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Cardiovascular risk HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666731/ischemic-stroke-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-an-initial-presentation-of-neurosyphilis
#1
Kalimullah Jan, Rebecca Hoe Hui Min, Tan Seow Yen, Shekhawat Ravindra Singh
Ischemic stroke occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) needs to be approached with a vast differential diagnosis in mind. We report a case of middle-aged male patient with immune reconstituted HIV on therapy without known cardiovascular risk factors who had a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct. After a thorough evaluation, he received a final diagnosis of neurosyphilis-associated vasculitis leading to stroke. He recovered without any neurological deficits following treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666424/cardiovascular-markers-of-inflammation-and-serum-lipid-levels-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-undetectable-viremia
#2
Klaudija Višković, Snježana Židovec Lepej, Ana Gorenec, Ivana Grgić, Davorka Lukas, Šime Zekan, Anja Dragobratović, Maja Trupković, Josip Begovac
Patients successfully treated for HIV infection still have an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which might be related not only to traditional risks, but also to inflammation and dyslipidemia. We examined the relationship of serum lipid levels with plasma biomarkers of inflammation using a composite inflammatory burden score (IBS) based on individual (>75th percentile) measurements from the following seven markers: CD40L, tPA, MCP-1, IL-8, IL-6, hCRP and P-selectin. IBS was categorized as 0 (none of the biomarkers >75th percentile), 1, 2 and 3 or more scores...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663871/design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-zinc-supplementation-to-improve-markers-of-mortality-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-hiv-positive-drinkers-in-st-petersburg-russia
#3
Natalia Gnatienko, Matthew S Freiberg, Elena Blokhina, Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Carly Bridden, Debbie M Cheng, Christine E Chaisson, Dmitry Lioznov, Sally Bendiks, Glory Koerbel, Sharon M Coleman, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
Background Russia continues to have an uncontrolled HIV epidemic and its per capita alcohol consumption is among the highest in the world. Alcohol use among HIV-positive individuals is common and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Alcohol use and HIV each lead to microbial translocation, which in turn results in inflammation. Zinc supplementation holds potential for lowering levels of biomarkers of inflammation, possibly as a consequence of its impact on intestinal permeability. This paper describes the protocol of a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of zinc supplementation in St...
April 17, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652762/distribution-and-performance-of-cardiovascular-risk-scores-in-a-mixed-population-of-hiv-infected-and-community-based-hiv-uninfected-individuals-in-uganda
#4
Anthony N Muiru, Prossy Bibangambah, Linda Hemphill, Ruth Sentongo, June-Ho Kim, Virginia A Triant, David R Bangsberg, Alexander C Tsai, Jeffrey N Martin, Jessica E Haberer, Yap Boum, Jorge Plutzky, Peter W Hunt, Samson Okello, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: The utility and validity of CVD risk scores are not well-studied in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared and correlated CVD risk scores with carotid intima media thickness (c-IMT) among HIV-infected and uninfected people in Uganda. METHODS: We first calculated CVD risk using the 1) Framingham laboratory-based score; 2) Framingham non-laboratory score (FRS-BMI); 3) Reynolds risk score; 4) American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association score; and 5) the Data-collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs score...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624545/hiv-infection-is-not-associated-with-aortic-stiffness-traditional-cardiovascular-risk-factors-are-the-main-determinants-cross-sectional-results-of-ini-elsa-brasil
#5
Rodrigo C Moreira, José G Mill, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea Veloso, Maria de Jesus Fonseca, Rosane H Griep, Isabela Bensenor, Sandra W Cardoso, Paulo Lotufo, Dora Chor, Antonio G Pacheco
INTRODUCTION: Aortic stiffness measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. We propose to assess whether HIV infection is associated with arterial stiffness and their determinants in HIV-infected subjects. METHODS: We compared data from an HIV cohort (644 patients, HIV+) in Rio de Janeiro with 2 groups: 105 HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals and 14,873 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. We used multivariable linear regression to investigate factors associated with cf-PWV and whether HIV was independently associated with aortic stiffness and propensity score weighting to control for imbalances between groups...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623220/high-prevalence-of-hypertension-in-ethiopian-and-non-ethiopian-hiv-infected-adults
#6
Maya Korem, Tali Wallach, Michael Bursztyn, Shlomo Maayan, Karen Olshtain-Pops
Objectives: Prevalence of hypertension has not been studied in the Ethiopian HIV-infected population, which represents 60% of the patients in our AIDS unit. Our aim was to identify risk factors and characterize the prevalence of hypertension in the population monitored at our unit. Methods: A retrospective chart review categorized subjects according to their blood pressure levels. Hypertension prevalence was determined and stratified according to variables perceived to contribute to elevated blood pressure...
2018: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620717/the-microbial-metabolite-tmao-in-association-with-inflammation-and-microbial-dysregulation-in-three-hiv-cohorts-at-various-disease-stages
#7
Catharina Missailidis, Ujjwal Neogi, Peter Stenvinkel, Marius Trøseid, Piotr Nowak, Peter Bergman
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1-infection infers an increased cardiovascular risk where gut dysbiosis and microbial translocation may contribute. We assessed TMAO, a microbial metabolite with atherosclerotic properties, in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals at different clinical stages in relation to inflammatory markers, cardiovascular events and gut microbiota. METHODS: Primary HIV-1-infected (n = 17) and chronic HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 22) were sampled before and after ART-initiation...
April 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618649/brain-large-artery-lymphocytic-inflammation-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-brain-arterial-remodeling
#8
Adele Shenoy, Andrew Dwork, Mitchell S V Elkind, Randolph Marshall, Susan Morgello, Jose Gutierrez
The pathogenesis of increased stroke risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains unclear. Our study investigated the relationship between adventitial and intimal CD3+ T cells and brain arterial remodeling that potentially contributes to HIV-related vasculopathy and stroke. Large brain arteries from 84 HIV+ cases and 78 HIV- cases were analyzed to determine interadventitial and luminal diameters, intimal and wall thickness, percentage stenosis, and presence of atherosclerosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect and visually score CD3, a pan T cell marker, in the intima and adventitia...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601406/sex-differences-in-subclinical-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-among-individuals-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Borek Foldyna, Lindsay T Fourman, Michael T Lu, Martin E Mueller, Balint Szilveszter, Tomas G Neilan, Jennifer E Ho, Tricia H Burdo, Emily S Lau, Lauren A Stone, Mabel Toribio, Suman Srinivasa, Sara E Looby, Janet Lo, Kathleen V Fitch, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: In high-resource settings, the HIV-attributable risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is higher among women than among men. The extent to which unique mechanisms contribute to MI risk among women vs. men with HIV remains unclear. METHODS: Subclinical coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics - including high-risk morphology plaque features - were compared among 48 HIV-infected women (48 [41, 54] years) and 97 HIV-infected men (48 [42, 52] years) on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) without known cardiovascular disease...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601329/hiv-infection-and-lipids
#10
Anjly Jain, Trupti Kolvekar, Devaki R Nair
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We comment on the role of dyslipidaemia in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients. We have discussed various risk factors, including traditional CVD risk factors, HIV-related risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced dyslipidaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV-infected individuals are prone to lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities as a result of the infection itself and the effect of ART. The older drugs used for the treatment of HIV were associated with an increased risk of these abnormalities...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596462/racial-disparities-in-the-prevalence-and-control-of-hypertension-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#11
Greer A Burkholder, Ashutosh R Tamhane, Monika M Safford, Paul M Muntner, Amanda L Willig, James H Willig, James L Raper, Michael S Saag, Michael J Mugavero
BACKGROUND: African Americans are disproportionately affected by both HIV and hypertension. Failure to modify risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease such as hypertension among HIV-infected patients may attenuate the benefits conferred by combination antiretroviral therapy. In the general population, African Americans with hypertension are less likely to have controlled blood pressure than whites. However, racial differences in blood pressure control among HIV-infected patients are not well studied...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590332/subclinical-coronary-artery-disease-in-swiss-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-persons
#12
Philip E Tarr, Bruno Ledergerber, Alexandra Calmy, Thanh Doco-Lecompte, Alex Marzel, Rainer Weber, Philipp A Kaufmann, René Nkoulou, Ronny R Buechel, Helen Kovari
Aims: HIV-positive persons have increased cardiovascular event rates but data on the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with HIV-negative persons are not uniform. We assessed subclinical atherosclerosis utilizing coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in 428 HIV-positive participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and 276 HIV-negative controls concurrently referred for clinically indicated CCTA. Methods and results: We assessed the association of HIV infection, cardiovascular risk profile, and HIV-related factors with subclinical atherosclerosis in univariable and multivariable analyses...
March 24, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590159/motivations-of-women-in-uganda-living-with-rheumatic-heart-disease-a-mixed-methods-study-of-experiences-in-stigma-childbearing-anticoagulation-and-contraception
#13
Andrew Y Chang, Juliet Nabbaale, Haddy Nalubwama, Emmy Okello, Isaac Ssinabulya, Christopher T Longenecker, Allison R Webel
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a leading cause of premature mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Women of reproductive age are a unique and vulnerable group of RHD patients, due to increased risk of cardiovascular complications and death during pregnancy. Yet, less than 5% of women of childbearing age with RHD in LMICs use contraceptives, and one in five pregnant women with RHD take warfarin despite known teratogenicity. It is unclear whether this suboptimal contraception and anticoagulant use during pregnancy is due to lack of health system resources, limited health literacy, or social pressure to bear children...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578932/carotid-artery-stiffness-and-cognitive-decline-among-women-with-or-at-risk-for-hiv-infection
#14
Daniel M Huck, David B Hanna, Leah H Rubin, Pauline Maki, Victor Valcour, Gayle Springer, Xiaonan Xue, Jason Lazar, Howard N Hodis, Kathryn Anastos, Robert C Kaplan, Jorge R Kizer
BACKGROUND: Vascular stiffness is associated with aging and cognitive impairment in older populations without HIV. HIV has been linked to increased vascular stiffness. We examined whether vascular stiffness relates to cognitive decline at younger ages in women with or at risk for HIV. METHODS: We evaluated the association of carotid artery stiffness with decline in neuropsychological test performance among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, and assessed whether HIV modified the association...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577617/a-time-motion-study-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-screening-integrated-into-hiv-clinic-visits-in-swaziland
#15
Anton M Palma, Miriam Rabkin, Samkelo Simelane, Averie B Gachuhi, Margaret L McNairy, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Pido Bongomin, Velephi N Okello, Raymond A Bitchong, Wafaa M El-Sadr
INTRODUCTION: Screening of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is recommended but not routinely provided for HIV-infected patients, especially in low-resource settings. Potential concerns include limited staff time and low patient acceptability, but little empirical data exists. As part of a pilot study of screening in a large urban HIV clinic in Swaziland, we conducted a time-motion study to assess the impact of screening on patient flow and HIV service delivery and exit interviews to assess patient acceptability...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568549/markers-of-subclinical-atherosclerotic-disease-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#16
EDITORIAL
Pulin K Gupta, Manu Gupta, Ashok K Lal, Anil Taneja, Rajesh S Taneja, Bharat B Rewari
Background: Wider access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) has resulted in a decline in the number of people dying due to AIDS-related causes. However, with this increased longevity, accelerated rates of cardiovascular and atherosclerotic diseases are on the rise. We hypothesised that the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases is greater in HIV/AIDS patients as compared to the normal population. Thus, we aimed to study the predictors of subclinical atherosclerotic disease in HIV-infected individuals...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561173/evaluation-of-statin-eligibility-prescribing-practices-and-therapeutic-responses-using-atp-iii-acc-aha-and-nla-dyslipidemia-treatment-guidelines-in-a-large-urban-cohort-of-hiv-infected-outpatients
#17
Matthew E Levy, Alan E Greenberg, Manya Magnus, Naji Younes, Amanda Castel
Statin coverage has been examined among HIV-infected patients using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines, although not with newer National Lipid Association (NLA) guidelines. We investigated statin eligibility, prescribing practices, and therapeutic responses using these three guidelines. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected between 2011 and 2016 for HIV-infected outpatients enrolled in the DC Cohort, a multi-center, prospective, observational study in Washington, DC...
February 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558525/atrial-arrhythmia-prevalence-and-characteristics-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons-and-matched-uninfected-controls
#18
Jes M Sanders, Alexandra B Steverson, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected (HIV+) persons have elevated risks for various manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies to our knowledge have compared atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) prevalence and associated characteristics for HIV+ persons and matched uninfected controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Persons with diagnoses of HIV receiving care at a large urban academic medical center were frequency-matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, zip code, and clinic location with uninfected persons...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547441/role-of-tlr4-asp299gly-polymorphism-in-the-development-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-patients
#19
Laura Tarancon-Diez, Rebeca S De Pablo-Bernal, José Luis Jiménez, Ana I Álvarez-Ríos, Miguel Genebat, Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, María-Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Manuel Leal
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the main causes of morbimortality in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CVDs occurrence in HIV-infected patients. Additionally, the functional consequences of carrying these SNPs were analyzed. METHODS: The association of TLR4 SNPs, Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile with CVDs occurrence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543495/towards-providing-culturally-aware-nutritional-care-for-transgender-people-key-issues-and-considerations
#20
Pamela Fergusson, Nicole Greenspan, Lukas Maitland, Rémy Huberdeau
Transgender people are an important group for whom access to healthcare is often problematic. Dietitians need to be aware of key issues in transgender health to provide culturally competent clinical nutritional care. This article serves as a primer, clarifying key terms and concepts, exploring the impact of stigma and discrimination on health and nutrition for people from transgender communities, and offering practical advice for nutritional and other related issues. Education for dietitians both pre- and postqualification is an important part of improving care and building skills and awareness of cultural humility...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
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