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organophosphorus poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194519/development-of-an-analytical-procedure-for-the-determination-of-multiclass-compounds-for-forensic-veterinary-toxicology
#2
Bartosz Sell, Tomasz Sniegocki, Jan Zmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak
Reported here is a new analytical multiclass method based on QuEChERS technique, which has proven to be effective in diagnosing fatal poisoning cases in animals. This method has been developed for the determination of analytes in liver samples comprising rodenticides, carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides, coccidiostats and mycotoxins. The procedure entails addition of acetonitrile and sodium acetate to 2 g of homogenized liver sample. The mixture was shaken intensively and centrifuged for phase separation, which was followed by an organic phase transfer into a tube containing sorbents (PSA and C18) and magnesium sulfate, then it was centrifuged, the supernatant was filtered and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184617/acute-atrial-fibrillation-complicating-organophosphorus-poisoning
#3
Monika Maheshwari, Shreekant Chaudhary
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem in a developing country like India. Cardiac injury is a strong predictor of death in these patients. Cardiac complications usually described include cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, and arrhythmia. Rarely, myocardial infarction has also been reported. The possible mechanisms for myocardial injury include sympathetic/parasympathetic overactivity, hypoxemia, acidosis, dyselectrolytemia, and direct cardiotoxicity. We describe herein one case of OP poisoning, recently admitted in our emergency department and which was complicated by acute onset atrial fibrillation which reverted to sinus rhythm following detoxification of OP compound...
July 2017: Heart Views: the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180286/the-estimation-of-oxime-efficiency-is-affected-by-the-experimental-design-of-phosphylated-acetylcholinesterase-reactivation
#4
Nikolina Maček Hrvat, Tamara Zorbaz, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik
Reactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an essential enzyme in neurotransmission, is a key point in the treatment of acute poisoning by nerve agents and pesticides, which structurally belong to organophosphorus compounds (OP). Due to the high diversity of substituents on the phosphorous atom, there is a variety of OP-AChE conjugates deriving from AChE inhibition, and therefore not only is there no universal reactivator efficient enough for the most toxic OPs, but for some nerve agents there is still a lack of any reactivator at all...
November 24, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156874/application-of-hemoperfusion-in-severe-acute-organophosphorus-pesticide-poisoning
#5
Zhenhe Li, Guixia Wang, Guodong Zhen, Yuliang Zhang, Jiaqiang Liu, Shanmei Liu
Background/aim: The aim of this research is to investigate the clinical efficacy of hemoperfusion in the treatment of severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Materials and methods: Patients meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into Groups 1 and 2 according to whether hemoperfusion was applied or not. Group 2 was observed as the control group. Conventional therapy for AOPP was given to Groups 1 and 2. Besides conventional treatment, patients in Group 1 were also treated with hemoperfusion therapy...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127032/efficacy-of-the-antinicotinic-compound-mb327-against-soman-poisoning-importance-of-experimental-end-point
#6
M E Price, C L Whitmore, J E H Tattersall, A C Green, H Rice
Medical countermeasures for acute poisoning by organophosphorus nerve agents are generally assessed over 24h following poisoning and a single administration of treatment. At 24h, the antinicotinic bispyridinium compound MB327 (1,10-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium)) dimethanesulfonate is as effective as the oxime HI-6 against poisoning by soman, when used as part of a treatment containing atropine and avizafone. In this study, we hypothesised that an earlier endpoint, at 6h, would be more appropriate for the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action of MB327 and would therefore result in improved protection...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123147/enzymatic-degradation-of-organophosphorus-insecticides-decreases-toxicity-in-planarians-and-enhances-survival
#7
Laetitia Poirier, Lucile Brun, Pauline Jacquet, Catherine Lepolard, Nicholas Armstrong, Cédric Torre, David Daudé, Eric Ghigo, Eric Chabrière
Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are toxic compounds used for agricultural purposes and responsible for severe types of contamination worldwide. OPs may also induce chronic deleterious effects and developmental disruption. Finding remediation strategies is a major concern to diminish their impact on environment and human health. Enzymes have emerged as a promising eco-friendly route for decontaminating OPs. The enzyme SsoPox from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus has been particularly studied, considering both its tremendous stability and phosphotriesterase activity...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117635/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-three-newly-developed-bispyridinium-anti-nicotinic-compounds-mb408-mb442-mb444-on-the-efficacy-of-antidotal-treatment-of-nerve-agent-poisoning-in-mice
#8
Jiri Kassa, Christopher M Timperley, Mike Bird, Rebecca L Williams, A Christopher Green, John E H Tattersall
The influence of three newly-developed bispyridinium antinicotinic compounds (the non-oximes MB408, MB442 and MB444) on the therapeutic efficacy of a standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning by the organophosphorus nerve agents tabun and soman was studied in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine in combination with an oxime with or without one of the bispyridinium non-oximes was evaluated by determination of the LD50 values of the nerve agents and measurement of the survival time after supralethal poisoning...
November 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097283/biomolecular-engineering-of-biocatalysts-hydrolyzing-neurotoxic-organophosphates
#9
Ilya V Lyagin, Elena N Efremenko
Novel methods of molecular modeling help solving urgent problems in drug design, directed evolution of biocatalysts and biosensors, and a lot of other research fields. Implementation of such methods to organophosphorus hydrolase being perfect research object that hydrolyzes dangerous neurotoxic organophosphates could intensify development of antidote and protective preparations to treat poisoning. Structures of enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes (EPCs) based on hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) with different biopolymers (various modifications of polyglutamic and polyaspartic acid, as well as hydroxyethyl starch and succinylated gelatin) were simulated at different pH using molecular docking...
October 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097222/searching-for-putative-binding-sites-of-the-bispyridinium-compound-mb327-in-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#10
Thomas Wein, Georg Höfner, Sebastian Rappenglück, Sonja Sichler, Karin V Niessen, Thomas Seeger, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Klaus T Wanner
Irreversible inhibition of the acetylcholine esterase upon intoxication with organophosphorus compounds leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and a subsequent desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which may ultimately result in respiratory failure. The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been found to restore functional activity of nAChR thus representing a promising starting point for the development of new drugs for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. In order to optimize the resensitizing effect of MB327 on nAChR, it would be very helpful to know the MB327 specific binding site to apply structure based molecular modeling...
October 30, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064144/treatment-of-self-poisoning-at-a-tertiary-level-hospital-in-bangladesh-cost-to-patients-and-government
#11
Vasundhara Verma, Sujat Paul, Aniruddha Ghose, Michael Eddleston, Flemming Konradsen
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 10,000 people die from suicide annually in Bangladesh, many from pesticide poisoning. We aimed to estimate financial costs to patients and health services of treating patients with self-poisoning. METHODS: Data on direct costs to families, sources of funds for treatment and family wealth were collected prospectively over a one-month period in 2016 at the tertiary Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. Aggregate operational costs to the government were calculated using annual budget, bed occupancy and length-of-stay data...
October 24, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024789/in-vitro-pharmacological-characterization-of-the-bispyridinium-non-oxime-compound-mb327-and-its-2-and-3-regioisomers
#12
K V Niessen, T Seeger, S Rappenglück, T Wein, G Höfner, K T Wanner, H Thiermann, F Worek
The primary toxic mechanism of organophosphorus compounds, i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, is based on the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. In consequence of the impaired hydrolysis, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine accumulates in cholinergic synapses and disturbs functional activity of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by overstimulation and subsequent desensitization. The resulting cholinergic syndrome will become acute life-threatening, if not treated adequately. The current standard treatment, consisting of administration of a competitive mAChR antagonist (e...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993240/the-oximes-hi-6-and-mmb-4-fail-to-reactivate-soman-inhibited-human-and-guinea-pig-ache-a-kinetic-in-vitro-study
#13
Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Timo Wille
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by the organophosphorus nerve (OP) agent soman underlies a spontaneous and extremely rapid dealkylation ("aging") reaction which prevents reactivation by oximes. However, in vivo studies in various, soman poisoned animal species showed a therapeutic effect of oximes, with the exact mechanism of this effect remaining still unclear. In order to get more insight and a basis for the extrapolation of animal data to humans, we applied a dynamic in vitro model with continuous online determination of AChE activity...
October 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942081/environmental-exposure-to-organophosphorus-nerve-agents
#14
REVIEW
Slavica Vucinic, Biljana Antonijevic, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Anca Oana Docea, Alexander E Nosyrev, Boris N Izotov, Horst Thiermann, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Dragica Brkic
Exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents, the most deadly chemical warfare agents, is possible in a variety of situations, such as destruction of chemical warfare agents, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts or accidents in research laboratories and storage facilities. Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed of at the sea in the post World War II period, with European, Russian, Japanese and US coasts being the most affected. Sulfur mustard, Lewisite and nerve agents appear to be the most frequently chemical warfare agents disposed of at the sea...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941624/the-biodistribution-and-pharmacokinetics-of-the-oxime-acetylcholinesterase-reactivator-rs194b-in-guinea-pigs
#15
Michael A Malfatti, Heather A Enright, Nicholas A Be, Edward A Kuhn, Saphon Hok, M Windy McNerney, Victoria Lao, Tuan H Nguyen, Felice C Lightstone, Timothy S Carpenter, Brian J Bennion, Carlos A Valdez
Organophosphorus-based (OP) nerve agents represent some of the most toxic substances known to mankind. The current standard of care for exposure has changed very little in the past decades, and relies on a combination of atropine to block receptor activity and oxime-type acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators to reverse the OP binding to AChE. Although these oximes can block the effects of nerve agents, their overall efficacy is reduced by their limited capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). RS194B, a new oxime developed by Radic et al...
November 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864276/physiopathology-of-multiple-organ-dysfunctions-in-severely-monocrotophos-poisoned-rabbits
#16
Yun-Xiu Hou, Shi-Wen Liu, Lian-Wen Wang, Shu-Hua Wu
OBJECTIVE: Acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning has a serious threat on people's health. This study aimed to investigate the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in severely monocrotophos-poisoned rabbits. METHODS: Chinchilla rabbits were used to build the monocrotophos-poisoned animal model via subcutaneous abdominal injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined using the dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid enzyme kinetics method, and the free organophosphorus (FOP) toxic substances content was analyzed using the enzyme inhibition method...
August 31, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862523/l-and-t-type-calcium-channel-blockers-protect-against-the-inhibitory-effects-of-mipafox-on-neurite-outgrowth-and-plasticity-related-proteins-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#17
Laís Silva Fernandes, Neife Aparecida G Dos Santos, Guilherme Luz Emerick, Antonio Cardozo Dos Santos
Some organophosphorus compounds (OP), including the pesticide mipafox, produce late onset distal axonal degeneration, known as organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). The underlying mechanism involves irreversible inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) activity, elevated intracellular calcium levels, increased activity of calcium-activated proteases and impaired neuritogenesis. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) appear to play a role in several neurologic disorders, including OPIDN. Therefore, this study aimed to examine and compare the neuroprotective effects of T-type (amiloride) and L-type (nimodipine) VGCC blockers induced by the inhibitory actions of mipafox on neurite outgrowth and axonal proteins of retinoic-acid-stimulated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a neuronal model widely employed to determine the neurotoxicity attributed to OP...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853097/application-of-tetrameric-recombinant-human-butyrylcholinesterase-as-a-biopharmaceutical-for-amelioration-of-symptoms-of-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#18
S S Terekhov, V A Palikov, Y A Palikova, I A Dyachenko, O G Shamborant, I V Smirnov, P Masson, A G Gabibov
We present a procedure for optimizing the expression of recombinant tetrameric butyrylcholinesterase that enables large-scale production with the yield >30 mg/liter (>90 mg/roller bottle). Intravenous injection of the preparation significantly increased survival and decreased the severity of symptoms of poisoning with paraoxon, an organophosphorus toxin.
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726199/a-study-of-the-protective-properties-of-an-antibody-based-antidote-metabolizing-organophosphorus-pesticide-paraoxon
#19
Yu A Mokrushina, A V Stepanova, V A Palikov, A V Stepanov, G I Belous, I A Dyachenko, V D Knorre, I V Smirnov, A G Gabibov
A catalytic antibody A17 and its mutants highly efficiently interact with organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon. In this work, we studied the protective properties of antibody A17-K47 in paraoxon poisoning using a mouse model. The optimal paraoxon dose simulating the acute toxic effect of organophosphorus compounds was 550 μg/kg. The pharmacokinetic parameters of A17-K47 antibody were t1/2distr =7.2±1.4 min, t1/2el =330±20 min. The antibody did not cause toxic effects when administered at a ten-fold calculated therapeutic dose (610 mg/kg)...
June 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718371/changes-in-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-cell-cycle-regulation-and-the-relative-telomere-length-in-the-process-of-canceration-induced-by-omethoate
#20
Xiaoran Duan, Yongli Yang, Sihua Wang, Xiaolei Feng, Tuanwei Wang, Pengpeng Wang, Suxiang Liu, Lei Li, Wu Yao, Liuxin Cui, Wei Wang
Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs), with high efficiency, broad-spectrum and low residue, are widely used in China. Omethoate is a broad category of organophosphorous pesticides and is more domestically utilized which has chronic toxic effect on human health caused by long-term, low-dose exposure to Ops, recently its potential genotoxicity has attracted wide attention which can cause chromosomal DNA damage. Thus, the aim of this study is screen susceptible biomarkers and explore the mechanism of canceration induced by omethoate...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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