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Molecular genetics

Monika Mioduchowska, Michał Jan Czyż, Bartłomiej Gołdyn, Jarosław Kur, Jerzy Sell
The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene is the main mitochondrial molecular marker playing a pivotal role in phylogenetic research and is a crucial barcode sequence. Folmer's "universal" primers designed to amplify this gene in metazoan invertebrates allowed quick and easy barcode and phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, the increase in the number of studies on barcoding leads to more frequent publishing of incorrect sequences, due to amplification of non-target taxa, and insufficient analysis of the obtained sequences...
2018: PloS One
Brian Salmons, Walter H Gunzburg
The size and speed of release of proteins of different sizes from standard cellulose sulphate capsules (Cell-in-a-Box®) was investigated. Proteins with molecular weights of up to around 70kD can be released. The conformation, charge and concentration of the protein being released play a role in the release kinetics. Small proteins such as cytokines can be easily released. The ability to produce cytokines at a sustained and predefined level from encapsulated cells genetically engineered to overexpress such cytokines and implanted into patients may aid immunotherapies of cancer as well as infectious and other diseases...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Anne Brelot, Lisa A Chakrabarti
The chemokine receptor CCR5 has been the focus of intensive studies since its role as a coreceptor for HIV entry was discovered in 1996. These studies lead to the development of small molecular drugs targeting CCR5, with maraviroc becoming in 2007 the first clinically approved chemokine receptor inhibitor. More recently, the apparent HIV cure in a patient transplanted with hematopoietic stem cells devoid of functional CCR5 rekindled the interest for inactivating CCR5 through gene therapy and pharmacological approaches...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
A von Schaewen, I S Jeong, S Rips, A Fukudome, J Tolley, Y Nagashima, K Fischer, H Kaulfuerst-Soboll, H Koiwa
Production and isolation of recombinant proteins are key steps in modern Molecular Biology. Expression vectors and platforms for various hosts, including both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, have been used. In basic plant research, Arabidopsis thaliana is the central model for which a wealth of genetic and genomic resources is available, and enormous knowledge has been accumulated over the past years - especially since elucidation of its genome in 2000. However, until recently an Arabidopsis platform had been lacking for preparative-scale production of homologous recombinant proteins...
June 22, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nabil Hajji, Daniel J García-Domínguez, Lourdes Hontecillas-Prieto, Kevin O'Neill, Enrique de Álava, Nelofer Syed
One of the major obstacles to the development of effective new cancer treatments and the main factor for the increasing number of clinical trial failures appears to be the paucity of accurate, reproducible and robust drug resistance testing methods. Most research assessing the resistance of cancers to chemotherapy has concentrated on genetic-based molecular mechanisms, while the role of epigenetics in drug resistance has been generally overlooked. This is rather surprising given that an increasing body of evidence pointing to the fact that epigenetic mechanism alterations appear to play a pivotal role in cancer initiation, progression and development of chemoresistance...
June 22, 2018: Epigenomics
Trust Kasambala Donga, Richard Meadow
Sugarcane is one of the most valuable crops in the world. Native and exotic Lepidopteran stemborers significantly limit sugarcane production. However, the identity and genetic diversity of stemborers infesting sugarcane in Malawi is unknown. The main objectives for this study were to identify and determine genetic diversity in stemborers infesting sugarcane in Malawi. We conducted field surveys between June 2016 and March 2017 in the Lower Shire Valley district of Chikwawa and Nsanje, southern Malawi. Molecular identification was based amplification the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region...
June 22, 2018: Insects
Mulugeta Seyoum, Xiong Ming Du, Shou Pu He, Yin Hua Jia, Zhaoe Pan, Jun Ling Sun
Improvement of cotton fibre yield and quality is challenging due to the narrow genetic base of modern cotton cultivars, which emphasizes the great need to effectively explore the existing germplasm resources. With major objective to assess the genetic diversity and population structure at DNA level, 302 elite upland cotton germplasm accessions (253 Chinese and 49 different exotic origins), were genotyped using 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers. Each of the 198 markers differed greatly in its ability to detect variations in the panel of cotton germplasm...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
M Glushkova, V Bojinova, M Koleva, P Dimova, M Bojidarova, I Litvinenko, T Todorov, E Iluca, C Calusaru, E Neagu, D Craiu, V Mitev, A Todorova
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of hamartomas localized in various tissues which can occur in the skin, brain, kidney and other organs. TSC is caused by mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Here we report the results from the first molecular testing of 16 Bulgarian patients and one Romanian patient in whom we found six novel mutations: four in the TSC2 2 gene, of which one is nonsense, two frame shift and one large deletion of 16 exons; and two in the TSC1 gene, one nonsense and other frame shift...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
Thomas Pfeiffer, Stefanie Poll, Stephane Bancelin, Julie Angibaud, Vvg Krishna Inavalli, Kevin Keppler, Manuel Mittag, Martin Fuhrmann, U Valentin Nägerl
Rewiring neural circuits by the formation and elimination of synapses is thought to be a key cellular mechanism of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic structural component of excitatory synapses, and their experience-dependent plasticity has been extensively studied in mouse superficial cortex using two-photon microscopy in vivo. By contrast, very little is known about spine plasticity in the hippocampus, which is the archetypical memory center of the brain, mostly because it is difficult to visualize dendritic spines in this deeply embedded structure with sufficient spatial resolution...
June 22, 2018: ELife
G Çakmak, D Eraydın, A Berkkan, S Yağar, S Burgaz
Occupational exposure to the waste anaesthetic gases (WAGs) is a crucial problem for healthcare personnel. Cancer is among the potential long-term adverse effects of WAGs. The present occupational molecular epidemiology study was conducted in healthcare personnel (anaesthetists, nurses and technicians; n = 46), working in operating rooms (ORs; n = 34) and recovery units (RUs; n = 12) of the same hospital, to assess the genotoxicity risk of WAGs exposure. Twenty-one healthy available hospital staff allocated to other wards, without the history of working in ORs and RUs were the control group...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Anastasia M W Cooper, Kristopher Silver, Zhang Jianzhen, Yoonseong Park, Kun Yan Zhu
RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous, sequence-specific gene silencing mechanism elicited by small RNA molecules. RNAi is a powerful reverse genetic tool, and is currently being utilized for managing insects and viruses. Widespread implementation of RNAi-based pest management strategies is currently hindered by inefficient and highly variable results when different insect species, strains, developmental stages, tissues, and genes are targeted. Mechanistic studies have shown that double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNases), endosomal entrapment, deficient function of the core machinery, and inadequate immune stimulation contribute to limited RNAi efficiency...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
Da-Wei Li, Wei-Hong Xie, Ting-Bin Hao, Jia-Xi Cai, Tian-Bao Zhou, Srinivasan Balamurugan, Wei-Dong Yang, Jie-Sheng Liu, Hong-Ye Li
Photosynthetic microalgae are of burgeoning interest in the generation of commercial bioproducts. Microalgae accumulate high lipid content under adverse conditions, which in turn compromise their growth and hinder their commercial potential. Hence, it is necessary to engineer microalgae to mitigate elevated lipid accumulation and biomass. In this study, we identified acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) in oleaginous microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtACC2) and expressed constitutively in the chloroplast to demonstrate the potential of chloroplast engineering...
June 22, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
John K Chan, Stephanie Chow, Subasish Bhowmik, Amandeep Mann, Daniel S Kapp, Robert L Coleman
Gynecologic cancers comprise of mostly uterine, ovarian, and cervical malignancies and are responsible for 95,000 new cases annually in the United States. Uterine cancer is the most common and the number of new cases and mortality has been increasing. Cervical cancer has decreased due to screening, early detection, and treatment of pre-invasive cancers. However, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal because of advanced stage at diagnosis and drug resistance. The metastatic spread pattern differs amongst these cancers, with uterine and cervical cancer found mostly in the primary organ and ovarian cancer disseminating throughout the peritoneum and upper abdomen at presentation...
June 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
D Führer
Thyroid nodules are heterogeneous tumors with variable genetic signatures. Thyroid cancers are monoclonal lesions with a defined histomorphology that largely depends on the underlying somatic mutation. While the mutation rate is generally low in differentiated thyroid cancers, poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers show a high mutation load. The identification of somatic mutations in fine needle aspirates can be helpful for the differential diagnostics of thyroid nodules; however, a prognostic contribution is less certain...
June 21, 2018: Der Internist
Franziska Just, Henry Reyer, Eduard Muráni, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Michael Oster, Klaus Wimmers
Calcium and phosphorus are irreplaceable components of life. Tracking the fate of calcium and phosphorus in organisms deserves high attention due to their relevance in bone metabolism and subsequently animal health. Indeed, bone serves as reservoir for calcium and phosphorus, whose formation and resorption follow specific molecular routes including hormones, receptors, and transcription factors. The objective of the study was to analyze the genetic variation of major components driving mineral utilization such as calcitonin receptor, calcium sensing receptor, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone receptor, osteopontin, stanniocalcin 1, RAF-type zinc finger domain containing 1 (TRAFD1), and vitamin D receptor...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Ai-Xiang Dong, Hai-Bo Xin, Zi-Jing Li, Hui Liu, Yan-Qiang Sun, Shuai Nie, Zheng-Nan Zhao, Rong-Feng Cui, Ren-Gang Zhang, Quan-Zheng Yun, Xin-Ning Wang, Fatemeh Maghuly, Ilga Porth, Ri-Chen Cong, Jian-Feng Mao
Background: Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler, scarlet or tropical sage, is a tender herbaceous perennial widely introduced and seen in public gardens all over the world. With few molecular resources, breeding is still restricted to traditional phenotypic selection, and the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation still remain unknown. Hence, a high quality reference genome will be very valuable for marker assisted breeding, genome editing or molecular genetics. Findings: We generated 66 gigabases (Gb) and 37 Gb of raw DNA sequences, respectively, from whole-genome sequencing of a largely homozygous scarlet sage inbred line using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) and Illumina HiSeq sequencing platforms...
June 19, 2018: GigaScience
Z Yang, H M Yang, D Q Gong, S P Rose, V Pirgozliev, X S Chen, Z Y Wang
Dietary methionine (Met) restriction produces a coordinated series of transcriptional responses in the liver that limits growth performance and amino acid metabolism. Methyl donor supplementation with betaine (Bet) may protect against this disturbance and affect the molecular basis of gene regulation. However, a lack of genetic information remains an obstacle to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between Met and Bet supplementation and its effects on genetic mechanisms. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of dietary supplementation of Met and Bet on growth performance, transcriptomic gene expression, and epigenetic mechanisms in geese on a Met-deficient diet...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Richard T Waldron, Hsin-Yuan Su, Honit Piplani, Joseph Capri, Whitaker Cohn, Julian P Whitelegge, Kym F Faull, Sugunadevi Sakkiah, Ravinder Abrol, Wei Yang, Bo Zhou, Michael R Freeman, Stephen J Pandol, Aurelia Lugea
Background & Aims: Heavy alcohol drinking is associated with pancreatitis, whereas moderate intake lowers the risk. Mice fed ethanol long term show no pancreas damage unless adaptive/protective responses mediating proteostasis are disrupted. Pancreatic acini synthesize digestive enzymes (largely serine hydrolases) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where perturbations (eg, alcohol consumption) activate adaptive unfolded protein responses orchestrated by spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1)...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Buket Cakmak Guner, Elif Karlik, Sevgi Marakli, Nermin Gozukirmizi
Mobile genetic elements classed as transposons comprise an estimated 45% of the human genome, and 8% of these elements are human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). Endogenous retroviruses are retrotransposons, containing 5' and 3' long terminal repeat sequences and encoding envelope, group-specific antigen and DNA polymerase proteins. The aim of the present study was to analyse genome integration polymorphisms of HERV type K member 6 (HERV-K6) and HERV-K11 by using the retrotransposon based molecular marker technique, inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP)...
July 2018: Biomedical Reports
Gokhan Yildiz
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and the third-leading cause of malignancy-associated mortality worldwide. HCC cells are highly resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, there are currently only two US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs available for the treatment of HCC. The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of previously published high-throughput drug screening, and in vitro genomic and transcriptomic data from HCC cell lines, and to integrate the obtained results to define the underlying molecular mechanisms of drug sensitivity and resistance in HCC cells...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
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