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Molecular genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527409/molecular-characterization-of-pigeon-torque-teno-virus-pttv-in-jiangsu-province
#1
Zhicheng Zhang, Wei Dai, Dingzhen Dai
The torque teno virus (TTV) is a recently discovered DNA virus that has been detected in many different hosts, including humans, livestock and poultry. To date, there is no report of pigeon TTV (PTTV) from anywhere in the world. To investigate the distribution of PTTV in pigeons from the eastern Chinese province of Jiangsu and characterize their genomes, we employed PCR to detect PTTV in 144 samples collected from 6 pigeon plants in Jiangsu province, amplify complete genomes from representative samples and analyze genetic characteristics using bioinformatics...
May 6, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527289/-characterization-of-patients-with-skeletal-genetic-diseases-in-a-colombian-referral-center
#2
Harvy Mauricio Velasco, Lina Patricia Buelvas
INTRODUCTION: Short height in Colombia has an estimated prevalence of 10%. The 2009 Nosology and Classification of Skeletal Genetic Diseases described 456 clinical conditions using biochemical, molecular and radiological criteria for diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To analyze demographic, epidemiological and clinical variables in a group of patients with skeletal genetic diseases referred to the Instituto de Ortopedia Infantil Roosevelt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients referred between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed filtering 167 diagnoses of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD 10), related to skeletal genetic diseases...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527252/-characterization-of-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-hiv-positive-individuals-in-colombia-2012
#3
Claudia Castro, Alba Ricardo, Angie Zabaleta, Claudia Llerena, Gloria Puerto
INTRODUCTION: One third of the increase in tuberculosis cases is attributed to the spread of HIV. In 2012, 1,397 HIV-associated tuberculosis cases were reported in Colombia, i.e., 11.8% of the total cases. Molecular epidemiology tools help to understand the transmission of tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from HIV-infected individuals, received at the Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia in the Instituto Nacional de Salud...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527245/-description-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-detected-by-genotype%C3%A2-mtbdrplus-v-2-in-colombia
#4
Claudia Llerena, Raquel Medina
INTRODUCTION: The GenoType®MTBDRplusV.2 assay is a molecular technique endorsed by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization that allows for the identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the detection of mutations in the rpoβ gene for rifampicin resistance, and katG and inhA genes for isoniazid resistance. Due to the genetic variability in the circulating strains around the world, the national tuberculosis control programs should assess the performance of these new diagnostic technologies and their use under program conditions as rapid tests...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527004/comparative-volumetric-analysis-of-the-extent-of-resection-of-molecularly-and-histologically-distinct-low-grade-gliomas-and-its-role-on-survival
#5
Chikezie I Eseonu, Francisco Eguia, Karim ReFaey, Oscar Garcia, Fausto J Rodriguez, Kaisorn Chaichana, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
The authors investigate the role of extent of resection (EOR) and genetic markers on patient outcome and survival for LGGs. We conducted a retrospective cohort between 2005 and 2015, of 109 adult patients who underwent surgery for a LGG by a single surgeon. Volumetric computations of MRI studies were conducted to evaluate the EOR, and genetic markers (IDH1, 1p/19q co-deletion, and p53) were assessed and their effects on survival and neurological outcome were evaluated. The median EOR was 88.1%. Permanent postoperative neurological deficits were seen in 4...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526937/molecular-confirmation-of-intraspecific-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-hybrids-and-their-evaluation-against-late-blight-and-cucumber-mosaic-virus
#6
Amjad Hameed, Muhammad Yussouf Saleem, Khalid Pervaiz Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib, Qumer Iqbal, Muhammad Asghar
Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world. Diseases are the number one concern in the development of high-yield and disease-resistant tomato hybrids which is the foremost priority of breeders. Present study was conducted (1) to develop DNA-based markers for genetic confirmation of tomato F1 hybrids, (2) to utilize sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker linked to the Ph-3 gene for Phytophthora infestans resistance in tomato and (3) to evaluate male and female parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids against late blight (LB) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526922/advances-in-systemic-therapy-for-metastatic-breast-cancer-future-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
S P Corona, N Sobhani, A Ianza, G Roviello, G Mustacchi, M Bortul, F Zanconati, D Generali
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women worldwide. One in eight women will develop the disease in her lifetime. Notwithstanding the incredible progress made in this field, BC still represents the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women. Targeted drugs have revolutionised breast cancer treatment and improved the prognosis as well as the life expectancy of millions of women. However, the phenomenon of primary and secondary pharmacological resistance is becoming increasingly evident, limiting the efficacy of these agents and calling for a better in-depth knowledge and understanding of the biology as well as the biochemical crosstalk underlying the disease...
July 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526855/gut-homeostasis-and-regulatory-t-cell-induction-depend-on-molecular-chaperone-gp96-in-cd11c-cells
#8
Yunpeng Hua, Yi Yang, Shaoli Sun, Stephen Iwanowycz, Caroline Westwater, Boris Reizis, Zihai Li, Bei Liu
The intestinal immunity and tolerance are orchestrated by both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Intestinal professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) recognize and respond to the gut microbiota through multiple pattern-recognition receptors, including TLRs and NLRs. How gut pAPCs maintain mucosal homeostasis remains incompletely understood. Heat shock protein gp96, also known as grp94, is an essential immune chaperone for TLRs. However, the role of gp96 in regulating CD11c(+) APCs in the gut immunity and tolerance is unknown...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526731/validated-bayesian-differentiation-of-causative-and-passenger-mutations
#9
Frederick R Cross, Michal Breker, Kristi Lieberman
In many contexts, the problem arises of determining which of many candidate mutations is the most likely to be causative for some phenotype. It is desirable to have a way to evaluate this probability that relies as little as possible on previous knowledge, to avoid bias against discovering new genes or functions. We are isolating mutants with blocked cell cycle progression in Chlamydomonas, and determining mutant genome sequences. Due to the intensity of UV mutagenesis required for efficient mutant collection, the mutants contain multiple mutations altering coding sequence...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526728/genetic-subtraction-profiling-identifies-candidate-mirnas-involved-in-rice-female-gametophyte-abortion
#10
Liyu Yang, Ya Wu, Wenliang Wang, Bigang Mao, Bingran Zhao, Jianbo Wang
Female gametophyte is an important participant in sexual reproduction of plants. The molecular mechanism of its development has received much attention in recent years. As important regulators of gene expression, miRNAs have been certified to play a significant role in many biological processes of plants including sexual reproduction. In this study, to investigate the potential regulatory effects of miRNAs on rice female gametophytes abortion, we used the high-throughput sequencing method to compare the miRNA transcriptome in ovules of a high frequency female-sterile line (fsv1) and a rice wild-type line (Gui 99) during ovule development...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526692/understanding-the-interrelationship-between-the-synthesis-of-urea-and-gluconeogenesis-by-formulating-an-overall-balanced-equation
#11
Piero L Ipata, Rossana Pesi
It is well known that a strong metabolic interrelationship exists between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. In this paper, we present a detailed, overall equation, describing a possible metabolic link between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. We adopted a guided approach in which we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall equation of a metabolic pathway, carefully account for all atoms and charges of the single reactions, as well as the cellular localizations of the substrates, and the related transport systems...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526554/the-roles-of-orexins-in-sleep-wake-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Michihiro Mieda
Orexin A and orexin B are hypothalamic neuropeptides initially identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A deficiency of orexin signaling results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy-cataplexy in humans, dogs, and rodents, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Multiple approaches, including molecular genetic, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical studies have suggested that orexins play critical roles in the maintenance of wakefulness by regulating the function of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons that are implicated in the regulation of wakefulness...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526291/direct-radiocarbon-dating-and-dna-analysis-of-the-darra-i-kur-afghanistan-human-temporal-bone
#13
Katerina Douka, Viviane Slon, Chris Stringer, Richard Potts, Alexander Hübner, Matthias Meyer, Fred Spoor, Svante Pääbo, Tom Higham
The temporal bone discovered in the 1960s from the Darra-i-Kur cave in Afghanistan is often cited as one of the very few Pleistocene human fossils from Central Asia. Here we report the first direct radiocarbon date for the specimen and the genetic analyses of DNA extracted and sequenced from two areas of the bone. The new radiocarbon determination places the find to ∼4500 cal BP (∼2500 BCE) contradicting an assumed Palaeolithic age of ∼30,000 years, as originally suggested. The DNA retrieved from the specimen originates from a male individual who carried mitochondrial DNA of the modern human type...
June 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526137/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-autoimmunity-and-lupus-nephritis
#14
S K Devarapu, G Lorenz, O P Kulkarni, H-J Anders, S R Mulay
Autoimmunity involves immune responses directed against self, which are a result of defective self/foreign distinction of the immune system, leading to proliferation of self-reactive lymphocytes, and is characterized by systemic, as well as tissue-specific, inflammation. Numerous mechanisms operate to ensure the immune tolerance to self-antigens. However, monogenetic defects or genetic variants that weaken immune tolerance render susceptibility to the loss of immune tolerance, which is further triggered by environmental factors...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526096/pvgama-reticulocyte-binding-activity-predicting-conserved-functional-regions-by-natural-selection-analysis
#15
Luis A Baquero, Darwin A Moreno-Pérez, Diego Garzón-Ospina, Johanna Forero-Rodríguez, Heidy D Ortiz-Suárez, Manuel A Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Adhesin proteins are used by Plasmodium parasites to bind and invade target cells. Hence, characterising molecules that participate in reticulocyte interaction is key to understanding the molecular basis of Plasmodium vivax invasion. This study focused on predicting functionally restricted regions of the P. vivax GPI-anchored micronemal antigen (PvGAMA) and characterising their reticulocyte binding activity. RESULTS: The pvgama gene was initially found in P...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526081/comprehensive-detection-of-germline-variants-by-msk-impact-a-clinical-diagnostic-platform-for-solid-tumor-molecular-oncology-and-concurrent-cancer-predisposition-testing
#16
Donavan T Cheng, Meera Prasad, Yvonne Chekaluk, Ryma Benayed, Justyna Sadowska, Ahmet Zehir, Aijazuddin Syed, Yan Elsa Wang, Joshua Somar, Yirong Li, Zarina Yelskaya, Donna Wong, Mark E Robson, Kenneth Offit, Michael F Berger, Khedoudja Nafa, Marc Ladanyi, Liying Zhang
BACKGROUND: The growing number of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) tests is transforming the routine clinical diagnosis of hereditary cancers. Identifying whether a cancer is the result of an underlying disease-causing mutation in a cancer predisposition gene is not only diagnostic for a cancer predisposition syndrome, but also has significant clinical implications in the clinical management of patients and their families. METHODS: Here, we evaluated the performance of MSK-IMPACT (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) in detecting genetic alterations in 76 genes implicated in cancer predisposition syndromes...
May 19, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525880/differential-sulphur-assimilation-mechanism-regulates-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-natural-variation-towards-arsenic-stress-under-limiting-sulphur-condition
#17
Ria Khare, Smita Kumar, Tapsi Shukla, Avriti Ranjan, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element, which imposes threat to crops productivity and human health through contaminated food chain. As a part of detoxification mechanism, As is chelated and sequestered into the vacuoles via sulphur containing compounds glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). Under limiting sulphur (LS) conditions, exposure of As leads to enhanced toxic effects in plants. Therefore, it is a prerequisite to understand molecular mechanisms involved in As stress response under sulphur deficiency conditions in plants...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525661/comparison-between-mononucleotide-and-dinucleotide-marker-panels-in-gastric-cancer-with-loss-of-hmlh1-or-hmsh2-expression
#18
Jeong Goo Kim, Soyoung Shin, Joonhong Park
BACKGROUND: DNA mismatch repair deficiency is an important molecular mechanism of genetic instability in gastric cancer, and a high instability at microsatellites is associated with favorable prognosis. We compared mononucleotide and dinucleotide microsatellite instability (MSI) marker panels in 56 paired gastric tumor and normal samples. METHODS: The mononucleotide marker panel (mono panel) consisted of 8 markers: BAT25, BAT26, BAT40, BAT-RII, NR21, NR22, NR24 and NR27...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525660/polymorphism-of-mitochondrial-dna-in-the-brazilian-canind%C3%A3-goat-breed
#19
N M V Silva, E C Pimenta Filho, J K G Arandas, M A Gomes Filho, E Ferreira, I Del Cerro, C Fonseca, M N Ribeiro
The success of the geographical distribution of goat populations around the world is a consequence of the adaptive potential of these breeds. Several relevant traits to the success of the species in colonizing different ecosystems (and use by man) evolved before domestication. These features were relevant for the selection of different breeds. Each breed represents a genetic heritage that may be unique and essential for maintaining the species. The objective of this study was to catalog the mtDNA haplotypes of the Brazilian autochthonous Canindé goat breed and to characterize the genetic diversity observed in subpopulations by sequencing a 481-bp fragment corresponding to the first portion of the control region in 178 individuals from 10 herds, sampled in six Brazilian states...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525659/genetic-variability-in-jatropha-curcas-l-from-diallel-crossing
#20
D O Ribeiro, R Silva-Mann, S V Alvares-Carvalho, E M S Souza, M C Vasconcelos, A F Blank
Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) presents high oilseed yield and low production cost. However, technical-scientific knowledge on this crop is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate and estimate the genetic variability of hybrids obtained from dialell crossing. Genetic variability was carried out using ISSR molecular markers. For genetic variability, nine primers were used, and six were selected with 80.7% polymorphism. Genetic similarity was obtained using the NTSYS pc. 2.1 software, and cluster analysis was obtained by the UPGMA method...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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