August 22, 2017: Nutrients
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