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Molecular genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045785/programming-enzyme-initiated-autonomous-dnazyme-nanodevices-in-living-cells
#1
Feng Chen, Min Bai, Ke Cao, Yue Zhao, Xiaowen Cao, Jing Wei, Na Wu, Jiang Li, Lihua Wang, Chunhai Fan, Yongxi Zhao
Molecular nanodevices are computational assemblers that switch defined states upon external stimulation. However, interfacing artificial nanodevices with natural molecular machineries in living cells remains a great challenge. Here we delineate a generic method for programming assembly of enzyme-initiated DNAzyme nanodevices (DzNanos). Two programs including split assembly of two partzymes and toehold-exchange displacement assembly of one intact DNAzyme initiated by telomerase are computed. The intact one obtains higher assembly yield and catalytic performance ascribed to proper conformation folding and active misplaced assembly...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045731/the-chimpanzee-model-of-viral-hepatitis-advances-in-understanding-the-immune-response-and-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#2
Robert E Lanford, Christopher M Walker, Stanley M Lemon
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations...
October 17, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045691/genetic-dissection-of-arabidopsis-map-kinase-phosphatase-1-dependent-pamp-induced-transcriptional-responses
#3
Lingyan Jiang, Ying Wan, Jeffrey C Anderson, Jie Hou, Soliman M Islam, Jianlin Cheng, Scott C Peck, Katherine Denby
Plant immunity is initiated by extracellular detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRR activation induces many responses including the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that ultimately limit bacterial growth. Previous work identified Arabidopsis MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP1) as a negative regulator of signaling pathways required for some, but not all, of PAMP-initiated responses. Specifically, loss of MAPK MPK6 in an mkp1 background suppressed a subset of the mkp1-dependent biological phenotypes, indicating the requirement for MPK6 in MKP1-dependent signaling...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045641/genetic-variability-of-two-leaffooted-bugs-leptoglossus-clypealis-and-leptoglossus-zonatus-hemiptera-coreidae-in-the-central-valley-of-california
#4
A L Joyce, B S Higbee, D R Haviland, H Brailovsky, Raul Medina
Leaffooted plant bugs (LFPBs) (Leptoglossus spp., Guérin-Méneville) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) are large seed-feeding bugs native to the Western Hemisphere. In California, several Leptoglossus spp. feed on almonds, pistachios, and pomegranate and are occasional pests. The objective of this study was to survey the different species of Leptoglossus present in almond, pistachio, and pomegranate orchards in the Central Valley of California. We used two molecular markers, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and mitochondrial DNA COI, to determine the number of species or strains of each species, and to infer whether individuals of each species move and possibly interbreed with populations from the other host plants...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045522/molecular-genetics-of-salt-sensitivity-and-hypertension-role-of-renal-epithelial-sodium-channel-genes
#5
Silvia R S Freitas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045517/clinicobiological-features-and-prognostic-impact-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-component-in-the-outcome-of-patients-with-previously-untreated-follicular-lymphoma
#6
L Magnano, O Balagué, I Dlouhy, J Rovira, K Karube, M Pinyol, A Rivas-Delgado, D Costa, A Martínez-Trillos, B González-Farre, A Martínez-Pozo, E Giné, D Colomer, J Delgado, N Villamor, E Campo, A López-Guillermo
Background: The co-existence at diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) components (FL/DLBCL) has been considered a transformed lymphoma and accordingly treated although clinicobiological information on these patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze the initial features and outcome of FL/DLBCL patients in the rituximab era. Patients and methods: All patients consecutively diagnosed at a single institution with FL/DLBCL (n = 40), as well as those with pure FL (n = 328) or de novo DLBCL (n = 510) as controls...
August 2, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045504/molecular-tumor-boards-current-practice-and-future-needs
#7
D L van der Velden, C M L van Herpen, H W M van Laarhoven, E F Smit, H J M Groen, S M Willems, P M Nederlof, M H G Langenberg, E Cuppen, S Sleijfer, N Steeghs, E E Voest
Background: due to rapid technical advances, steeply declining sequencing costs, and the ever-increasing number of targeted therapies, it can be expected that extensive tumor sequencing such as Whole Exome- and -Genome Sequencing will soon be applied in standard care. Clinicians will thus be confronted with increasingly complex genetic information and multiple test-platforms to choose from. General medical training, meanwhile, can hardly keep up with the pace of innovation. Consequently, there is a rapidly growing gap between clinical knowledge and genetic potential in cancer care...
September 27, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045399/correction-comparative-transcriptomes-of-adenocarcinomas-and-squamous-cell-carcinomas-reveal-molecular-similarities-that-span-classical-anatomic-boundaries
#8
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006938.].
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045296/taking-the-tube-from-normal-fallopian-tube-epithelium-to-ovarian-high-grade-serous-carcinoma
#9
Alicia A Tone
Detailed pathologic studies over the past decade suggest a distal fallopian tube origin for the majority of "ovarian" high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). This review will summarize molecular alterations observed in tubal precursors for HGSC, namely p53 signatures and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas, and in nonmalignant fallopian tube epithelial cells obtained from women at increased genetic risk for HGSC. Recent experiments investigating the impact of follicular fluid exposure and retrograde menstruation on tumor development in the fallopian tube will also be discussed...
December 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044924/molecular-phylogeny-and-surface-morphology-of-thiriotia-hyperdolphinae-n-sp-and-cephaloidophora-oradareae-n-sp-gregarinasina-apicomplexa-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-oradarea-sp-amphipoda-in-the-west-pacific
#10
Kevin C Wakeman, Akinori Yabuki, Katsunori Fujikura, Ko Tomikawa, Takeo Horiguchi
In an effort to broaden our understanding of the biodiversity and distribution of gregarines infecting crustaceans, this study describes two new species of gregarines, Thiriotia hyperdolphinae n. sp. and Cephaloidophora oradareae n. sp., parasitizing a deep sea amphipod (Oradarea sp.). Amphipods were collected using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin at a depth of 855 m while on a cruise in Sagami Bay, Japan. Gregarine trophozoites and gamonts were isolated from the gut of the amphipod and studied with light and scanning electron microscopy, and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044863/identification-of-somatic-genetic-alterations-in-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma-with-next-generation-sequencing
#11
Yusuke Shibuya, Hideki Tokunaga, Sakae Saito, Kazurou Shimokawa, Fumiki Katsuoka, Li Bin, Kaname Kojima, Masao Nagasaki, Masayuki Yamamoto, Nobuo Yaegashi, Jun Yasuda
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is the most refractory subtype of ovarian cancer and more prevalent in Japanese than Caucasians (25% and 5% of all ovarian cancer, respectively). The aim of this study is to discover the genomic alterations that may cause OCCC and effective molecular targets for chemotherapy. Paired genomic DNAs of 48 OCCC tissues and corresponding non-cancerous tissues were extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded specimens collected between 2007 and 2015 at Tohoku University Hospital...
October 16, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044818/possible-glimpses-into-early-speciation-the-effect-of-ovarian-fluid-on-sperm-velocity-accords-with-post-copulatory-isolation-between-two-guppy-populations
#12
Alessandro Devigili, John L Fitzpatrick, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W Ramnarine, Andrea Pilastro, Jonathan P Evans
Identifying mechanisms of reproductive isolation is key to understanding speciation. Among the putative mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation, sperm-female interactions (postmating-prezygotic barriers) are arguably the hardest to identify, not least because these are likely to operate at the cellular or molecular level. Yet sperm-female interactions offer great potential to prevent the transfer of genetic information between different populations at the initial stages of speciation. Here we provide a preliminary test for the presence of a putative postmating-prezygotic barrier operating between three populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish that inhabits streams with different levels of connectivity across Trinidad...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044738/overview-of-mechanisms-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-an-ocular-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Dinesh Subedi, Ajay Kumar Vijay, Mark Willcox
Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye infections often becomes a challenge due to the ability of this bacterium to be resistant to antibiotics via intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. Transfer of resistance due to interchangeable genetic elements is an important mechanism for the rapid transfer of antibiotic resistance in this pathogen. As a result, drug-resistant strains are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. This review systematically analyses data from recent publications to describe the global prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of ocular P...
October 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044700/epidermal-nevus-syndromes-new-insights-into-whorls-and-swirls
#14
REVIEW
Sarah Asch, Jeffrey L Sugarman
Knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of many epidermal nevi and epidermal nevus syndrome has expanded rapidly in recent years. In this review and update on epidermal nevus syndrome, we will cover recent genetic discoveries involving epidermal nevi, including nevus sebaceus, keratinocytic epidermal nevus, nevus comedonicus, congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentokeratotica, Becker's nevus, porokeratotic adnexal ostial nevus, inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevi, and cutaneous-skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044489/molecular-analysis-and-genotype-phenotype-correlation-of-diamond-blackfan-anemia
#15
O A Arbiv, G Cuvelier, R J Klaassen, C V Fernandez, N Robitaille, M G Steele, V Breakey, S Abish, J Wu, R Sinha, M Silva, L Goodyear, L Jardine, J H Lipton, C Corriveau-Bourque, J Brossard, B Michon, I Ghemlas, N Waespe, B Zlateska, L Sung, M Cada, Y Dror
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) features hypoplastic anemia and congenital malformations, largely caused by mutations in various ribosomal proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize the spectrum of genetic lesions causing DBA and identify genotypes that correlate with phenotypes of clinical significance. Seventy-four patients with DBA from across Canada were included. Nucleotide-level mutations or large deletions were identified in 10 ribosomal genes in 45 cases. The RPS19 mutation group was associated with higher requirement for chronic treatment for anemia than other DBA groups...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044471/analysis-and-annotation-of-whole-genome-or-whole-exome-sequencing-derived-variants-for-clinical-diagnosis
#16
Elizabeth A Worthey
Over the last 10 years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research through substantial advances in technology and reduction in the cost of sequencing, and also in the systems required for analysis of these large volumes of data. This technology is now being used as a standard molecular diagnostic test in some clinical settings. The advances in sequencing have come so rapidly that the major bottleneck in identification of causal variants is no longer the sequencing or analysis (given access to appropriate tools), but rather clinical interpretation...
October 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044180/evaluating-phenotype-driven-approaches-for-genetic-diagnoses-from-exomes-in-a-clinical-setting
#17
Reuben J Pengelly, Thahmina Alom, Zijian Zhang, David Hunt, Sarah Ennis, Andrew Collins
Next generation sequencing is transforming clinical medicine and genome research, providing a powerful route to establishing molecular diagnoses for genetic conditions; however, challenges remain given the volume and complexity of genetic variation. A number of methods integrate patient phenotype and genotypic data to prioritise variants as potentially causal. Some methods have a clinical focus while others are more research-oriented. With clinical applications in mind we compare results from alternative methods using 21 exomes for which the disease causal variant has been previously established through traditional clinical evaluation...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044066/color-vision-abnormalities-in-type-ii-diabetes-sankara-nethralaya-diabetic-retinopathy-epidemiology-and-molecular-genetics-study-ii-report-no-2
#18
Laxmi Gella, Rajiv Raman, Vaitheeswaran Kulothungan, Swakshyar Saumya Pal, Suganeswari Ganesan, Sangeetha Srinivasan, Tarun Sharma
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess color vision abnormalities in a cohort of subjects with type II diabetes and elucidate associated risk factors. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from follow-up cohort of Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study I. Six hundred and seventy-three eyes of 343 subjects were included from this population-based study. All subjects underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation, including the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043650/rewiring-the-budding-yeast-proteome-using-synthetic-physical-interactions
#19
Guðjón Ólafsson, Peter H Thorpe
Artificially tethering two proteins or protein fragments together is a powerful method to query molecular mechanisms. However, this approach typically relies upon a prior understanding of which two proteins, when fused, are most likely to provide a specific function and is therefore not readily amenable to large-scale screening. Here, we describe the Synthetic Physical Interaction (SPI) method to create proteome-wide forced protein associations in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This method allows thousands of protein-protein associations to be screened for those that affect either normal growth or sensitivity to drugs or specific conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043637/assays-to-study-repair-of-inducible-dna-double-strand-breaks-at-telomeres
#20
Roxanne Oshidari, Karim Mekhail
The ends of linear chromosomes are constituted of repetitive DNA sequences called telomeres. Telomeres, nearby regions called subtelomeres, and their associated factors prevent chromosome erosion over cycles of DNA replication and prevent chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). This raises the question of how cells repair DSBs that actually occur near chromosome ends. One approach is to edit the genome and engineer cells harboring inducible DSB sites within the subtelomeric region of different chromosome ends...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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