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organophosphorus poisoning

Norman L Carreck
Bees and agrochemicals have a long history. For example the first volume of IBRA's journal Bee World in 1919 contains mention of poisoning of bees by spraying an orchard with lead arsenate. Being insects, it is self-evident that the use of insecticides to control crop pests poses a risk to bees. Bee poisoning incidents became a very serious problem in the 1960s and 1970s with spraying of, in particular, oilseed rape with organophosphorus compounds. The introduction of carbamates and then especially synthetic pyrethroids reduced these problems...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
Pradeepkumar Hiremath, Pradeep Rangappa, Ipe Jacob, Karthik Rao
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem in India. Mortality rate remains high at 15%-30%. AIMS: This prospective, observational study examines the relationship between pseudocholinesterase (PChE) activity and morbidity and mortality in OP poisoning. SETTING AND DESIGN: OP poisoning cases admitted to a tertiary care center Intensive Care Unit (ICU) over 5 years from 2010 to 2014 were studied...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
K Nikhitha, P Sudhakar, V Blessy Manohar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Abhinandya Mukhopadhyay, B K Singh, P K Sinha, K K Yadav
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sharad Saxena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Namita Mohanty, Suvendu Sekhar Acharya, Muneer Re, Shashi Bhusan Sutar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Bhogi Bhogi, M Madhusudhana Babu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Valentina Bušić, Maja Katalinić, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik, Dajana Gašo-Sokač
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (sarin, tabun VX and soman) inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC by binding to its active site while preventing neurotransmission in the cholinergic synapses. The protection and treatment of this kind of poisoning are still a challenge as we are yet to discover an antidote that would be effective in all cases of poisoning. To aid the search for more efficient antidotes, we evaluated the ability of nine pyridoxal oxime derivatives, prepared by a novel synthetic pathway, to reactivate recombinant human AChE and the related purified human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3...
September 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
C F Guo, Y Wang, J H Liu, P Shen, H Wang, Y J Wei, X F Shi, X J Zhou, W W Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between risk factors and prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). METHODS: The clinical data including APACHEⅡ, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactic acid of the 67 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning which respectively divided into survival group and death group by the outcome were collected. The independent influcing factors were got by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The analysis showed that APACHEⅡ, D-dimer、C-reactive protein and Procalcitonin were influencing factors to evaluate prognosis of AOPP (P<0...
May 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
G R Guo, X D Jian, G C Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Andreas Kranawetvogl, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Harald John
RATIONALE: Organophosphorus nerve agents still constitute a considerable threat to the health of military personnel and the civilian population. Long-term biomarkers are crucial for reliable verification of exposure to banned substances. Therefore, current research focuses on identification of endogenous protein targets showing covalent modifications by organophosphorus nerve agents (adducts). METHODS: Purified human serum albumin and human plasma were incubated with the nerve agent VX followed by enzymatic proteolysis with pronase...
October 15, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yi-Hua Jan, Jason R Richardson, Angela A Baker, Vladimir Mishin, Diane E Heck, Debra L Laskin, Jeffrey D Laskin
Accidental or intentional exposures to parathion, an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, can cause severe poisoning in humans. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a highly poisonous nerve agent and potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. We have been investigating inhibitors of CYP-mediated bioactivation of OPs as a method of preventing or reversing progressive parathion toxicity. It is well recognized that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, an enzyme required for the transfer of electrons to CYPs, mediates chemical redox cycling...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B Bird
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
Timo Wille, Katharina Neumaier, Marianne Koller, Christina Ehinger, Nidhi Aggarwal, Yacov Ashani, Moshe Goldsmith, Joel L Sussman, Dan S Tawfik, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek
The recent attacks with the nerve agent sarin in Syria reveal the necessity of effective countermeasures against highly toxic organophosphorus compounds. Multiple studies provide evidence that a rapid onset of antidotal therapy might be life-saving but current standard antidotal protocols comprising reactivators and competitive muscarinic antagonists show a limited efficacy for several nerve agents. We here set out to test the newly developed phosphotriesterase (PTE) mutant C23AL by intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i...
September 6, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Amir Shadboorestan, Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mohammad Hadi Goharbari, Narges Khanjani
Human exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is a serious health challenge. We conducted a systematic review by searching international and national databases for published literature on any human exposure to OPs in Iran from 1990 to March, 2015. Qualified papers were in two categories including studies in which bio-markers of exposure were assessed (n = 13; total no. of subject = 759) and studies which had reported prevalence of OPs-induced poisoning (OPP) and mortality (n = 26; total no. of subject = 5428)...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Qinggeng Zhuang, Amneh Young, Christopher S Callam, Craig A McElroy, Özlem Dogan Ekici, Ryan J Yoder, Christopher M Hadad
Aging is a dealkylation reaction of organophosphorus (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Despite many studies to date, aged AChE cannot be reactivated directly by traditional pyridinium oximes. This review summarizes strategies that are potentially valuable in the treatment against aging in OP poisoning. Among them, retardation of aging seeks to lower the rate of aging through the use of AChE effectors. These drugs should be administered before AChE is completely aged. For postaging treatment, realkylation of aged AChE by appropriate alkylators may pave the way for oxime treatment by neutralizing the oxyanion at the active site of aged AChE...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Steven B Bird, Predrag Krajacic, Keigo Sawamoto, Naofumi Bunya, Emanuele Loro, Tejvir S Khurana
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, affecting an estimated three million people annually. Much of the morbidity is directly related to muscle weakness, which develops 1-4 days after poisoning. This muscle weakness, termed the intermediate syndrome (IMS), leads to respiratory, bulbar, and proximal limb weakness and frequently necessitates the use of mechanical ventilation. While not entirely understood, the IMS is most likely due to persistently elevated acetylcholine (ACh), which activates nicotinic ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Thomas Lamb, Liza R Selvarajah, Fahim Mohamed, Shaluka Jayamanne, Indika Gawarammana, Ahmed Mostafa, Nicholas A Buckley, Michael S Roberts, Michael Eddleston
BACKGROUND: Highly hazardous organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are responsible for most pesticide poisoning deaths. As they are removed from agricultural practice, they are often replaced by carbamate insecticides of perceived lower toxicity. However, relatively little is known about poisoning with these insecticides. METHODS: We prospectively studied 1288 patients self-poisoned with carbamate insecticides admitted to six Sri Lankan hospitals. Clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient and plasma carbamate concentration measured in a sample to confirm the carbamate ingested...
September 2016: Clinical Toxicology
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