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organophosphorus poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327676/management-of-organophosphorus-poisoning
#1
S R Bajracharya, P N Prasad, R Ghimire
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are widely used for agriculture, domestic pest-control and chemical warfare. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-sixth to one-eighth of the world's suicides and a third of suicide deaths in rural Asia each year. OP pesticides inhibit cholinesterase enzymes leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. Clinical features depend on the types of receptors stimulated at various sites of the body. The diagnosis of OP poisoning is made on the basis of history of poisoning, smell of pesticides, the characteristic clinical signs and reduced cholinesterase activity...
September 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298783/study-of-effect-of-magnesium-sulphate-in-management-of-acute-organophosphorous-pesticide-poisoning
#2
H N Vijayakumar, Sudheesh Kannan, C Tejasvi, Devika Rani Duggappa, K M Veeranna Gowda, S S Nethra
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus compound poisoning (OPCP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Atropine and oximes remain the main-stay of management. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has shown benefit in the management of OPCP. AIMS: This study was designed to assess the effect of MgSO4 on outcome in OPCP patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial in an ICU of tertiary care institution...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258856/highly-sensitive-gqds-mno2-based-assay-with-turn-on-fluorescence-for-monitoring-cerebrospinal-acetylcholinesterase-fluctuation-a-biomarker-for-organophosphorus-pesticides-poisoning-and-management
#3
Jingjing Deng, Dingkun Lu, Xiaolei Zhang, Guoyue Shi, Tianshu Zhou
In this study, we demonstrated an assay with turn-on fluorescence for monitoring cerebrospinal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) fluctuation as a biomarker for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) poisoning and management based on single layer MnO2 nanosheets with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as signal readout. Initially, the fluorescence of GQDs was quenched by MnO2 nanosheets mainly due to the inner filter effect (IFE). However, with the presence of reductive thiocholine (TCh), the enzymatic product, hydrolyzed from acetylthiocholine (ATCh) by AChE, the redox reaction between MnO2 and TCh occurred, leading to the destruction of the MnO2 nanosheets, and thereby IFE was diminished gradually...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250607/severe-hypothermia-causing-ventricular-arrhythmia-in-organophosphorus-poisoning
#4
Kartik Munta, Paiullah Santosh, Manimala Rao Surath
Organophosphorus poisoning cases are routinely treated across all Intensive Care Units adjoining the rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. We present a unique case of severe hypothermia seen in a case of organophosphorus poisoning, which led to electrocardiogram disturbances and life-threatening arrhythmias.
February 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225154/human-butyrylcholinesterase-efficacy-against-nerve-agent-exposure
#5
Beth A Reed, Carol L Sabourin, David E Lenz
Acetylcholinesterase is vital for normal operation of many processes in the body. Following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, death can ensue without immediate medical intervention. Current therapies mitigate the cholinergic crisis caused by nerve agents but do not fully prevent long-term health concerns, for example, brain damage following seizures. Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger being investigated as an antidote for OP nerve agent poisoning. HuBChE sequesters OP nerve agent in the bloodstream preventing the nerve agent from reaching critical target organ systems...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208980/contributing-factors-for-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-with-organophosphate-poisoning-on-mechanical-ventilation-a-retrospective-study-in-a-teaching-hospital
#6
Gurulingappa Patil, Navya Murthy, M Nikhil
INTRODUCTION: One of the most common causes of poisoning in agricultural based developing countries like India is due to Organophosphorus (OP) compound. Its widespread use and easy availability has increased the likelihood of poisoning with these compounds. AIM: To study the morbidity and mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study constituting patients of all age groups admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with diagnosis of OP poisoning between January 2015 to December 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043864/a-simple-and-highly-effective-catalytic-nanozyme-scavenger-for-organophosphorus-neurotoxins
#7
Elena N Efremenko, Ilya V Lyagin, Natalia L Klyachko, Tatiana Bronich, Natalia V Zavyalova, Yuhang Jiang, Alexander V Kabanov
A simple and highly efficient catalytic scavenger of poisonous organophosphorus compounds, based on organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1), is produced in aqueous solution by electrostatic coupling of the hexahistidine tagged OPH (His6-OPH) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) diblock copolymer. The resulting polyion complex, termed nano-OPH, has a spherical morphology and a diameter from 25nm to 100nm. Incorporation of His6-OPH in nano-OPH preserves catalytic activity and increases stability of the enzyme allowing its storage in aqueous solution for over a year...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990599/the-effect-of-sodium-fluoride-formaldehyde-and-storage-temperature-on-the-stability-of-methamidophos-in-post-mortem-blood-and-liver
#8
Zhiwen Wei, Qing Niu, Fan Zhang, Kun Xiao, Ling Liu, Yujin Wang, Juan Jia, Jie Cao, Shanlin Fu, Keming Yun
Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos makes up a significant portion of forensic identification cases in China. Stability of methamidophos during specimen storage remains largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the long-term stability of methamidophos in postmortem specimens. Three experimental dogs after oral administration of methamidophos were sacrificed, and blood and liver specimens were collected and stored at various conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to measure the methamidophos concentrations after 0, 4, 7, 12, 16, 60, and 180 days of storage...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942054/effect-of-melatonin-on-duration-of-delirium-in-organophosphorus-compound-poisoning-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
H N Vijayakumar, K Ramya, Devika Rani Duggappa, Km Veeranna Gowda, K Sudheesh, S S Nethra, R S Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Organophosphate compound poisoning (OPCP) is associated with high incidence of delirium. Melatonin has been tried in the treatment of delirium and has shown a beneficial effect in OPCP. This study was conducted to know the effect of melatonin on duration of delirium and recovery profile in OPCP patients. METHODS: Double-blind randomised placebo control trial in which 56 patients of OPCP confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged >18 years and weighing between 50 and 100 kg, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of <20 were studied...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885794/a-beekeepers-perspective-on-the-neonicotinoid-ban
#10
REVIEW
Norman L Carreck
Bees and agrochemicals have a long history. For example the first volume of IBRA's journal Bee World in 1919 contains mention of poisoning of bees by spraying an orchard with lead arsenate. Being insects, it is self-evident that the use of insecticides to control crop pests poses a risk to bees. Bee poisoning incidents became a very serious problem in the 1960s and 1970s with spraying of, in particular, oilseed rape with organophosphorus compounds. The introduction of carbamates and then especially synthetic pyrethroids reduced these problems...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829717/pseudocholinesterase-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-organophosphorus-poisoning
#11
Pradeepkumar Hiremath, Pradeep Rangappa, Ipe Jacob, Karthik Rao
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem in India. Mortality rate remains high at 15%-30%. AIMS: This prospective, observational study examines the relationship between pseudocholinesterase (PChE) activity and morbidity and mortality in OP poisoning. SETTING AND DESIGN: OP poisoning cases admitted to a tertiary care center Intensive Care Unit (ICU) over 5 years from 2010 to 2014 were studied...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728614/a-rare-neurological-complication-of-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning
#12
K Nikhitha, P Sudhakar, V Blessy Manohar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728597/a-study-on-predicting-outcome-in-organophosphorus-poisoning-with-poison-severity-score-glasgow-coma-scale
#13
Abhinandya Mukhopadhyay, B K Singh, P K Sinha, K K Yadav
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728579/understanding-of-organophosphorus-poisoning
#14
Sharad Saxena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727868/study-of-blood-sugar-level-as-a-prognostic-indicator-in-organophosphorus-compound-poisoning
#15
Namita Mohanty, Suvendu Sekhar Acharya, Muneer Re, Shashi Bhusan Sutar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727867/a-study-on-serum-amylase-levels-in-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning
#16
Bhogi Bhogi, M Madhusudhana Babu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722929/pesticides-an-update-of-human-exposure-and-toxicity
#17
REVIEW
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity...
February 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693733/pyridoxal-oxime-derivative-potency-to-reactivate-cholinesterases-inhibited-by-organophosphorus-compounds
#18
Valentina Bušić, Maja Katalinić, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik, Dajana Gašo-Sokač
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (sarin, tabun VX and soman) inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) by binding to its active site while preventing neurotransmission in the cholinergic synapses. The protection and treatment of this kind of poisoning are still a challenge as we are yet to discover an antidote that would be effective in all cases of poisoning. To aid the search for more efficient antidotes, we evaluated the ability of nine pyridoxal oxime derivatives, prepared by a novel synthetic pathway, to reactivate recombinant human AChE and the related purified human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688820/interrelation-of-glycemic-status-and-neuropsychiatric-disturbances-in-farmers-with-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity
#19
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514423/-analysis-on-influencing-factors-of-prognosis-of-patients-with-acute-organophosphorus-pesticide-poisoning
#20
C F Guo, Y Wang, J H Liu, P Shen, H Wang, Y J Wei, X F Shi, X J Zhou, W W Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between risk factors and prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). METHODS: The clinical data including APACHEⅡ, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactic acid of the 67 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning which respectively divided into survival group and death group by the outcome were collected. The independent influcing factors were got by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The analysis showed that APACHEⅡ, D-dimer、C-reactive protein and Procalcitonin were influencing factors to evaluate prognosis of AOPP (P<0...
May 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
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