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organophosphorus poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434782/effects-of-il-10-on-ox62-mhc-ii-and-cd86-in-bone-marrow-dcs-in-rats-with-organophosphate-poisoning
#1
Ning Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Ronggang Jiang
This study investigated the effect of interleukin (IL)-10 on the expression of OX62, MHC-II and CD86 in bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) in rats with organophosphorus poisoning. Sixty adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group A) (20 rats), 20 rats with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (group B), 20 rats with organophosphorus poisoning, and IL-10 treated (group C). Group A was not treated with special treatment. Group B was treated with 4% omethoate by gavage to establish the model of organophosphate poisoning...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421945/cytotoxicity-of-acetylcholinesterase-reactivators-evaluated-in-vitro-and-its-relation-to-their-structure
#2
Lubica Muckova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Petr Jost, Nela Vanova, David Herman, Daniel Jun
The development of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, i.e., antidotes against organophosphorus poisoning, is an important goal of defense research. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity and chemical structure of five currently available oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, and asoxime) together with four perspective oximes from K-series (K027, K074, K075, and K203). The cytotoxicity of tested substances was measured using two methods - colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and impedance based real-time cytotoxicity assay - in three different cell lines (HepG2, ACHN, and NHLF)...
February 9, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388062/are-oximes-still-indicated-for-acute-organophosphorus-insecticide-self-poisoning
#3
EDITORIAL
Michael Eddleston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332594/in-vitro-and-in-silico-evaluation-of-non-quaternary-reactivators-of-ache-as-antidotes-of-organophosphorus-poisoning-a-new-hope-or-a-blind-alley
#4
Ondrej Soukup, Jan Korabecny, David Malinak, Eugenie Nepovimova, Ngoc Lam Pham, Kamil Musilek, Martina Hrabinova, Vendula Hepnarova, Rafael Dolezal, Petr Pavek, Petr Jost, Tereza Kobrlova, Jana Jankockova, Lukas Gorecki, Miroslav Psotka, Thuy Duong Nguyen, Karl Box, Breeze Outhwaite, Martina Ceckova, Ales Sofr, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, the concept of uncharged reactivators potentially able to penetrate the CNS has been introduced as an alternative to the classic charged oxime reactivators. However, this concept brings with it several associated drawbacks such as higher lipophilicity, difficulty in administration, lower affinity to cholinesterases, and higher toxicity risk. OBJECTIVE: In this study we compare data obtained for a set of five classic charged reactivators and a set of three recently published uncharged oximes supplemented by two novel ones...
January 11, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313079/comprehensive-characterization-of-neurochemicals-in-three-zebrafish-chemical-models-of-human-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Cristian Gómez-Canela, Daniel Tornero-Cañadas, Eva Prats, Benjamí Piña, Romà Tauler, Demetrio Raldúa
There is a growing interest in biological models to investigate the effect of neurotransmitter dysregulation on the structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS) at different stages of development. Zebrafish, a vertebrate model increasingly used in neurobiology and neurotoxicology, shares the common neurotransmitter systems with mammals, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the multiresidue determination of neurotransmitters and related metabolites...
January 9, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298486/redox-controlled-fluorescent-nanoswitch-based-on-reversible-disulfide-and-its-application-in-butyrylcholinesterase-activity-assay
#6
Guilin Chen, Hui Feng, Xiaogan Jiang, Jing Xu, Saifei Pan, Zhaosheng Qian
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mainly contributing to plasma cholinesterase activity is an important indicator for routinely diagnosing liver function and organophosphorus poisoning in clinical diagnosis, but its current assays are scarce and frequently suffer from some significant interference and instability. Herein, we report a redox-controlled fluorescence nanoswtich based on reversible disulfide bonds, and further develop a fluorometric assay of BChE via thiol-triggered disaggregation-induced emission. Thiol-functionalized carbon quantum dots (thiol-CQDs) with intense fluorescence is found to be responsive to hydrogen peroxide, and their redox reaction transforms thiol-CQDs to nonfluorescent thiol-CQDs assembly...
January 4, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294536/-a-dvance-on-acute-pancreatitis-caused-by-acute-organophosphorus-pesticide-poisoning
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294525/-a-case-report-on-occupational-acute-mild-organophosphorus-insecticides-poisoning-caused-by-brucellosis-outbreak-disposal
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248576/counteracting-desensitization-of-human-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-with-bispyridinium-compounds-as-an-approach-against-organophosphorus-poisoning
#9
Corinna Scheffel, Karin V Niessen, Sebastian Rappenglück, Klaus T Wanner, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger
Irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors accounts for the acute toxicity of organophosphorus compounds (OP). Accordingly, the mainstay pharmacotherapy against poisoning by OP comprises the competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine to treat muscarinic effects and, in addition, oximes to reactivate inhibited AChE. A therapeutic gap still remains in the treatment of desensitized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors following OP exposure...
December 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#10
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost two centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to non-target species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194519/development-of-an-analytical-procedure-for-the-determination-of-multiclass-compounds-for-forensic-veterinary-toxicology
#12
Bartosz Sell, Tomasz Sniegocki, Jan Zmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak
Reported here is a new analytical multiclass method based on QuEChERS technique, which has proven to be effective in diagnosing fatal poisoning cases in animals. This method has been developed for the determination of analytes in liver samples comprising rodenticides, carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides, coccidiostats and mycotoxins. The procedure entails addition of acetonitrile and sodium acetate to 2 g of homogenized liver sample. The mixture was shaken intensively and centrifuged for phase separation, which was followed by an organic phase transfer into a tube containing sorbents (PSA and C18) and magnesium sulfate, then it was centrifuged, the supernatant was filtered and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184617/acute-atrial-fibrillation-complicating-organophosphorus-poisoning
#13
Monika Maheshwari, Shreekant Chaudhary
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem in a developing country like India. Cardiac injury is a strong predictor of death in these patients. Cardiac complications usually described include cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, and arrhythmia. Rarely, myocardial infarction has also been reported. The possible mechanisms for myocardial injury include sympathetic/parasympathetic overactivity, hypoxemia, acidosis, dyselectrolytemia, and direct cardiotoxicity. We describe herein one case of OP poisoning, recently admitted in our emergency department and which was complicated by acute onset atrial fibrillation which reverted to sinus rhythm following detoxification of OP compound...
July 2017: Heart Views: the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180286/the-estimation-of-oxime-efficiency-is-affected-by-the-experimental-design-of-phosphylated-acetylcholinesterase-reactivation
#14
Nikolina Maček Hrvat, Tamara Zorbaz, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik
Reactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an essential enzyme in neurotransmission, is a key point in the treatment of acute poisoning by nerve agents and pesticides, which structurally belong to organophosphorus compounds (OP). Due to the high diversity of substituents on the phosphorous atom, there is a variety of OP-AChE conjugates deriving from AChE inhibition, and therefore not only is there no universal reactivator efficient enough for the most toxic OPs, but for some nerve agents there is still a lack of any reactivator at all...
November 24, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156874/application-of-hemoperfusion-in-severe-acute-organophosphorus-pesticide-poisoning
#15
Zhenhe Li, Guixia Wang, Guodong Zhen, Yuliang Zhang, Jiaqiang Liu, Shanmei Liu
Background/aim: The aim of this research is to investigate the clinical efficacy of hemoperfusion in the treatment of severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Materials and methods: Patients meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into Groups 1 and 2 according to whether hemoperfusion was applied or not. Group 2 was observed as the control group. Conventional therapy for AOPP was given to Groups 1 and 2. Besides conventional treatment, patients in Group 1 were also treated with hemoperfusion therapy...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127032/efficacy-of-the-antinicotinic-compound-mb327-against-soman-poisoning-importance-of-experimental-end-point
#16
M E Price, C L Whitmore, J E H Tattersall, A C Green, H Rice
Medical countermeasures for acute poisoning by organophosphorus nerve agents are generally assessed over 24h following poisoning and a single administration of treatment. At 24h, the antinicotinic bispyridinium compound MB327 (1,10-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium)) dimethanesulfonate is as effective as the oxime HI-6 against poisoning by soman, when used as part of a treatment containing atropine and avizafone. In this study, we hypothesised that an earlier endpoint, at 6h, would be more appropriate for the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action of MB327 and would therefore result in improved protection...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123147/enzymatic-degradation-of-organophosphorus-insecticides-decreases-toxicity-in-planarians-and-enhances-survival
#17
Laetitia Poirier, Lucile Brun, Pauline Jacquet, Catherine Lepolard, Nicholas Armstrong, Cédric Torre, David Daudé, Eric Ghigo, Eric Chabrière
Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are toxic compounds used for agricultural purposes and responsible for severe types of contamination worldwide. OPs may also induce chronic deleterious effects and developmental disruption. Finding remediation strategies is a major concern to diminish their impact on environment and human health. Enzymes have emerged as a promising eco-friendly route for decontaminating OPs. The enzyme SsoPox from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus has been particularly studied, considering both its tremendous stability and phosphotriesterase activity...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117635/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-three-newly-developed-bispyridinium-anti-nicotinic-compounds-mb408-mb442-mb444-on-the-efficacy-of-antidotal-treatment-of-nerve-agent-poisoning-in-mice
#18
Jiri Kassa, Christopher M Timperley, Mike Bird, Rebecca L Williams, A Christopher Green, John E H Tattersall
The influence of three newly-developed bispyridinium antinicotinic compounds (the non-oximes MB408, MB442 and MB444) on the therapeutic efficacy of a standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning by the organophosphorus nerve agents tabun and soman was studied in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine in combination with an oxime with or without one of the bispyridinium non-oximes was evaluated by determination of the LD50 values of the nerve agents and measurement of the survival time after supralethal poisoning...
November 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097283/biomolecular-engineering-of-biocatalysts-hydrolyzing-neurotoxic-organophosphates
#19
Ilya V Lyagin, Elena N Efremenko
Novel methods of molecular modeling help solving urgent problems in drug design, directed evolution of biocatalysts and biosensors, and a lot of other research fields. Implementation of such methods to organophosphorus hydrolase being perfect research object that hydrolyzes dangerous neurotoxic organophosphates could intensify development of antidote and protective preparations to treat poisoning. Structures of enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes (EPCs) based on hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) with different biopolymers (various modifications of polyglutamic and polyaspartic acid, as well as hydroxyethyl starch and succinylated gelatin) were simulated at different pH using molecular docking...
October 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097222/searching-for-putative-binding-sites-of-the-bispyridinium-compound-mb327-in-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#20
Thomas Wein, Georg Höfner, Sebastian Rappenglück, Sonja Sichler, Karin V Niessen, Thomas Seeger, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Klaus T Wanner
Irreversible inhibition of the acetylcholine esterase upon intoxication with organophosphorus compounds leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and a subsequent desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which may ultimately result in respiratory failure. The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been found to restore functional activity of nAChR thus representing a promising starting point for the development of new drugs for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. In order to optimize the resensitizing effect of MB327 on nAChR, it would be very helpful to know the MB327 specific binding site to apply structure based molecular modeling...
October 30, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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