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organophosphorus poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669481/diagnostic-value-of-complete-blood-count-in-paraquat-and-organophosphorus-poisoning-patients
#1
Yahui Tang, Lufeng Hu, Guangliang Hong, Dahai Zhong, Jiaxing Song, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most extensively used tests in clinical practice. In order to determine the diagnostic value of the CBC in paraquat (PQ) and organophosphorus (OPPs) poisoning, the CBC indices of PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were investigated in this study. A total of 96 PQ poisoning patients, 90 OPPs poisoning patients, and 188 healthy subjects were included in this study. The PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were divided into different groups according to their clinical symptoms. All CBC indices were analyzed by Fisher discriminant, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), variance analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655422/aptamer-based-microcantilever-array-biosensor-for-profenofos-detection
#2
Chao Li, Guangping Zhang, Shangquan Wu, Qingchuan Zhang
Profenofos, a highly poisonous organophosphorus pesticide, has been widely used in agricultural production. These pesticide residues have seriously influenced food security and threatened human health, and new methods with high sensitivity are greatly needed to detect profenofos. Here, we developed an aptamer-based microcantilever-array sensor operated in stress mode to detect profenofos, with advantages of being a label-free, highly sensitive, one-step immobilization method capable of quantitative and real-time detection...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593539/optimization-of-cholinesterase-based-catalytic-bioscavengers-against-organophosphorus-agents
#3
Sofya V Lushchekina, Lawrence M Schopfer, Bella L Grigorenko, Alexander V Nemukhin, Sergei D Varfolomeev, Oksana Lockridge, Patrick Masson
Organophosphorus agents (OPs) are irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). OP poisoning causes major cholinergic syndrome. Current medical counter-measures mitigate the acute effects but have limited action against OP-induced brain damage. Bioscavengers are appealing alternative therapeutic approach because they neutralize OPs in bloodstream before they reach physiological targets. First generation bioscavengers are stoichiometric bioscavengers. However, stoichiometric neutralization requires administration of huge doses of enzyme...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565512/observation-and-analysis-of-clinical-efficacy-of-melatonin-on-aopp-induced-delirium-patients
#4
L-B Zhao, G-D Zhen, Y Zhang, Y-Y Pan, G-H Du, S-Z Zhou, Z-F Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of melatonin on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized control trial, a total of 59 AOPP patients with subsequent delirium were randomly divided into two groups, the melatonin group (n=29) and the placebo-controlled group (n=30). Patients in the melatonin group (n=29) underwent oral administration of melatonin in addition to the symptomatic treatment, while those in the placebo-controlled group took a placebo in addition to the symptomatic treatment...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563775/development-of-small-bisquaternary-cholinesterase-inhibitors-as-drugs-for-pre-treatment-of-nerve-agent-poisonings
#5
Kamil Kuca, Jana Zdarova Karasova, Ondrej Soukup, Jiri Kassa, Eva Novotna, Vendula Sepsova, Anna Horova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Martina Hrabinova, Eva Vodakova, Daniel Jun, Eugenie Nepovimova, Martin Valis, Kamil Musilek
Background: Intoxication by nerve agents could be prevented by using small acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (eg, pyridostigmine) for potentially exposed personnel. However, the serious side effects of currently used drugs led to research of novel potent molecules for prophylaxis of organophosphorus intoxication. Methods: The molecular design, molecular docking, chemical synthesis, in vitro methods (enzyme inhibition, cytotoxicity, and nicotinic receptors modulation), and in vivo methods (acute toxicity and prophylactic effect) were used to study bispyridinium, bisquinolinium, bisisoquinolinium, and pyridinium-quinolinium/isoquinolinium molecules presented in this study...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557685/magnesium-sulfate-and-calcium-channel-blocking-drugs-as-antidotes-for-acute-organophosphorus-insecticide-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Miran Brvar, Ming Yin Chan, Andrew H Dawson, Richard R Ribchester, Michael Eddleston
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of acute organophosphorus or carbamate insecticide self-poisoning is often ineffective, with tens of thousands of deaths occurring every year. Researchers have recommended the addition of magnesium sulfate or calcium channel blocking drugs to standard care to reduce acetylcholine release at cholinergic synapses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review systematically the evidence from preclinical studies in animals exposed to organophosphorus or carbamate insecticides concerning the efficacy of magnesium sulfate and calcium channel blocking drugs as therapy compared with placebo in reducing mortality or clinical features of poisoning...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553427/acute-poisoning-in-the-gaza-strip-a-retrospective-study
#7
Mohammed K El-Habil
BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem worldwide and a common cause of patient admissions to emergency departments and intensive care units. The aim of this study was to assess the acute poisoning cases admitted to three hospitals in the Gaza Strip and to assess the need for a poison control and drug information centre in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with acute poisoning between 2010 and 2015 at the emergency departments of Al-Shifa Hospital, European Gaza Hospital, and Al-Nassr Paediatric Hospital in the Gaza Strip were included in this retrospective study...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495174/-analysis-of-acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-ningbo-city-from-2011-to-2016
#8
X H Li, P B Leng, G C Mao, A H Wang
Objective: To analyze the characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Ningbo, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control strategy. Methods: In February 2017, the pesticide poisoning report card of Ningbo from 2011 to 2016 was drawn from the China Disease Control and prevention information system. The data of the report card was organized by Excel and analyzed by SPSS19.0 software. Results: 2593 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Ningbo from 2011 to 2016, 125 deaths, and the case fatality rate was 4...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471072/neuroreflex-control-of-cardiovascular-function-is-impaired-after-acute-poisoning-with-chlorpyrifos-an-organophosphorus-insecticide-possible-short-and-long-term-clinical-implications
#9
Alexandre F Cunha, Igor S A Felippe, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Leonardo B M Resstel, Daniela A M Guimarães, Vanessa Beijamini, Julian F R Paton, Karla N Sampaio
Although it is well-established that severe poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds strongly affects the cardiorespiratory system, the effects of sub-lethal exposure to these compounds on the neural control of cardiovascular function are poorly explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used OP insecticide, on three basic reflex mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation, the peripheral chemoreflex, the baroreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex...
February 19, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463125/salbutamol-in-acute-organophosphorus-insecticide-poisoning-a-pilotdose-response-phase-ii-study
#10
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Md Mustafezur Rahman, Parash Ullah, Abdul Mumith Ruhan, Md Shafiqul Bari, M M Jahangir Alam, Md Moyeen Uddin, Shomik Maruf, Md Ismail Patwary, Michael Eddleston
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute organophosphorus (OP) insecticide poisoning is difficult, with many patients dying despite best care. Pre-clinical studies have shown benefit from salbutamol, possibly due speeding alveolar fluid clearance or reducing bronchoconstriction. In this small pilot dose-response study, we aimed to explore whether addition of nebulized salbutamol to standard care might improve resuscitation. METHODS: We performed a single-blind phase II study comparing the effect of two different doses of nebulized salbutamol versus saline placebo, in addition to standard treatment...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434782/effects-of-il-10-on-ox62-mhc-ii-and-cd86-in-bone-marrow-dcs-in-rats-with-organophosphate-poisoning
#11
Ning Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Ronggang Jiang
This study investigated the effect of interleukin (IL)-10 on the expression of OX62, MHC-II and CD86 in bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) in rats with organophosphorus poisoning. Sixty adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group A) (20 rats), 20 rats with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (group B), 20 rats with organophosphorus poisoning, and IL-10 treated (group C). Group A was not treated with special treatment. Group B was treated with 4% omethoate by gavage to establish the model of organophosphate poisoning...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421945/cytotoxicity-of-acetylcholinesterase-reactivators-evaluated-in-vitro-and-its-relation-to-their-structure
#12
Lubica Muckova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Petr Jost, Nela Vanova, David Herman, Daniel Jun
The development of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, i.e., antidotes against organophosphorus poisoning, is an important goal of defense research. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity and chemical structure of five currently available oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, and asoxime) together with four perspective oximes from K-series (K027, K074, K075, and K203). The cytotoxicity of tested substances was measured using two methods - colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and impedance based real-time cytotoxicity assay - in three different cell lines (HepG2, ACHN, and NHLF)...
February 9, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388062/are-oximes-still-indicated-for-acute-organophosphorus-insecticide-self-poisoning
#13
EDITORIAL
Michael Eddleston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332594/in-vitro-and-in-silico-evaluation-of-non-quaternary-reactivators-of-ache-as-antidotes-of-organophosphorus-poisoning-a-new-hope-or-a-blind-alley
#14
Ondrej Soukup, Jan Korabecny, David Malinak, Eugenie Nepovimova, Ngoc L Pham, Kamil Musilek, Martina Hrabinova, Vendula Hepnarova, Rafael Dolezal, Petr Pavek, Petr Jost, Tereza Kobrlova, Jana Jankockova, Lukas Gorecki, Miroslav Psotka, Thuy D Nguyen, Karl Box, Breeze Outhwaite, Martina Ceckova, Ales Sorf, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, the concept of uncharged reactivators potentially able to penetrate the CNS has been introduced as an alternative to the classic charged oxime reactivators. However, this concept brings with it several associated drawbacks such as higher lipophilicity, difficulty in administration, lower affinity to cholinesterases, and higher toxicity risk. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compare data obtained for a set of five classic charged reactivators and a set of three recently published uncharged oximes supplemented by two novel ones...
2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313079/comprehensive-characterization-of-neurochemicals-in-three-zebrafish-chemical-models-of-human-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Cristian Gómez-Canela, Daniel Tornero-Cañadas, Eva Prats, Benjamí Piña, Romà Tauler, Demetrio Raldúa
There is a growing interest in biological models to investigate the effect of neurotransmitter dysregulation on the structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS) at different stages of development. Zebrafish, a vertebrate model increasingly used in neurobiology and neurotoxicology, shares the common neurotransmitter systems with mammals, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the multiresidue determination of neurotransmitters and related metabolites...
February 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298486/redox-controlled-fluorescent-nanoswitch-based-on-reversible-disulfide-and-its-application-in-butyrylcholinesterase-activity-assay
#16
Guilin Chen, Hui Feng, Xiaogan Jiang, Jing Xu, Saifei Pan, Zhaosheng Qian
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mainly contributing to plasma cholinesterase activity is an important indicator for routinely diagnosing liver function and organophosphorus poisoning in clinical diagnosis, but its current assays are scarce and frequently suffer from some significant interference and instability. Herein, we report a redox-controlled fluorescence nanoswtich based on reversible disulfide bonds, and further develop a fluorometric assay of BChE via thiol-triggered disaggregation-induced emission. Thiol-functionalized carbon quantum dots (thiol-CQDs) with intense fluorescence is found to be responsive to hydrogen peroxide, and their redox reaction transforms thiol-CQDs to nonfluorescent thiol-CQD assembly...
February 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294536/-a-dvance-on-acute-pancreatitis-caused-by-acute-organophosphorus-pesticide-poisoning
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294525/-a-case-report-on-occupational-acute-mild-organophosphorus-insecticides-poisoning-caused-by-brucellosis-outbreak-disposal
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248576/counteracting-desensitization-of-human-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-with-bispyridinium-compounds-as-an-approach-against-organophosphorus-poisoning
#19
Corinna Scheffel, Karin V Niessen, Sebastian Rappenglück, Klaus T Wanner, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger
Irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors accounts for the acute toxicity of organophosphorus compounds (OP). Accordingly, the mainstay pharmacotherapy against poisoning by OP comprises the competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine to treat muscarinic effects and, in addition, oximes to reactivate inhibited AChE. A therapeutic gap still remains in the treatment of desensitized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors following OP exposure...
December 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#20
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost 2 centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to nontarget species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
March 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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