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Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Infectious diseases remain a major cause of morbidity in Australia. A wealth of data exists in administrative datasets, which are linked through established data-linkage infrastructure in most Australian states and territories. These linkages can support robust studies to investigate the burden of disease, the relative contribution of various aetiological agents to disease, and the effectiveness of population-based prevention policies - research that is critical to the success of current and future vaccination programs...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Tripti Mandal, Anowar Hossain, Anamika Dhara, Abdulla Al Masum, Saugata Konar, Saikat Kumar Manna, Saikat Kumar Seth, Sudipta Pathak, Subrata Mukhopadhyay
A terpyridine based compound L1 was designed and synthesized as an "off-on" chemosensor for the detection of Zn2+. Chemosensor L1 showed excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward Zn2+ by exhibiting a large fluorescence enhancement (∼51-fold) at 370 nm whereas other competitive metal ions did not show any noticeable change in the emission spectra of chemosensor L1. The chemosensor (L1) was shown to detect Zn2+ ions down to 9.76 μM at pH 7.4. However, chemosensor L1 binds Zn2+ in a 1 : 2 ratio (receptor : metal) with an association constant of 1...
June 20, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Adeera Levin
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major public health problem and is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of costs in all health care systems. The diversity of outcomes for people living with CKD is in part due to variability in biology, access to care, environmental factors, and health care system differences. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN), working in collaboration with its partners, has evolved into a philanthropic organization, from a traditional medical society, committed to a vision that sees "a future where all people have access to sustainable kidney health"...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Daniel J Schumacher, Kathleen W Bartlett, Sean P Elliott, Catherine Michelson, Tanvi Sharma, Lynn C Garfunkel, Beth King, Alan Schwartz
PURPOSE: This single specialty, multi-institutional study aimed to determine: 1) the association between milestone ratings for individual competencies and average milestone ratings (AMRs) and 2) the association between AMRs and recommended supervisory role categorizations made by individual clinical competency committee (CCC) members. METHODS: During the 2015-16 academic year, CCC members at 14 pediatric residencies reported milestone ratings for 21 competencies and recommended supervisory role categories (may not supervise, may supervise in some settings, may supervise in all settings) for residents they reviewed...
June 17, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Bhaven A Mistry, Maria R D'Orsogna, Tom Chou
Many biological assays are employed in virology to quantify parameters of interest. Two such classes of assays, virus quantification assays (VQAs) and infectivity assays (IAs), aim to estimate the number of viruses present in a solution and the ability of a viral strain to successfully infect a host cell, respectively. VQAs operate at extremely dilute concentrations, and results can be subject to stochastic variability in virus-cell interactions. At the other extreme, high viral-particle concentrations are used in IAs, resulting in large numbers of viruses infecting each cell, enough for measurable change in total transcription activity...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Erik J Aiken, Brian G Kilberg, Siyuan Yu, Susan C Hagness, John H Booske
Previous studies have shown greater fluorophore uptake during electroporation on the anode-facing side of the cell than on the cathode-facing side. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that hyperpolarizing a cell before electroporation would decrease the requisite pulsed electric field intensity for electroporation outcomes, thereby yielding a higher probability of reversible electroporation at lower electric field strengths and a higher probability of irreversible electroporation (IRE) at higher electric field strengths...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
David A Korasick, Ashley C Campbell, Shelbi L Christgen, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Tommi A White, Donald F Becker, John J Tanner
Homooligomerization of proline utilization A (PutA) bifunctional flavoenzymes is intimately tied to catalytic function and substrate channeling. PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) is unique among PutAs in that it forms a tetramer in solution. Curiously, a dimeric BjPutA hot spot mutant was previously shown to display wild-type catalytic activity despite lacking the tetrameric structure. These observations raised the question of what is the active oligomeric state of BjPutA. Herein, we investigate the factors that contribute to tetramerization of BjPutA in vitro...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Yu-Ri Lee, Kwangsun Yu, Seenu Ravi, Wha-Seung Ahn
Efficient rare earth elements (REEs) separation and recovery are crucial to meet the ever-increasing demand for REEs extensively used in various high technology devices. Herein, we synthesized a highly stable chromium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) structure, Cr-MIL-101, and its derivatives with different organic functional groups: MIL-101-NH2 , MIL-101-ED (ED: ethylenediamine), MIL-101-DETA (DETA: diethylenetriamine), and MIL-101-PMIDA (PMIDA: N-(phosphonomethyl) iminodiacetic acid), and explored their effectiveness in the separation and recovery of La3+ , Ce3+ , Nd3+ , Sm3+ , and Gd3+ in aqueous solutions...
June 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elvan Yilmaz, David Bier, Xavier Guillory, Jeroen Briels, Yasser Ruiz-Blanco, Elsa Sanchez-Garcia, Christian Ottmann, Markus Kaiser
Previous studies have indicated the presence of defined interactions between oligo or poly(ethylene glycol) (OEG or PEG) and lysine residues. In these interactions, the OEG or PEG residues 'wrap around' the lysine amino group, thereby enabling complexation of the amino group by the ether oxygen residues. The resulting biochemical binding affinity and thus biological relevance of this supramolecular interaction however remains unclear so far. Here, we report that OEG-containing phosphophenol ether inhibitors of 14-3-3 proteins also display such a 'lysine-wrapping' binding mode...
June 20, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ao Li, Deyun Chen, Zhiqiang Wu, Guanglu Sun, Kezheng Lin
Recently, sparse representation, which relies on the underlying assumption that samples can be sparsely represented by their labeled neighbors, has been applied with great success to image classification problems. Through sparse representation-based classification (SRC), the label can be assigned with minimum residual between the sample and its synthetic version with class-specific coding, which means that the coding scheme is the most significant factor for classification accuracy. However, conventional SRC-based coding schemes ignore dependency among the samples, which leads to an undesired result that similar samples may be coded into different categories due to quantization sensitivity...
2018: PloS One
Ben Allan Russell, Ashley Garton, Abeer Saeed Alshammari, David J S Birch, Yu Chen
Fluorescent protein-encapsulated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) offer a non-toxic means of sensing and imaging biological phenomena on the nanoscale. However, the biofunctionality of proteins encapsulating AuNCs has not been fully elucidated to date. Here we studied the biofunctionality of the second major drug binding site (Sudlow II) of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) encapsulated AuNCs after AuNC synthesis. L-Dopa, a fluorescent drug molecule associated with the clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease, which commonly binds to the Sudlow II site, was used to study the availability of the site before and after AuNC synthesis through changes to its fluorescence characteristics...
June 20, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Luis D Mazzuoccolo, Maria Noel Esposito, Paula C Luna, Sharon Seiref, Mirtha Dominguez, Cristina M Echeverria
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects around 100 million people worldwide. The burden of disease is high, but more recent therapies show promising results. Clinicians need, however, more training in the use of such therapies. INTRODUCTION: Project ECHO® (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is structured around the promise of delivering medical education at a distance, empowering clinicians who operate in remote areas. The use of instant messaging services, such as WhatsApp® Messenger, has the potential to improve on the existing framework and bridge the existing gap of knowledge...
June 20, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Alberto Sartori, Maurizio De Luca, Cesare Lunardi, Nicola Clemente, Gianni Segato, GianMaria Rossi, Alberto De Luca, Massimo Minni, Flavio Colaut, Costanzo Fortunato, Francesco Nicolì, Cristina Castiglioni, Natale Pellicanò, Guido Scaffidi, Francesco De Marchi
BACKGROUND: Since its introduction, the placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has been increasing in the Western countries. Nevertheless, it is not always possible to perform this operation. Laparoscopic-assisted endoscopic gastrostomy (LAPEG) is an effective alternative solution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Indication to PEG placement was established only for people who required a nutritional support of >4 weeks and without metastatic carcinoma. Sixteen patients underwent LAPEG after the failure of the original PEG operation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Gary D Novack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Nicholas E Rothfuss, Aleksandra Marsh, Grazia Rovelli, Markus D Petters, Jonathan Philip Reid
Responding to changes in the surrounding environment, aerosol particles can grow by water condensation changing rapidly in composition and changing dramatically in viscosity. The timescale for growth is important to establish for particles undergoing hydration processes in the atmosphere or during inhalation. Using an electrodynamic balance, we report direct measurements at -7.5, 0 and 20 o C of timescales for hygroscopic condensational growth on a range of model hygroscopic aerosol systems. These extend from viscous aerosol particles containing a single saccharide solute (sucrose, glucose, raffinose or trehalose) and a starting viscosity equivalent to a glass of ~1012 Pas, to non-viscous (~10-2 Pa·s) tetraethylene glycol particles...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yu-Ching Lo, Hsiao-Fan Tseng, Yu-Jing Chiu, Bo-Hao Wu, Jia-Wei Li, Jiun-Tai Chen
Anisotropic polymer particles have attracted great attention because of their unique properties and potential applications in various areas, such as microelectronics, drug delivery, and medical imaging. The fabrication and morphology control, espe-cially the shape recovery, of anisotropic polymer particles, however, remains a challenging task. In this work, we develop a novel strategy to fabricate anisotropic polymer particles by thermally stretching poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films embedding polystyrene (PS) microspheres using a weight...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tetsuya Hattori, Toru Itagaki, Hirotaka Uji, Shunsaku Kimura
Two kinds of amphiphilic polypeptides having different types of hydrophilic polypeptoids, poly(sarcosine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (ML12) and poly(N-ethyl glycine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (EL12), were self-assembled via two paths to phase-separated nanotubes. One path was via sticking ML12 nanotubes with EL12 nanotubes, and the other was a preparation from a mixture of ML12 and EL12 in solution. In either case, nanotubes showed temperature-induced phase separation along the long axis, which was observed by two methods of labeling one phase with gold nanoparticles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the components...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Mohamed Khayet, Rong Wang
Electrospinning technique was used successfully to fabricate nanofibers of polysulfone (PSF) in which polytetrafuoroethylene nanoparticles (PTFE NPs) were embedded. The size of the PTFE NPs is only 1.7 to 3.6 times smaller than the nanofiber diameter. The transition from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic character of the bead-free PSF electrospun nanofiber mats occurred with a PTFE NPs loading in the range 12 - 18 % of the PSF weight. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed protruding nanosized asperities on the fiber surface due to the embedded PTFE NPs in the PSF matrix...
June 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peter Pasch, Julian Papadopoulos, Andreas Goralczyk, Marc L Hofer, Monir Tabatabai, Thomas J J Müller, Laura Hartmann
Polymerizable merocyanine and cyanine dye monomers are synthesized and applied in a statistical copolymerization with methylmethacrylate, giving a series of highly fluorescent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) copolymers. Photophysical properties of yellow to red merocyanine- and of pink to dark purple cyanine-containing copolymers are studied by fluorescence spectroscopy in solid state as well as in different solvents. The highest quantum yield measured in the solid state is observed for copolymers with the lowest dye content: 16% for merocyanine-based and 13% for cyanine-based copolymers, respectively...
June 20, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Thaaer Khalil, Arwa Alharbi, Clayton Baum, Yi Liao
In recent years, merocyanine photoacids have been utilized to control various chemical processes using visible light and have found applications in materials, energy, and biomedical areas. Molecular merocyanine photoacids are commonly used in the previous works. Covalently linking the photoacids to polymers improves their compatibility with different media, avoids leakage problems, and allows a localized proton concentration to be produced. However, the phenolic and indolinium moieties of the photoacids make them difficult to be polymerized with common methods...
June 20, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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