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organophosphorus poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043864/a-simple-and-highly-effective-catalytic-nanozyme-scavenger-for-organophosphorus-neurotoxins
#1
Elena N Efremenko, Ilya V Lyagin, Natalia L Klyachko, Tatiana Bronich, Natalia V Zavyalova, Yuhang Jiang, Alexander V Kabanov
A simple and highly efficient catalytic scavenger of poisonous organophosphorus compounds, based on organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1), is produced in aqueous solution by electrostatic coupling of the hexahistidine tagged OPH (His6-OPH) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) diblock copolymer. The resulting polyion complex, termed nano-OPH, has a spherical morphology and a diameter from 25nm to 100nm. Incorporation of His6-OPH in nano-OPH preserves catalytic activity and increases stability of the enzyme allowing its storage in aqueous solution for over a year...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990599/the-effect-of-sodium-fluoride-formaldehyde-and-storage-temperature-on-the-stability-of-methamidophos-in-post-mortem-blood-and-liver
#2
Zhiwen Wei, Qing Niu, Fan Zhang, Kun Xiao, Ling Liu, Yujin Wang, Juan Jia, Jie Cao, Shanlin Fu, Keming Yun
Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos makes up a significant portion of forensic identification cases in China. Stability of methamidophos during specimen storage remains largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the long-term stability of methamidophos in postmortem specimens. Three experimental dogs after oral administration of methamidophos were sacrificed, and blood and liver specimens were collected and stored at various conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to measure the methamidophos concentrations after 0, 4, 7, 12, 16, 60, and 180 days of storage...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942054/effect-of-melatonin-on-duration-of-delirium-in-organophosphorus-compound-poisoning-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
H N Vijayakumar, K Ramya, Devika Rani Duggappa, Km Veeranna Gowda, K Sudheesh, S S Nethra, R S Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Organophosphate compound poisoning (OPCP) is associated with high incidence of delirium. Melatonin has been tried in the treatment of delirium and has shown a beneficial effect in OPCP. This study was conducted to know the effect of melatonin on duration of delirium and recovery profile in OPCP patients. METHODS: Double-blind randomised placebo control trial in which 56 patients of OPCP confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged >18 years and weighing between 50 and 100 kg, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of <20 were studied...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885794/a-beekeepers-perspective-on-the-neonicotinoid-ban
#4
REVIEW
Norman L Carreck
Bees and agrochemicals have a long history. For example the first volume of IBRA's journal Bee World in 1919 contains mention of poisoning of bees by spraying an orchard with lead arsenate. Being insects, it is self-evident that the use of insecticides to control crop pests poses a risk to bees. Bee poisoning incidents became a very serious problem in the 1960s and 1970s with spraying of, in particular, oilseed rape with organophosphorus compounds. The introduction of carbamates and then especially synthetic pyrethroids reduced these problems...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829717/pseudocholinesterase-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-organophosphorus-poisoning
#5
Pradeepkumar Hiremath, Pradeep Rangappa, Ipe Jacob, Karthik Rao
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem in India. Mortality rate remains high at 15%-30%. AIMS: This prospective, observational study examines the relationship between pseudocholinesterase (PChE) activity and morbidity and mortality in OP poisoning. SETTING AND DESIGN: OP poisoning cases admitted to a tertiary care center Intensive Care Unit (ICU) over 5 years from 2010 to 2014 were studied...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728614/a-rare-neurological-complication-of-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning
#6
K Nikhitha, P Sudhakar, V Blessy Manohar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728597/a-study-on-predicting-outcome-in-organophosphorus-poisoning-with-poison-severity-score-glasgow-coma-scale
#7
Abhinandya Mukhopadhyay, B K Singh, P K Sinha, K K Yadav
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728579/understanding-of-organophosphorus-poisoning
#8
Sharad Saxena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727868/study-of-blood-sugar-level-as-a-prognostic-indicator-in-organophosphorus-compound-poisoning
#9
Namita Mohanty, Suvendu Sekhar Acharya, Muneer Re, Shashi Bhusan Sutar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727867/a-study-on-serum-amylase-levels-in-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning
#10
Bhogi Bhogi, M Madhusudhana Babu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722929/pesticides-an-update-of-human-exposure-and-toxicity
#11
REVIEW
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693733/pyridoxal-oxime-derivative-potency-to-reactivate-cholinesterases-inhibited-by-organophosphorus-compounds
#12
Valentina Bušić, Maja Katalinić, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik, Dajana Gašo-Sokač
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (sarin, tabun VX and soman) inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) by binding to its active site while preventing neurotransmission in the cholinergic synapses. The protection and treatment of this kind of poisoning are still a challenge as we are yet to discover an antidote that would be effective in all cases of poisoning. To aid the search for more efficient antidotes, we evaluated the ability of nine pyridoxal oxime derivatives, prepared by a novel synthetic pathway, to reactivate recombinant human AChE and the related purified human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688820/interrelation-of-glycemic-status-and-neuropsychiatric-disturbances-in-farmers-with-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity
#13
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514423/-analysis-on-influencing-factors-of-prognosis-of-patients-with-acute-organophosphorus-pesticide-poisoning
#14
C F Guo, Y Wang, J H Liu, P Shen, H Wang, Y J Wei, X F Shi, X J Zhou, W W Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between risk factors and prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). METHODS: The clinical data including APACHEⅡ, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactic acid of the 67 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning which respectively divided into survival group and death group by the outcome were collected. The independent influcing factors were got by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The analysis showed that APACHEⅡ, D-dimer、C-reactive protein and Procalcitonin were influencing factors to evaluate prognosis of AOPP (P<0...
May 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514422/-a-case-report-of-hands-tremor-caused-by-organophosphorus-and-cypermethrin-mixed-pesticide-poisoning
#15
G R Guo, X D Jian, G C Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490696/modification-of-human-serum-albumin-by-the-nerve-agent-vx-microbore-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-high-resolution-time-of-flight-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-detection-of-phosphonylated-tyrosine-and-novel-cysteine-containing-disulfide
#16
Andreas Kranawetvogl, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Harald John
RATIONALE: Organophosphorus nerve agents still constitute a considerable threat to the health of military personnel and the civilian population. Long-term biomarkers are crucial for reliable verification of exposure to banned substances. Therefore, current research focuses on identification of endogenous protein targets showing covalent modifications by organophosphorus nerve agents (adducts). METHODS: Purified human serum albumin and human plasma were incubated with the nerve agent VX followed by enzymatic proteolysis with pronase...
October 15, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441453/novel-approaches-to-mitigating-parathion-toxicity-targeting-cytochrome-p450-mediated-metabolism-with-menadione
#17
Yi-Hua Jan, Jason R Richardson, Angela A Baker, Vladimir Mishin, Diane E Heck, Debra L Laskin, Jeffrey D Laskin
Accidental or intentional exposures to parathion, an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, can cause severe poisoning in humans. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a highly poisonous nerve agent and potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. We have been investigating inhibitors of CYP-mediated bioactivation of OPs as a method of preventing or reversing progressive parathion toxicity. It is well recognized that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, an enzyme required for the transfer of electrons to CYPs, mediates chemical redox cycling...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418928/the-effect-of-parathion-on-red-blood-cell-acetylcholinesterase-in-the-wistar-rat
#18
Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B Bird
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397758/single-treatment-of-vx-poisoned-guinea-pigs-with-the-phosphotriesterase-mutant-c23al-intraosseous-versus-intravenous-injection
#19
Timo Wille, Katharina Neumaier, Marianne Koller, Christina Ehinger, Nidhi Aggarwal, Yacov Ashani, Moshe Goldsmith, Joel L Sussman, Dan S Tawfik, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek
The recent attacks with the nerve agent sarin in Syria reveal the necessity of effective countermeasures against highly toxic organophosphorus compounds. Multiple studies provide evidence that a rapid onset of antidotal therapy might be life-saving but current standard antidotal protocols comprising reactivators and competitive muscarinic antagonists show a limited efficacy for several nerve agents. We here set out to test the newly developed phosphotriesterase (PTE) mutant C23AL by intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i...
September 6, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333452/a-systematic-review-on-human-exposure-to-organophosphorus-pesticides-in-iran
#20
Amir Shadboorestan, Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mohammad Hadi Goharbari, Narges Khanjani
Human exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is a serious health challenge. We conducted a systematic review by searching international and national databases for published literature on any human exposure to OPs in Iran from 1990 to March, 2015. Qualified papers were in two categories including studies in which bio-markers of exposure were assessed (n = 13; total no. of subject = 759) and studies which had reported prevalence of OPs-induced poisoning (OPP) and mortality (n = 26; total no. of subject = 5428)...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
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