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organophosphorus poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640122/clinical-emergency-treatment-of-68-critical-patients-with-severe-organophosphorus-poisoning-and-prognosis-analysis-after-rescue
#1
Hui Dong, Yi-Bing Weng, Gen-Shen Zhen, Feng-Jie Li, Ai-Chun Jin, Jie Liu
This study reports the clinical emergency treatment of 68 critical patients with severe organophosphorus poisoning, and analyzes the prognosis after rescue.The general data of 68 patients with severe organophosphorus poisoning treated in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into 2 groups: treatment group, and control group. Patients in the control group received routine emergency treatment, while patients in the treatment group additionally received hemoperfusion plus hemodialysis on the basis of routine emergency treatment...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615953/characteristics-of-pesticide-poisoning-in-rural-and-urban-settings-in-uganda
#2
REVIEW
Bastian Pedersen, Charles Ssemugabo, Victoria Nabankema, Erik Jørs
Pesticide poisoning is a significant burden on health care systems in many low-income countries. This study evaluates cases of registered pesticide poisonings treated in selected rural (N = 101) and urban (N = 212) health facilities in Uganda from January 2010 to August 2016. In the urban setting, pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599200/assessment-of-mechanically-ventilated-patients-intoxicated-with-organophosphates-by-a-novel-surface-electromyographic-index
#3
María Bernarda Salazar Sánchez, Alher Mauricio Hernández Valdivieso, Miguel Ángel Mañanas Villanueva
PURPOSE: We present a new electromyographic index, named Engagement of Respiratory Muscle (ERM), for assessing the level of participation of respiratory muscles during spontaneous breathing test in patients poisoned with organophosphorus compound. METHODS: Diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid muscles activity was recorded by surface electromyography during spontaneous breathing test. A population of 23 patients poisoned with organophosphates and mechanically ventilated, and a control group of 28 healthy subjects were analyzed...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542985/cholinesterase-reactivators-and-bioscavengers-for-pre-and-post-exposure-treatments-of-organophosphorus-poisoning
#4
REVIEW
Patrick Masson, Florian Nachon
Organophosphorus agents (OPs) irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) causing a major cholinergic syndrome. The medical counter-measures of OP poisoning have not evolved for the last 30 years with carbamates for pretreatment, pyridinium oximes-based AChE reactivators, antimuscarinic drugs and neuroprotective benzodiazepines for post-exposure treatment. These drugs ensure protection of peripheral nervous system and mitigate acute effects of OP lethal doses. However, they have significant limitations...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540206/acute-kidney-injury-from-different-poisonous-substances
#5
Rubina Naqvi
AIM: To report our experience of acute kidney injury (AKI) developed after exposure to poisonous substance. METHODS: Retrospective study where data was collected from case records of patients coming to this institute during January 1990 to May 2016. This institution is a tertiary care center for renal care in the metropolitan city of Karachi, Pakistan. History of ingested substance, symptoms on presentation, basic laboratory tests on arrival, mode of treatment and outcome were recorded from all patients and are presented here...
May 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527279/-cases-of-acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-colonia-puerto-pirap%C3%A3-itap%C3%A3%C2%BAa-paraguay-february-2014
#6
María Esther Pedrozo, Sandra Ocampos, Rosa Galeano, Andrea Ojeda, Agueda Cabello, Dalva De Assis
In Paraguay, pesticides are the causative agent in 13.7% of poisonings, especially organophosphorus compounds. Such poisoning produces the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase generating three possible clinical conditions: acute poisoning, intermediate syndrome or late neurotoxicity. We present 15 cases of acute poisoning, ten women and five men from a rural community between 5 and 67 years of age, whose symptoms began after using water contaminated by pesticides from the community network. The most common symptoms were nausea and vomiting, followed by abdominal pain, headache, fever, itching, red eyes and sweating...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515582/evaluation-of-mr-perfusion-abnormalities-in-organophosphorus-poisoning-and-its-correlation-with-spect
#7
K Uday Bhanu, Niranjan Khandelwal, Sameer Vyas, Paramjeet Singh, Anuj Prabhakar, B R Mittal, Ashish Bhalla
AIM: Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many imaging modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain, have been used for quantitative assessment of the acute brain insult caused by acute OP poisoning. Perfusion defects on SPECT in acutely poisoned patients with OPs have been described, however, MR perfusion abnormalities have not been described in the literature...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504886/nanoparticle-delivered-2-pam-for-rat-brain-protection-against-paraoxon-central-toxicity
#8
Tatiana N Pashirova, Irina V Zueva, Konstantin A Petrov, Vasily M Babaev, Svetlana S Lukashenko, Ildar Kh Rizvanov, Eliana B Souto, Evgeny E Nikolsky, Lucia Ya Zakharova, Patrick Masson, Oleg G Sinyashin
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are among the most promising nanocarriers to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Encapsulation of the acetylcholinesterase reactivator, pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), in SLNs appears to be a suitable strategy for protection against poisoning by organophosphorus agents (OPs) and postexposure treatment. 2-PAM-loaded SLNs were developed for brain targeting and delivery via intravenous (iv) administration. 2-PAM-SLNs displayed a high 2-PAM encapsulation efficiency (∼90%) and loading capacity (maximum 30...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499266/model-based-optimization-of-parameters-for-degradation-reaction-of-an-organophosphorus-pesticide-paraoxon-using-ceo2-nanoparticles-in-water-media
#9
Alicia Salerno, Isabelle Pitault, Thierry Devers, Jocelyne Pelletier, Stéphanie Briançon
Degradation and body surface decontamination is vital to prevent the skin penetration of paraoxon (POX), an organophosphorus pesticide, and victims poisoning. CeO2 demonstrated a good efficacy for the degradation of POX. The aim of the study was to develop a model which includes the impact of weight of CeO2, POX and diluent volumes on the degradation kinetics. The modelling was realized with rapid and simple experiments carried out in tubes, in aqueous diluent which contained ions in order to be in accordance with in vitro skin decontamination conditions...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405997/tracheoesophageal-fistula-following-endotracheal-intubation-for-organophosphorus-poisoning
#10
Shailaja V Rao, Ajay K Boralkar, Prabhakar S Jirvankar, Mangala V Sonavani, Varsha Rotte Kaginalkar, Chimu Chinte
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an abnormal communication between the trachea and esophagus. Iatrogenic TEF can be due to endotracheal intubation, rigid bronchoscopy or tracheostomy. Tracheostomy tube cuff volumes and pressures require constant monitoring to avoid tracheal injury. Acquired TEF which occurs after prolonged intubation, usually develops after 15-200 days of mechanical ventilation. We report a case of a large TEF secondary to endotracheal intubation for organophosphorus poison-induced respiratory failure...
December 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376842/pattern-of-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning-at-university-of-gondar-teaching-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#11
Getnet Mequanint Adinew, Assefa Belay Asrie, Eshetie Melese Birru
BACKGROUND: Despite the apparent benefits of organophosphate compounds (OPCs) acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poison is an increasing problem worldwide. In a country like Ethiopia, where agriculture is a major component of the economy, these compounds are readily available to the general public. There is paucity of evidence from Ethiopia showing the pattern of organophosphate poisoning (OPP) in healthcare facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the pattern of acute OPP at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital in northwest Ethiopia, during September 2010 through December 2014 was conducted...
April 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344486/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-organophosphorus-poisoning-a-study-of-health-and-economic-outcomes
#12
Asim Priyendu, K E Vandana, Nilima, Muralidhar Varma, Nishitha Prabhu, Alsha Abdul Rahim, Anantha Naik Nagappa
Objective: Organophosphorus poisoning (OPP) is a major concern for developing countries. There are no guidelines for the prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of OPP which in such critical cases might add to the economic burden of the patients as well as antibiotic resistance. We compared the health and economic outcomes in patients prescribed with prophylactic antibiotics with respect to the patients not prescribed with any antibiotics. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out for two years for patients admitted to ICU with OPP...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343895/pharmacokinetic-profile-of-promising-acetylcholinesterase-reactivators-k027-and-k203-in-experimental-pigs
#13
Jana Zdarova Karasova, Jaroslav Kvetina, Ilja Tacheci, Vera Radochova, Kamil Musilek, Kamil Kuca, Jan Bures
Standard treatment of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) poisoning includes administration of an anti-muscarinic (atropine), anticonvulsive (diazepam) and acetylcholinesterase reactivator (oxime). From a wide group of newly synthesized oximes, oxime K027 and oxime K203 seem to be perspective compounds in some specific OPs intoxication. The available in vitro and in vivo preclinical data indicate that both oximes may be considered for potential human use. The main aim of this study was to establish plasmatic concentration curves of both oximes after intramuscular (i...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327676/management-of-organophosphorus-poisoning
#14
S R Bajracharya, P N Prasad, R Ghimire
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are widely used for agriculture, domestic pest-control and chemical warfare. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-sixth to one-eighth of the world's suicides and a third of suicide deaths in rural Asia each year. OP pesticides inhibit cholinesterase enzymes leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. Clinical features depend on the types of receptors stimulated at various sites of the body. The diagnosis of OP poisoning is made on the basis of history of poisoning, smell of pesticides, the characteristic clinical signs and reduced cholinesterase activity...
September 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298783/study-of-effect-of-magnesium-sulphate-in-management-of-acute-organophosphorous-pesticide-poisoning
#15
H N Vijayakumar, Sudheesh Kannan, C Tejasvi, Devika Rani Duggappa, K M Veeranna Gowda, S S Nethra
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus compound poisoning (OPCP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Atropine and oximes remain the main-stay of management. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has shown benefit in the management of OPCP. AIMS: This study was designed to assess the effect of MgSO4 on outcome in OPCP patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial in an ICU of tertiary care institution...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258856/highly-sensitive-gqds-mno2-based-assay-with-turn-on-fluorescence-for-monitoring-cerebrospinal-acetylcholinesterase-fluctuation-a-biomarker-for-organophosphorus-pesticides-poisoning-and-management
#16
Jingjing Deng, Dingkun Lu, Xiaolei Zhang, Guoyue Shi, Tianshu Zhou
In this study, we demonstrated an assay with turn-on fluorescence for monitoring cerebrospinal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) fluctuation as a biomarker for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) poisoning and management based on single layer MnO2 nanosheets with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as signal readout. Initially, the fluorescence of GQDs was quenched by MnO2 nanosheets mainly due to the inner filter effect (IFE). However, with the presence of reductive thiocholine (TCh), the enzymatic product, hydrolyzed from acetylthiocholine (ATCh) by AChE, the redox reaction between MnO2 and TCh occurred, leading to the destruction of the MnO2 nanosheets, and thereby IFE was diminished gradually...
May 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250607/severe-hypothermia-causing-ventricular-arrhythmia-in-organophosphorus-poisoning
#17
Kartik Munta, Paiullah Santosh, Manimala Rao Surath
Organophosphorus poisoning cases are routinely treated across all Intensive Care Units adjoining the rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. We present a unique case of severe hypothermia seen in a case of organophosphorus poisoning, which led to electrocardiogram disturbances and life-threatening arrhythmias.
February 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225154/human-butyrylcholinesterase-efficacy-against-nerve-agent-exposure
#18
Beth A Reed, Carol L Sabourin, David E Lenz
Acetylcholinesterase is vital for normal operation of many processes in the body. Following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, death can ensue without immediate medical intervention. Current therapies mitigate the cholinergic crisis caused by nerve agents but do not fully prevent long-term health concerns, for example, brain damage following seizures. Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger being investigated as an antidote for OP nerve agent poisoning. HuBChE sequesters OP nerve agent in the bloodstream preventing the nerve agent from reaching critical target organ systems...
May 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208980/contributing-factors-for-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-with-organophosphate-poisoning-on-mechanical-ventilation-a-retrospective-study-in-a-teaching-hospital
#19
Gurulingappa Patil, Navya Murthy, M Nikhil
INTRODUCTION: One of the most common causes of poisoning in agricultural based developing countries like India is due to Organophosphorus (OP) compound. Its widespread use and easy availability has increased the likelihood of poisoning with these compounds. AIM: To study the morbidity and mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study constituting patients of all age groups admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with diagnosis of OP poisoning between January 2015 to December 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043864/a-simple-and-highly-effective-catalytic-nanozyme-scavenger-for-organophosphorus-neurotoxins
#20
Elena N Efremenko, Ilya V Lyagin, Natalia L Klyachko, Tatiana Bronich, Natalia V Zavyalova, Yuhang Jiang, Alexander V Kabanov
A simple and highly efficient catalytic scavenger of poisonous organophosphorus compounds, based on organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1), is produced in aqueous solution by electrostatic coupling of the hexahistidine tagged OPH (His6-OPH) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) diblock copolymer. The resulting polyion complex, termed nano-OPH, has a spherical morphology and a diameter from 25nm to 100nm. Incorporation of His6-OPH in nano-OPH preserves catalytic activity and increases stability of the enzyme allowing its storage in aqueous solution for over a year...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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