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Cardiovascular risk HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208120/cardiovascular-complications-of-hiv-infection
#1
Marshall J Glesby
HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Widely used cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators to determine indications for statin treatment are not well validated for use in the HIV-infecte population. Some experts advocate including HIV infection as an independent risk factor for CVD. The effects of antiretroviral therapy on lipid profiles and the potentially increased risk for cardiovascular events must be taken into account when selecting treatment for HIV-infected individuals...
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207331/a-systematic-review-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sexual-minorities
#2
Billy A Caceres, Abraham Brody, Rachel E Luscombe, Jillian E Primiano, Peter Marusca, Edward M Sitts, Deborah Chyun
BACKGROUND: Mental health and HIV disparities are well documented among sexual minorities, but there is a dearth of research on other chronic conditions. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although sexual minorities have high rates of several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (including stress, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption), there is a paucity of research in this area. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review, we synthesized and critiqued the existing evidence on cardiovascular disease among sexual minority adults...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196511/antiretroviral-therapy-related-adverse-effects-can-sub-saharan-africa-cope-with-the-new-test-and-treat-policy-of-the-world-health-organization
#3
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? MAIN BODY: The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future...
February 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182622/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-hiv-adis-a-new-way-of-modulation-of-cardiovascular-risk
#4
Mohamed H Ahmed, Nazik Elmalaika Hussian, Akif Malik, Clare Woodward, Dushyant Mital
With the advent and subsequent success of antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely become a chronic condition and is increasingly seen alongside metabolic disorders such as dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) itself is associated with an increase in the incidence of metabolic risk factors (namely insulin resistance, lipoatrophy, dyslipidaemia, and abnormalities of fat distribution in HIV patients). Thus, further challenges in the management of HIV patients include the management of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182619/contribution-of-common-infections-to-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#5
Victoria Berquist, Jennifer F Hoy, Janine M Trevillyan
HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to complex interactions between the increased incidence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and HIV and antiretroviral-associated inflammation and dyslipidemia. Increasing evidence suggests that a number of important co-pathogens, including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus, and periodontal disease, are likely to also be contributing. Mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and modification of lipids play a role; however, induction of systemic inflammation is the likely key pathogenic link by which this occurs...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182617/statins-in-hiv-infected-patients-potential-beneficial-effects-and-clinical-use
#6
Enrique Bernal, Mar Masiá, Irene Marín, Félix Gutiérrez
Patients living with HIV have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease that is considered to be the result of an interaction between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking and dyslipidemia, and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV infection, along with side effects of antiretroviral therapy. In the general population, the administration of statins has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease-associated mortality, and these drugs are among the most common class of medication prescribed in high-income countries...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155318/weight-status-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-people-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-dikgale-limpopo-south-africa
#7
Felistas Mashinya, Marianne Alberts, Robert Colebunders, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Underweight in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) complicates the management of HIV infection and contributes to mortality, whereas overweight increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIM: The study determined weight status and associated factors in people with HIV infection receiving ART. SETTING: Rural primary health care clinics in Dikgale, Limpopo province, South Africa...
November 29, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155001/change-in-urinary-cortisol-excretion-mediates-the-effect-of-angry-hostile-mood-on-9-month-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-hiv-adults
#8
Roger C McIntosh, Michael Antoni, Adam Carrico, Ron Duran, Barry E Hurwitz, Gail Ironson, Mary Ann Fletcher, Nancy Klimas, Mahendra Kumar, Neil Schneiderman
Cardiovascular disease is a growing concern in HIV disease management and nearly 1 out of 3 persons living with the virus is hypertensive. Biobehavioral factors such as anger, hostility, and HPA axis reactivity are emperically linked to blood pressure regulation. Whether HPA axis or mood disturbance increases risk for hypertension remains unclear in HIV disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether 9-month change in angry/hostile mood predicts alterations in systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and whether this change is mediated by 24-h urinary cortisol (CORT) output...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137330/impact-of-hiv-on-inpatient-mortality-and-complications-in-stroke-in-thailand-a-national-database-study
#9
K Cumming, S Tiamkao, K Kongbunkiat, A B Clark, J H Bettencourt-Silva, K Sawanyawisuth, N Kasemsap, M A Mamas, J A Seeley, P K Myint
The co-existence of stroke and HIV has increased in recent years, but the impact of HIV on post-stroke outcomes is poorly understood. We examined the impact of HIV on inpatient mortality, length of acute hospital stay and complications (pneumonia, respiratory failure, sepsis and convulsions), in hospitalized strokes in Thailand. All hospitalized strokes between 1 October 2004 and 31 January 2013 were included. Data were obtained from a National Insurance Database. Characteristics and outcomes for non-HIV and HIV patients were compared and multivariate logistic and linear regression models were constructed to assess the above outcomes...
January 31, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134710/mortal-allies-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-noncommunicable-diseases
#10
Elizabeth S Mayne, Jaya A George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected individuals have improved access to antiretroviral therapy. This has resulted in a shift in causes of mortality from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and malignancies. This review will look at the epidemiological shift, risk factors for the development of these diseases and examine some of the supporting laboratory diagnostic testing, which may be required. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors for the development of these diseases in HIV-infected patients include underlying genetic predisposition, lifestyle risk factors, chronic inflammation as a consequence of HIV infection, the presence and persistence of opportunistic infections and in some cases, highly active antiretroviral therapy, itself...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121706/greater-remnant-lipoprotein-cholesterol-reduction-with-pitavastatin-compared-to-pravastatin-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-intrepid-trial
#11
Parag H Joshi, P Elliott Miller, Seth S Martin, Steven R Jones, Joseph M Massaro, Ralph B D'Agostino, Krishnaji R Kulkarni, Craig Sponseller, Peter P Toth
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in those with HIV. An emerging CVD risk factor is triglyceride-rich remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: the sum of intermediate-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein3 cholesterol). The effects of statin therapy on lipoprotein subfractions, including RLP-C, in HIV-dyslipidemia are unknown. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of the randomized INTREPID trial (NCT 01301066) comparing pitavastatin 4 mg daily vs...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109003/eradication-of-hcv-and-non-liver-related-non-aids-related-events-in-hiv-hcv-coinfection
#12
Juan Berenguer, Elena Rodríguez-Castellano, Ana Carrero, Miguel A Von Wichmann, Marta Montero, María J Galindo, Josep Mallolas, Manuel Crespo, María J Téllez, Carmen Quereda, José Sanz, Carlos Barros, Cristina Tural, Ignacio Santos, Federico Pulido, Josep M Guardiola, Rafael Rubio, Enrique Ortega, María L Montes, Juan J Jusdado, Gabriel Gaspar, Herminia Esteban, José M Bellón, Juan González-García
: We assessed non-liver-related non-AIDS-related (NLR-NAR) events and mortality in a cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with interferon and ribavirin between 2000 and 2008. The censoring date was May 31, 2014. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the adjusted hazard rate (HR) of overall death in responders and non-responders. Fine and Gray regression analysis was conducted to determine the adjusted sub-hazard rate (sHR) of NLR deaths and NLR-NAR events considering death as the competing risk...
January 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101804/white-matter-hyperintensities-correlate-to-cognition-and-fiber-tract-integrity-in-older-adults-with-hiv
#13
Christa Watson, Edgar Busovaca, Jessica M Foley, I Elaine Allen, Christopher G Schwarz, Neda Jahanshad, Talia M Nir, Pardis Esmaeili-Firidouni, Benedetta Milanini, Howard Rosen, Owen T Carmichael, Paul M Thompson, Victor G Valcour
Our aim was to examine the clinical relevance of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in HIV. We used an automated approach to quantify WMH volume in HIV seropositive (HIV+; n = 65) and HIV seronegative (HIV-; n = 29) adults over age 60. We compared WMH volumes between HIV+ and HIV- groups in cross-sectional and multiple time-point analyses. We also assessed correlations between WMH volumes and cardiovascular, HIV severity, cognitive scores, and diffusion tensor imaging variables. Serostatus groups did not differ in WMH volume, but HIV+ participants had less cerebral white matter (mean: 470...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072892/use-of-statins-and-aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-among-hiv-positive-patients-a-survey-among-italian-hiv-physicians
#14
Paolo Maggi, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Antonio Di Biagio, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Stefano Rusconi, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
We conducted a survey among Italian HIV specialists to study the utilization of statins and aspirin, administering a questionnaire aimed at investigating their use, the use of guidelines and scores, and the management of interactions. The answers were uniform in the different geographic areas. The majority directly prescribe statins and 43% of them prescribe aspirin. The majority follows guidelines and utilize scores to calculate the CV risk. Our survey demonstrates the commitment and autonomy in prescribing statins and aspirin of Italian physicians...
10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068521/hiv-and-its-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-abnormalities
#15
REVIEW
Lemuel R Non, Gerome V Escota, William G Powderly
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by reducing morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions. Despite longer life expectancy, however, HIV-infected individuals continue to have a higher risk of death compared with the general population. This has been attributed to the increasing incidence of noncommunicable diseases, in particular, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This is driven, in part, by the emergence of metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, in those on antiretroviral therapy...
December 23, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#16
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061822/cardiovascular-risk-and-endothelial-function-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-design-of-the-multi-site-longitudinal-endoafrica-study-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#17
Hans Strijdom, Patrick De Boever, Gerhard Walzl, M Faadiel Essop, Tim S Nawrot, Ingrid Webster, Corli Westcott, Nyiko Mashele, Frans Everson, Stephanus T Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060856/hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-fatty-infiltration-of-the-thigh-muscle-with-aging-independent-of-fat-distribution
#18
Javzandulam Natsag, Kristine M Erlandson, Deborah E Sellmeyer, Sabina A Haberlen, Joseph Margolick, Lisa P Jacobson, Frank J Palella, Susan L Koletar, Jordan E Lake, Wendy S Post, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND: Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT) provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU) of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057254/hiv-and-nonischemic-heart-disease
#19
REVIEW
Pravin Manga, Keir McCutcheon, Nqoba Tsabedze, Ahmed Vachiat, Don Zachariah
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated heart disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases. HIV infection may involve the pericardium, myocardium, coronary arteries, pulmonary vasculature, and valves, as well as the systemic vasculature. Access to combination antiretroviral therapy, as well as health resources, has had a significant influence on the prevalence and severity of the effects on each cardiac structure. Investigations over the recent past have improved our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053011/dismantling-the-silence-lgbtq-aging-emerging-from-the-margins
#20
Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
Historical, environmental, and cultural contexts intersect with aging, sexuality, and gender across communities and generations. My scholarship investigates health and well-being over the life course across marginalized communities, including LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) midlife and older adults, native communities experiencing cardiovascular risk, and families in China living with HIV, in order to balance the realities of unique lives in contemporary society. By probing the intersection of age, sexuality, and gender, my analysis is informed by both personal and professional experiences...
February 2017: Gerontologist
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