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Cardiovascular risk HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332270/changes-in-elevated-cholesterol-in-the-era-of-tenofovir-in-south-africa-risk-factors-clinical-management-and-outcomes
#1
L Jamieson, D Evans, A T Brennan, F Moyo, D Spencer, K Mahomed, M Maskew, L Long, S Rosen, M P Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with unfavourable lipid profile changes and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). With a growing population on ART in South Africa, there has been concern about the increase in noncommunicable diseases such as CVD. We determined risk factors associated with increased total cholesterol (TC) in a large cohort on ART and describe the clinical management thereof. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of ART-naïve adults initiating standard first-line ART in a large urban clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa...
March 23, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329090/antiretrovirals-fractures-and-osteonecrosis-in-a-large-international-hiv-cohort
#2
Álvaro H Borges, Jennifer Hoy, Eric Florence, Dalibor Sedlacek, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Vilma Uzdaviniene, Janez Tomazic, Panagiotis Gargalianos-Kakolyris, Patrick Schmid, Chloe Orkin, Court Pedersen, Clifford Leen, Christian Pradier, Fiona Mulcahy, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Therese Staub, Fernando Maltez, Rainer Weber, Leo Flamholc, Galina Kyselyova, Jens D Lungren, Amanda Mocroft
Background: Antiretrovirals (ARVs) affect bone density and turnover, but their effect on risk of fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head is less understood. We investigated if exposure to ARVs increases the risk of both bone outcomes. Methods: EuroSIDA participants were followed to assess fractures and osteonecrosis. Poisson regression identified clinical, laboratory and demographic predictors of either bone outcome. Ever, current and cumulative exposures to ARVs were assessed...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327400/-best-foods-for-your-heart-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-of-dietary-intervention-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-dyslipidaemia
#3
Clare Stradling, Neil Thomas, Steve Taylor, Satyajit Das, Jonathan Ross, Shahrad Taheri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324675/arterial-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-youth-and-associations-with-hiv-related-variables
#5
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Joshua H Ruff, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Christopher T Longencker, Grace A McComsey
Children and young adults infected with HIV are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, scarce data exist on the utility of non-invasive methods to diagnose subclinical CVD, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship of carotid-femoral PWV with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compare measurements to healthy controls, and evaluate variables associated with PWV in HIV-infected youth...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315199/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-beyond-coronary-artery-disease
#6
REVIEW
Revery P Barnes, John Charles A Lacson, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly afflicts people living with HIV (PLWH) in the contemporary era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most widely studied cardiovascular problem in PLWH; however, less is known about other clinically relevant subtypes of CVD such as heart failure (HF), cerebrovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, pericardial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. This paper reviews evidence of other subtypes of CVD as emerging issues in the post-ART era...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298195/role-of-systemic-inflammation-scores-for-prediction-of-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-treated-with-atazanavir-not-boosted-by-ritonavir-in-the-italian-master-cohort
#7
Maria Concetta Postorino, Mattia Prosperi, Emanuele Focà, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Elisa Di Filippo, Franco Maggiolo, Alberto Borghetti, Nicoletta Ladisa, Massimo Di Pietro, Andrea Gori, Laura Sighinolfi, Angelo Pan, Nicola Mazzini, Carlo Torti
BACKGROUND: Atazanavir (ATV) not boosted by ritonavir (uATV) has been frequently used in the past for switching combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the clinical outcomes and predictors of such strategy are unknown. METHODS: An observational study was carried out on the Italian MASTER, selecting HIV infected patients on cART switching to an uATV-containing regimen. Baseline was set as the last visit before uATV initiation. In the primary analysis, a composite clinical end-point was defined as the first occurring of any condition among: liver, cardiovascular, kidney, diabetes, non AIDS related cancer or death events...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293638/metabolic-disorders-in-hiv-infected-adolescents-receiving-protease-inhibitors
#8
Jeerunda Santiprabhob, Surapong Tanchaweng, Sirinoot Maturapat, Alan Maleesatharn, Watcharee Lermankul, Sirintip Sricharoenchai, Orasri Wittawatmongkol, Keswadee Lapphra, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
Protease inhibitor (PI) may cause abnormal glucose metabolism, abnormal lipid metabolism, and metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected adults but less well studied in Asian adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated anthropometric factors, oral glucose tolerance test, and lipid profiles of perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents who had received PI-based antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months. Eighty adolescents were enrolled [median (IQR) age 16.7 (14.6-18.0) years, 42 males]. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were found in 8 (10%), 17 (22...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290995/uses-of-polypills-for-cardiovascular-disease-and-evidence-to-date
#9
REVIEW
Mark D Huffman, Denis Xavier, Pablo Perel
Polypills have been approved in more than 30 countries, but worldwide experience with and availability of polypills remain limited, unlike fixed-dose combinations in other diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. In this Series review, we aim to propose a guide for the use of polypills in future research and clinical activities and to synthesise contemporary evidence supporting the use of polypills for prevention of atherosclerosis. Polypill uses can be categorised by population and indication, both of which influence the balance between benefits and risks...
March 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290767/sedentary-behaviour-in-people-living-with-hiv-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour is independently associated with an increased risk of poor mental health, developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. Despite the knowledge that CVD is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related premature mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), relatively little attention has been attributed to sedentary behaviour in this population. The aims of this meta-analysis were to: (a) establish the pooled mean time spent sedentary, (b) investigate predictors of sedentary levels, and (c) explore differences with age- and gender matched healthy controls...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285796/cardiovascular-disease-in-women-with-hiv-1-infection
#11
Massimo Volpe, Alessia Uglietti, Antonella Castagna, Cristina Mussini, Giulia Marchetti, Rita Bellagamba, Teresa Bini, Daniela Mancusi, Roberta Termini
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in women, nevertheless it is often underestimated in female patients without overt risk factors. The chronic infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is clearly associated, along with the use of certain antiretroviral drugs and traditional risk factors, with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to review the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, primary and secondary prevention strategies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-negative and HIV-positive female subjects...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279997/association-between-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-and-selected-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#12
Christian Akem Dimala, Hannah Blencowe
INTRODUCTION: The increasing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been associated with increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. However, the epidemiology of the association between HAART and CVD risk factors in SSA is sparse. We aim to assess the extent to which HAART is associated with selected cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome) in SSA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between HAART and CVD risk factors retrieved from Medline, Embase, Popline, Africa-Wide Information, African Index Medicus and the Cochrane library databases...
March 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277924/follow-your-heart-development-of-an-evidence-based-campaign-empowering-older-women-with-hiv-to-participate-in-a-large-scale-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-trial
#13
Markella V Zanni, Kathleen Fitch, Corinne Rivard, Laura Sanchez, Pamela S Douglas, Steven Grinspoon, Laura Smeaton, Judith S Currier, Sara E Looby
BACKGROUND: Women's under-representation in HIV and cardiovascular disease (CVD) research suggests a need for novel strategies to ensure robust representation of women in HIV-associated CVD research. OBJECTIVE: To elicit perspectives on CVD research participation among a community-sample of women with or at risk for HIV, and to apply acquired insights toward the development of an evidence-based campaign empowering older women with HIV to participate in a large-scale CVD prevention trial...
March 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276569/ccr5-cd8-t-cell-levels-and-monocyte-activation-precede-the-onset-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Laura Tarancon-Diez, Rebeca S De Pablo-Bernal, Ana I Álvarez-Rios, Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, Beatriz Dominguez-Molina, Miguel Genebat, Yolanda M Pacheco, José Luis Jiménez, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Manuel Leal
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is nowadays one of the leading causes of morbid-mortality in HIV-infected population, but innate and adaptive immune mechanisms preceding this event are unknown. In this work we comprehensively and longitudinally observed, by multiparametric flow cytometry and following a case-control design, increased CCR5(+)CD8(+) T-cells levels and monocytes expressing activation and adhesion markers in HIV-infected patients who are going to suffer ACS. In addition, we found direct associations between activated CD8(+) T-cells and myeloid cells that were only statistically significant in the group of patients with ACS and in the follow up time point just before the ACS...
March 9, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273386/performance-of-the-pooled-cohort-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-risk-score-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-persons
#15
Kara W Chew, Debika Bhattacharya, Tamara B Horwich, Peng Yan, Kathleen A McGinnis, Chi-Hong Tseng, Matthew S Freiberg, Judith S Currier, Adeel A Butt
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The recommended Pooled Cohort Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk equation for estimation of 10-year CVD risk has not been validated in HCV-infected populations. We examined the performance of the ASCVD risk score in HCV-infected persons, using the national Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES) to derive a cohort of HCV-infected and uninfected subjects without baseline ASCVD, hepatitis B, or HIV infection, and with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level<190 mg/dL...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273105/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hypertension-among-hiv-patients-in-rural-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Eduardo Rodríguez-Arbolí, Kim Mwamelo, Aneth Vedastus Kalinjuma, Hansjakob Furrer, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner, Manuel Battegay, Emilio Letang
INTRODUCTION: Scarce data are available on the epidemiology of hypertension among HIV patients in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for incident hypertension among patients who were enrolled in a rural HIV cohort in Tanzania. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study including HIV patients enrolled in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort between 2013 and 2015. Non-ART naïve subjects at baseline and pregnant women during follow-up were excluded from the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272943/a-systematic-review-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sexual-minorities
#17
Billy A Caceres, Abraham Brody, Rachel E Luscombe, Jillian E Primiano, Peter Marusca, Edward M Sitts, Deborah Chyun
BACKGROUND: Mental health and HIV disparities are well documented among sexual minorities, but there is a dearth of research on other chronic conditions. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although sexual minorities have high rates of several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (including stress, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption), there is a paucity of research in this area. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review, we synthesized and critiqued the existing evidence on cardiovascular disease among sexual minority adults...
April 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265887/coronary-artery-disease-in-hiv-infected-patients-downside-of-living-longer
#18
REVIEW
John Charles A Lacson, Revery P Barnes, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life expectancy of patients with HIV infection, allowing them to live longer with this chronic medical condition and consequently experiencing conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Several studies have investigated the increased risk of CVD in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, less is known about the exact mechanisms involved in this increased risk. Also, specific guidelines for management of CVD in PLWH have not been developed yet...
April 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249009/current-use-of-statins-reduces-risk-of-hiv-rebound-on-suppressive-haart
#19
Henning Drechsler, Colby Ayers, James Cutrell, Naim Maalouf, Pablo Tebas, Roger Bedimo
BACKGROUND: Despite compelling evidence for activity against HIV-1 in vitro, a virologic effect of statins has not been shown in clinical studies. Given their short plasma half-lives, such an effect may be transient and only apparent during ongoing exposure. METHODS: We studied all HIV infected US-Veterans who started HAART 1995-2011, had a documented HIV viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL, reached an undetectable VL on HAART, and had ≥1 follow-up VL within 13 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243935/body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-in-patients-with-hiv-in-south-africa-and-associated-socio-demographic-health-related-and-psychosocial-factors
#20
Diana Huis In 't Veld, Supa Pengpid, Robert Colebunders, Karl Peltzer
A high body mass index (BMI) and high waist circumference are important health risk factors predisposing for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and certain cancers. Historically, underweight was a diagnostic criterion of HIV-infection. In a cross-sectional study the prevalence of BMI-categories and high waist circumference and its associated factors in patients visiting three outpatient HIV clinics in South Africa were measured with anthropometric measurements and structured questionnaires regarding socio-demographic information, quality of life (QoL), AIDS-related stigma, symptoms of depression, alcohol use, HIV related information and level of adherence to ART...
February 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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