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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895857/frequency-of-vana-vanb-and-vanh-variants-amongst-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-isolated-from-patients-in-central-region-of-iran
#1
Jaafar Rezvani, Reza Nasr, Fatemeh T Shamsabadi, Mohammad Reza Akbari Eidgahi
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the VRE frequency and the rate of each gene in isolated enterococci from patients with intestinal infection in the central region of Iran. BACKGROUND: Enterococci infections are a public health growing concern due to the glycopeptide antibiotics resistance especially vancomycin. Genes, vanA, B, and H contribute to the influence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted from January to July 2014 in Shahrood university hospital...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889877/maldi-tof-ms-meets-wgs-in-a-vre-outbreak-investigation
#2
S Schlebusch, G R Price, R L Gallagher, V Horton-Szar, L D H Elbourne, P Griffin, D J Venter, S O Jensen, S J Van Hal
The use of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) and WGS (whole genome sequencing) has been described for identification and strain relatedness determination. We describe the complementary use of MALDI-TOF MS and WGS in a VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci) outbreak investigation, and discuss some of the challenges with defining strain similarity across these two platforms. Although both assays indicated multiple clusters involved in the outbreak of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from positive blood cultures of four haematology-oncology patients, the small cohort and discrepancies between findings indicate the limitations of MALDI-TOF MS and the cautious interpretation of MALDI-TOF MS dendrograms during outbreaks...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866673/surveillance-of-tedizolid-activity-and-resistance-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-gram-positive-pathogens-collected-over-5-years-from-the-united-states-and-europe
#3
Mekki Bensaci, Daniel Sahm
In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparators against 11,231 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States (84 centers) and Europe (115 centers) were summarized as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance program between 2009 and 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria...
October 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856721/comparative-in-vitro-activity-of-oritavancin-and-other-agents-against-vancomycin-susceptible-and-resistant-enterococci
#4
Debora Sweeney, Audrey Stoneburner, Dean L Shinabarger, Francis F Arhin, Adam Belley, Greg Moeck, Chris M Pillar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843959/antimicrobial-resistance-pattern-of-gram-positive-bacteria-during-three-consecutive-years-at-the-nephrology-ward-of-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-shiraz-southwest-iran
#5
Iman Karimzadeh, Mona Mirzaee, Niloofar Sadeghimanesh, Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Gram-positive bacteria during three consecutive years at the nephrology ward of Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Southwest of Iran. METHODS: During a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015, data of all biological samples of hospitalized patients at the adult nephrology ward of Namazi Hospital were sent to the central laboratory for identification of Gram-positive microorganisms and subsequently, their antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method were analyzed in a retrospective manner...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843438/a-decade-long-commitment-to-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-in-portugal
#6
REVIEW
Catarina M Marinho, Tiago Santos, Alexandre Gonçalves, Patrícia Poeta, Gilberto Igrejas
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a worldwide problem with serious health and economic repercussions. Since the 1940s, underuse, overuse, and misuse of antibiotics have had a significant environmental downside. Large amounts of antibiotics not fully metabolized after use in human and veterinary medicine, and other applications, are annually released into the environment. The result has been the development and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to many years of selective pressure. Surveillance of AMR provides important information that helps in monitoring and understanding how resistance mechanisms develop and disseminate within different environments...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825401/incidence-and-outcomes-associated-with-infections-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-the-united-states-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Eli N Perencevich, Rajeshwari Nair, Richard E Nelson, Matthew Samore, Karim Khader, Margaret L Chorazy, Loreen A Herwaldt, Amy Blevins, Melissa A Ward, Marin L Schweizer
BACKGROUND Information about the health and economic impact of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can inform investments in infection prevention and development of novel therapeutics. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the incidence of VRE infection in the United States and the clinical and economic outcomes. METHODS We searched various databases for US studies published from January 1, 2000, through June 8, 2015, that evaluated incidence, mortality, length of stay, discharge to a long-term care facility, readmission, recurrence, or costs attributable to VRE infections...
November 9, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822366/global-variances-in-infection-control-practices-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-results-of-an-electronic-survey
#8
H Isenman, J Michaels, D Fisher
An electronic survey was disseminated amongst infection control practitioners to investigate the variation in practices toward vancomycin resistant enterococci. There were 235 analysable responses, mostly from doctors, in 48 countries. The survey considered active surveillance, in-hospital precautions and tagging and untagging processes. There was a great variation in responses between and within countries highlighting a gap in guidance for practitioners on which to base institutional policy.
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804901/longitudinal-multicenter-analysis-of-outcomes-after-cessation-of-control-measures-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#9
Camille Lemieux, Michael Gardam, Gerald Evans, Michael John, Kathryn N Suh, Carl vanWalraven, Elisa Vicencio, Cameron Coulby, Virginia Roth, Susy Hota
OBJECTIVE To assess clinically relevant outcomes after complete cessation of control measures for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). DESIGN Quasi-experimental ecological study over 3.5 years. METHODS All VRE screening and isolation practices at 4 large academic hospitals in Ontario, Canada, were stopped on July 1, 2012. In total, 618 anonymized abstracted charts of patients with VRE-positive clinical isolates identified between July 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, were reviewed to determine whether the case was a true VRE infection, a VRE colonization or contaminant, or a true VRE bacteremia...
November 2, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803456/linezolid-induced-thrombocytopenia-is-caused-by-suppression-of-platelet-production-via-phosphorylation-of-myosin-light-chain-2
#10
Masataka Tajima, Yoshinori Kato, Jun Matsumoto, Iori Hirosawa, Mariko Suzuki, Yuki Takashio, Mao Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Nishi, Harumi Yamada
Linezolid (LZD) is an antimicrobial that is commonly used for treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. However, the development of thrombocytopenia, one of the most frequent adverse side effects of this antimicrobial, can lead to discontinuation of LZD treatment. While clinical studies indicate that risk factors for the development of LZD-induced thrombocytopenia include treatment for >14 consecutive days, renal dysfunction, and chronic liver disease, the fundamental mechanism governing the pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795399/antibody-based-therapy-for-enterococcal-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#11
Ana L Flores-Mireles, Jennifer N Walker, Aaron Potretzke, Henry L Schreiber, Jerome S Pinkner, Tyler M Bauman, Alyssa M Park, Alana Desai, Scott J Hultgren, Michael G Caparon
: Gram-positive bacteria in the genus Enterococcus are a frequent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a disease whose treatment is increasingly challenged by multiantibiotic-resistant strains. We have recently shown that E. faecalis uses the Ebp pilus, a heteropolymeric surface fiber, to bind the host protein fibrinogen as a critical step in CAUTI pathogenesis. Fibrinogen is deposited on catheters due to catheter-induced inflammation and is recognized by the N-terminal domain of EbpA (EbpA(NTD)), the Ebp pilus's adhesin...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790430/screening-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-and-associated-risk-factors-among-patients-admitted-to-an-adult-intensive-care-unit-of-a-large-teaching-hospital
#12
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Molly Mary Thabah
INTRODUCTION: Gut colonization with Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) increases the risk of acquiring infection during hospital stay. Patients admitted in the ICU's are the major reservoirs for VRE colonization due to higher antibiotic pressure. AIM: To determine the rate of VRE colonization among patients admitted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and to assess the various risk factors which are associated with VRE colonization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out over a period of 18 months from September 2013 to February 2015 in the Jawaharlal Institute of Post graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, South India...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787755/antimicrobial-peptide-isolated-from-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-k14-revitalizes-its-use-in-combinatorial-drug-therapy
#13
Sudip Regmi, Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Mi Ri Kim, Jin Cheol Yoo
The present study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of an antimicrobial peptide (CSpK14) and the synergies thereof with β-lactams against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and Enterococci (VRE). Our strain was isolated from fermented food (kimchi), which is 99.79 % homologous with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T). CSpK14 was purified to homogeneity by diammonium sulfate precipitation, concentration, dialysis, and followed by two-stage chromatographic separation, i...
October 27, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776824/a-descriptive-case-study-of-the-changing-nature-of-nurses-work-the-impact-of-managing-infectious-diseases-requiring-isolation
#14
Alyshah Kaba, Andrea Baumann, Camille Kolotylo, Noori Akhtar-Danesh
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Clostridium difficile have increased in health care facilities worldwide. The complexity of caring for patients with infectious comorbidities has impacted nurses' daily work. A mixed-methods study at 1 community hospital in Ontario, Canada, demonstrated the cumulative effect of additional time spent on infection prevention and control measures resulted in trade-offs, cutting corners, and raised concerns about the quality and continuity of care...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770152/vana-gene-harboring-enterococcal-and-non-enterococcal-isolates-expressing-high-level-vancomycin-and-teicoplanin-resistance-reservoired-in-surface-waters
#15
Mustafa Nakipoğlu, Fadime Yilmaz, Bulent Icgen
Untreated wastewaters and treated effluents even after final disinfection contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes before they are released into surface waters. A correlation between resistant bacteria and antibiotics in surface waters has been found, as have antibiotic resistance genes. Of particular interest are vancomycin-resistant enterococci harboring vanA gene that confers high level of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics including teicoplanin. Therefore, in this study, river water samples were analysed to investigate vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant bacterial isolates harboring vanA gene...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766376/-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-the-intensive-care-unit-reasonable-measures-for-prevention
#16
R Fussen, S Lemmen
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria present an increasing threat for intensive care patients. Whereas colonization of intensive care patients with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in German ICUs has remained at a constant level in recent years and therapeutic options have improved, colonization and infections with MDR gram-negative bacteria and vancomycin-resistant enterococci are increasing year by year. Only a few or even no therapeutic options remain for the treatment of these bacteria...
October 20, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747932/reengineering-antibiotics-to-combat-bacterial-resistance-click-chemistry-1-2-3-triazole-vancomycin-dimers-with-potent-activity-against-mrsa-and-vre
#17
Steven M Silverman, John E Moses, K Barry Sharpless
Vancomycin has long been considered a drug of last resort. Its efficiency in treating multiple drug-resistant bacterial infections, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has had a profound effect on the treatment of life-threatening infections. However, the emergence of resistance to vancomycin is a cause for significant worldwide concern, prompting the urgent development of new effective treatments for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. Harnessing the benefits of multivalency and cooperativity against vancomycin-resistant strains, we report a Click Chemistry approach towards reengineered vancomycin derivatives and the synthesis of a number of dimers with increased potency against MRSA and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE; VanB)...
October 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726900/first-nosocomial-outbreak-of-vana-type-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-raffinosus-in-france
#18
S Jolivet, M Fines-Guyon, B Nebbad, J C Merle, D Le Pluart, C Brun-Buisson, J-W Decousser, V Cattoir
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus has rarely been associated with nosocomial infection and outbreaks. AIM: To report the successful control of a nosocomial outbreak of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus in a surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The investigation of the outbreak is reported with control measures taken. Molecular typing of vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus isolates was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721296/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-neonatal-stool-as-a-cause-of-septicemia-challenges-for-infection-control-practices
#19
Satyendra Kaushal, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba, Ashok Kumar
The increasing reports of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) as a cause of neonatal septicemia are of recent interest. However, in majority of the cases, the source of VRE could not be located. As a consequence, the real importance of VRE and its control measures is undermined. Herein, we report a case of neonatal septicemia due to VRE (Enterococcus faecalis) of vanA genotype with VRE carriage in stool of the neonates as a possible source of sepsis. The report put forwards some lacunae in the infection control practices that are presently followed in the country...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697231/mibalert-a-new-information-tool-to-fight-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-the-hospital-setting
#20
Bente Olesen, Jacob Anhøj, Kenneth Palle Rasmussen, Kåre Mølbak, Marianne Voldstedlund
BACKGROUND: Although the timely isolation of patients is an essential intervention to limit spread of drug-resistant bacteria, information about the colonization status is often unavailable or lost when patients are readmitted or transferred between hospitals. Therefore, carriers of drug resistant bacteria are not recognized sufficiently early, and proper and timely isolation precautions are not taken. Consequently, resistant bacteria of public health concerns including vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can spread epidemically...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
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