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Molecular genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454191/show-me-the-way-rust-effector-targets-in-heterologous-plant-systems
#1
REVIEW
Cécile Lorrain, Benjamin Petre, Sébastien Duplessis
For years, the study of rust fungal effectors has been impeded by the lack of molecular genetic tools in rust pathosystems. The recent use of heterologous plants to perform effector screens (effectoromics)-including effector localisation (cellular targets) and protein interactors (molecular targets) in plant cells-has changed the game. These screens revealed that many candidate effectors from various rust fungi target specific plant cell compartments, including chloroplasts, and associate with specific plant protein complexes...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454092/analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-16-e6-e7-genes-and-long-control-region-in-cervical-samples-from-uruguayan-women
#2
Viviana Ramas, Santiago Mirazo, Sylvia Bonilla, Dora Ruchansky, Juan Arbiza
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the HPV16 variant distribution by sequence analyses of E6, E7 oncogenes and the Long Control Region (LCR), from cervical cells collected from Uruguayan women, and to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among variants. METHODS: Forty-seven HPV16 variants, obtained from women with HSIL, LSIL, ASCUS and NILM cytological classes were analyzed for LCR and 12 were further studied for E6 and E7. Detailed sequence comparison, genetic heterogeneity analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction were performed...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454018/co-circulation-of-classic-and-novel-astrovirus-strains-in-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-germany
#3
Sonja Jacobsen, Marina Höhne, Andreas Mas Marques, Klara Beslmüller, C-Thomas Bock, Sandra Niendorf
OBJECTIVES: In order to analyze the molecular epidemiology of human astroviruses (HAstV) in Germany, a retrospective long term study was performed to characterize circulating human astrovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Germany. METHODS: A total of 2877 stool samples, collected between January 2010 and December 2015 from sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis were retrospectively analyzed for astrovirus. A two step PCR algorithm was developed and used to identify and characterize human astrovirus infections...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453864/-lpcat1-controls-phosphate-homeostasis-in-a-zinc-dependent-manner
#4
Mushtak Kisko, Nadia Bouain, Alaeddine Safi, Anna Medici, Robert C Akkers, David Secco, Gilles Fouret, Gabriel Krouk, Mark Gm Aarts, Wolfgang Busch, Hatem Rouached
All living organisms require a variety of essential elements for their basic biological functions. While the homeostasis of nutrients is highly intertwined, the molecular and genetic mechanisms of these dependencies remains poorly understood. Here, we report a discovery of a molecular pathway that control phosphate (Pi) accumulation plants in Zn deficiency. Using genome-wide association studies we first identified allelic variation of the Lyso-PhosphatidylCholine (PC) AcylTransferase 1 ( LPCAT1 ) gene as the key determinant of shoot Pi accumulation under Zn deficiency...
February 17, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453862/insights-into-transcriptional-silencing-and-anti-silencing-in-shigella-flexneri-a-detailed-molecular-analysis-of-the-icsp-virulence-locus
#5
Natasha Weatherspoon-Griffin, Michael A Picker, Krystle L Pew, Hiromichi S Park, Daren Ginete, Monika M Karney, Pashtana Usufzy, Maria I Castellanos, Juan Carlos Duhart, Dustin J Harrison, Jillian N Socea, Alexander D Karabachev, Christopher T Hensley, Amber J Howerton, Rosa Ojeda-Daulo, Joy A Immak, Helen J Wing
Transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing mechanisms modulate bacterial physiology and virulence in many human pathogens. In Shigella species, many virulence plasmid genes are silenced by the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS and anti-silenced by the virulence gene regulator VirB. Despite the key role that these regulatory proteins play in Shigella virulence, their mechanisms of transcriptional control remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the regulatory elements and their relative spacing requirements needed for the transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing of icsP, a locus that requires remotely located regulatory elements for both types of transcriptional control...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453822/full-genome-sequencing-of-porcine-circovirus-3-field-strains-from-denmark-italy-and-spain-demonstrates-a-high-within-europe-genetic-heterogeneity
#6
G Franzo, M Legnardi, C K Hjulsager, F Klaumann, L E Larsen, J Segales, M Drigo
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a new species of the Circovirus genus, which has recently been associated with different clinical syndromes. Its presence has been reported in different countries of North and South America, Asia and recently also Europe (Poland). However, different from the other continents, no European PCV3 sequence is currently available in public databases. There is a strong need of epidemiological data and full-genome sequences from Europe because of its relevance in the understanding of PCV3 molecular epidemiology and control...
February 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453665/klaus-apel-1942-2017-a-pioneer-of-photosynthesis-research
#7
Jean-David Rochaix, Chanhong Kim, Wiebke Apel
We present here a Tribute to Klaus Apel (1942-2017), a photosynthesis pioneer-an authority on plant molecular genetics-in five parts. The first section is a prologue. The second section deals with a chronological discussion of Apel's research life, prepared by the editor Govindjee; it is based on a website article at the Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) by Patricia Waldron ( https://btiscience.org/explore-bti/news/post/bti-says-goodbye-klaus-apel/ ), as approved for use here by Keith C. Hannon and David Stern of BTI...
February 16, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453634/comparison-of-serological-and-molecular-typing-methods-for-epidemiological-investigation-of-tenacibaculum-species-pathogenic-for-fish
#8
Clara Fernández-Álvarez, Yolanda Torres-Corral, Ysabel Santos
In the present study, the potential of serological methods, the repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) for the typing of the species Tenacibaculum maritimum, Tenacibaculum soleae and Tenacibaculum discolor was evaluated. Moreover, molecular and proteomic techniques were used to assess variability among strains belonging to different serotypes, as well as isolated from different host species and geographical areas. Slide agglutination and dot-blot assays demonstrated the lack of immunological relationships among Tenacibaculum species analyzed...
February 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453526/characterization-of-pm59-a-novel-powdery-mildew-resistance-gene-in-afghanistan-wheat-landrace-pi-181356
#9
Chengcheng Tan, Genqiao Li, Christina Cowger, Brett F Carver, Xiangyang Xu
A new powdery mildew resistance gene, designated Pm59, was identified in Afghanistan wheat landrace PI 181356, and mapped in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is an important foliar disease of wheat worldwide. In the Great Plains of the USA, Bgt isolates virulent to widely used powdery mildew resistance genes, such as Pm3a, were previously identified. The objectives of this study were to characterize the powdery mildew resistance gene in Afghanistan landrace PI 181356, which exhibited high resistance to Bgt isolates collected in southern Great Plains, and identify molecular markers for marker-assisted selection...
February 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453499/screening-for-gene-environment-g%C3%A3-e-interaction-using-omics-data-from-exposed-individuals-an-application-to-gene-arsenic-interaction
#10
Maria Argos, Lin Tong, Shantanu Roy, Mekala Sabarinathan, Alauddin Ahmed, Md Tariqul Islam, Tariqul Islam, Muhammad Rakibuz-Zaman, Golam Sarwar, Hasan Shahriar, Mahfuzar Rahman, Md Yunus, Joseph H Graziano, Farzana Jasmine, Muhammad G Kibriya, Xiang Zhou, Habibul Ahsan, Brandon L Pierce
Identifying gene-environment interactions is a central challenge in the quest to understand susceptibility to complex, multi-factorial diseases. Developing an understanding of how inter-individual variability in inherited genetic variation alters the effects of environmental exposures will enhance our knowledge of disease mechanisms and improve our ability to predict disease and target interventions to high-risk sub-populations. Limited progress has been made identifying gene-environment interactions in the epidemiological setting using existing statistical approaches for genome-wide searches for interaction...
February 16, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453446/environmental-genetic-and-epigenetic-contributions-to-cocaine-addiction
#11
REVIEW
R Christopher Pierce, Bruno Fant, Sarah E Swinford-Jackson, Elizabeth A Heller, Wade H Berrettini, Mathieu E Wimmer
Decades of research on cocaine has produced volumes of data that have answered many important questions about the nature of this highly addictive drug. Sadly, none of this information has translated into the development of effective therapies for the treatment of cocaine addiction. This review endeavors to assess the current state of cocaine research in an attempt to identify novel pathways for therapeutic development. For example, risk of cocaine addiction is highly heritable but genome-wide analyses comparing cocaine-dependent individuals to controls have not resulted in promising targets for drug development...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453418/periodic-reanalysis-of-whole-genome-sequencing-data-enhances-the-diagnostic-advantage-over-standard-clinical-genetic-testing
#12
Gregory Costain, Rebekah Jobling, Susan Walker, Miriam S Reuter, Meaghan Snell, Sarah Bowdin, Ronald D Cohn, Lucie Dupuis, Stacy Hewson, Saadet Mercimek-Andrews, Cheryl Shuman, Neal Sondheimer, Rosanna Weksberg, Grace Yoon, M Stephen Meyn, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Stephen W Scherer, Roberto Mendoza-Londono, Christian R Marshall
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a first-tier diagnostic test could transform medical genetic assessments, but there are limited data regarding its clinical use. We previously showed that WGS could feasibly be deployed as a single molecular test capable of a higher diagnostic rate than current practices, in a prospectively recruited cohort of 100 children meeting criteria for chromosomal microarray analysis. In this study, we report on the added diagnostic yield with re-annotation and reanalysis of these WGS data ~2 years later...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453416/homozygous-deletion-in-myl9-expands-the-molecular-basis-of-megacystis-microcolon-intestinal-hypoperistalsis-syndrome
#13
Carolina Araujo Moreno, Nara Sobreira, Elizabeth Pugh, Peng Zhang, Gary Steel, Fábio Rossi Torres, Denise Pontes Cavalcanti
Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a severe disease characterized by functional obstruction in the urinary and gastrointestinal tract. The molecular basis of this condition started to be defined recently, and the genes related to the syndrome (ACTG2-heterozygous variant in sporadic cases; and MYH11 (myosin heavy chain 11), LMOD1 (leiomodin 1) and MYLK (myosin light chain (MLC) kinase)-autosomal recessive inheritance), encode proteins involved in the smooth muscle contraction, supporting a myopathic basis for the disease...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453314/ar-expression-in-breast-cancer-ctcs-associates-with-bone-metastases
#14
Nicola Aceto, Aditya Bardia, Ben S Wittner, Maria C Donaldson, Ryan O'Keefe, Amanda Engstrom, Francesca Bersani, Yu Zheng, Valentine Comaills, Kira Niederhoffer, Huili Zhu, Olivia MacKenzie, Toshi Shioda, Dennis Sgroi, Ravi Kapur, David T Ting, Beverly Moy, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Mehmet Toner, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
Molecular drivers underlying bone metastases in human cancer are not well understood, in part due to constraints in bone tissue sampling. Here, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from blood samples of women with metastatic estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancer, comparing cases with progression in bone versus visceral organs. Among the activated cellular pathways in CTCs from bone-predominant breast cancer is androgen receptor (AR) signaling. AR gene expression is evident, as is its constitutively active splice variant AR-v7...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453109/genetic-basis-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-and-other-diabetic-complications
#15
REVIEW
Niina Sandholm, Per-Henrik Groop
Diabetic kidney disease and other long-term complications are common in diabetes, and comprise the main cause of co-morbidity and premature mortality in individuals with diabetes. While familial clustering and heritability have been reported for all diabetic complications, the genetic background and the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In recent years, genome-wide association studies have identified a few susceptibility loci for the renal complications as well as for diabetic retinopathy, diabetic cardiovascular disease and mortality...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452635/the-circulating-protease-persephone-is-an-immune-sensor-for-microbial-proteolytic-activities-upstream-of-the-drosophila-toll-pathway
#16
Najwa Issa, Nina Guillaumot, Emilie Lauret, Nicolas Matt, Christine Schaeffer-Reiss, Alain Van Dorsselaer, Jean-Marc Reichhart, Florian Veillard
Microbial or endogenous molecular patterns as well as pathogen functional features can activate innate immune systems. Whereas detection of infection by pattern recognition receptors has been investigated in details, sensing of virulence factors activities remains less characterized. In Drosophila, genetic evidences indicate that the serine protease Persephone belongs to a danger pathway activated by abnormal proteolytic activities to induce Toll signaling. However, neither the activation mechanism of this pathway nor its specificity has been determined...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452455/complex-hur-function-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan R Brody, Dan A Dixon
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with dismal patient outcomes. The underlying core genetic drivers of disease have been identified in human tumor specimens and described in genetically engineered mouse models. These genetic drivers of PDAC include KRAS signaling, TP53 mutations, and genetic loss of the SMAD4 tumor suppressor protein. Beyond the known mutational landscape of PDAC genomes, alternative disrupted targets that extend beyond conventional genetic mutations have been elusive and understudied in the context of PDAC cell therapeutic resistance and survival...
February 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452198/microbial-infection-pattern-pathogenic-features-and-resistance-mechanism-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-during-long-term-hospitalization
#18
Shuxian Wen, Donghua Feng, Zerong Lu, Junyan Liu, Brian M Peters, Hailing Tang, Danhong Su, Yong-Ping Lin, Ling Yang, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff, Dingqiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have become an important cause of nosocomial infections of hospitalized patients. METHODS: To investigate the microbial infection patterns and molecular epidemiology characteristics of the carbapenem-resistant GNB isolates from a long-term hospitalized patient, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotypic screening test for carbapenemase production, PCR screening and DNA sequencing of carbapenemase genes, repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR), multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and genetic environment analysis were performed...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452156/establishment-of-a-prkag2-cardiac-syndrome-disease-model-and-mechanism-study-using-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Yongkun Zhan, Xiaolei Sun, Bin Li, Huanhuan Cai, Chen Xu, Qianqian Liang, Chao Lu, Ruizhe Qian, Sifeng Chen, Lianhua Yin, Wei Sheng, Guoying Huang, Aijun Sun, Junbo Ge, Ning Sun
PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome is a distinct form of human cardiomyopathy characterized by cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular pre-excitation and progressive cardiac conduction disorder. However, it remains unclear how mutations in the PRKAG2 gene give rise to such a complicated disease. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we generated disease-specific hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from two brothers both carrying a heterozygous missense mutation c.905G>A (R302Q) in the PRKAG2 gene and further corrected the R302Q mutation with CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452030/comparative-phylogenetic-and-expression-analysis-of-small-gtpases-families-in-legume-and-non-legume-plants
#20
Ana Claudia Flores, Virginia Dalla Via, Virginia Savy, Ulises Mancini Villagra, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Blanco
BACKGROUND: Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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