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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658219/-vancomycine-resistant-enterocci-vre-a-new-reality-in-our-hospitals
#1
Estelle Moulin, Vanessa Deggim-Messmer, Véronique Erard, Laurent Christin, Christiane Petignat, Dominique S Blanc, Laurence Senn
Limiting the emergence and spread of multi-resistant bacteria is a global concern and the management of colonized patient represents a real challenge, especially in the hospital setting, where risks of acquisition and transmission are increased. Switzerland is not protected from undesirable trends : for instance, recent outbreaks of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been reported in several hospitals in western Switzerland. Since 2011, more than 250 patients have been tested positive during these outbreak episodes and the molecular analysis of the documented strains shows an unexpected diversity, including both sporadic and epidemic strains...
April 11, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642369/bis-indolyl-benzenoids-hydroxypyrrolidine-derivatives-and-other-constituents-from-cultures-of-the-marine-sponge-associated-fungus-aspergillus-candidus-kufa0062
#2
Suradet Buttachon, Alice A Ramos, Ângela Inácio, Tida Dethoup, Luís Gales, Michael Lee, Paulo M Costa, Artur M S Silva, Nazim Sekeroglu, Eduardo Rocha, Madalena M M Pinto, José A Pereira, Anake Kijjoa
A previously unreported bis -indolyl benzenoid, candidusin D ( 2e ) and a new hydroxypyrrolidine alkaloid, preussin C ( 5b ) were isolated together with fourteen previously described compounds: palmitic acid, clionasterol, ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxides, chrysophanic acid ( 1a ), emodin ( 1b ), six bis -indolyl benzenoids including asterriquinol D dimethyl ether ( 2a ), petromurin C ( 2b ), kumbicin B ( 2c ), kumbicin A ( 2d ), 2″-oxoasterriquinol D methyl ether ( 3 ), kumbicin D ( 4 ), the hydroxypyrrolidine alkaloid preussin ( 5a ), (3 S , 6 S )-3,6-dibenzylpiperazine-2,5-dione ( 6 ) and 4-(acetylamino) benzoic acid ( 7 ), from the cultures of the marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus candidus KUFA 0062...
April 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620418/determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-quinolones-and-vancomycin-in-selected-human-enteric-pathogens-from-prince-edward-island-canada
#3
Babafela Awosile, Greg J German, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Matthew Elijah Saab, Luke C Heider, J Trenton McClure
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp and Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and quinolones in humans on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Convenience fecal samples from individuals on Prince Edward Island were screened phenotypically using selective culture and genotypically using multiplex polymerase chain reactions to detect E. coli and Enterococcus spp. resistant to critically important antimicrobials...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615987/mutacin-1140-lantibiotic-variants-are-efficacious-against-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
Johan A Kers, Robert E Sharp, Anthony W Defusco, Jae H Park, Jin Xu, Mark E Pulse, William J Weiss, Martin Handfield
Lantibiotics offer an untapped pipeline for the development of novel antibiotics to treat serious Gram-positive (+) infections including Clostridium difficile . Mutacin 1140 (MU1140) is a lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus mutans and acts via a novel mechanism of action, which may limit the development of resistance. This study sought to identify a lead compound for the treatment of C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD). Compounds were selected from a saturation mutagenesis library of 418 single amino acid variants of MU1140...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589825/unintended-consequences-of-pretransplant-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-screening-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-among-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients
#5
Erica J Stohs, Trenton MacAllister, Steven A Pergam, Elizabeth M Krantz, Rupali Jain, Ania Sweet, Catherine Liu
We examined vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)-directed antimicrobial use and VRE bacteremia in a cohort of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation patients from a center where VRE screening is standard prior to transplant. In this cohort, VRE bacteremia (VREB) was infrequent. In patients without VREB, colonized patients received VRE therapy more often than noncolonized patients.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
March 28, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588324/wisconsin-microbiome-study-a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-dietary-fibre-microbiome-composition-and-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-rationale-and-methods
#6
Shoshannah Eggers, Kristen Mc Malecki, Paul Peppard, Julie Mares, Daniel Shirley, Sanjay K Shukla, Keith Poulsen, Ronald Gangnon, Megan Duster, Ashley Kates, Garret Suen, Ajay K Sethi, Nasia Safdar
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections, such as those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant enterococci, fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium difficile is crucial. Evidence suggests that dietary fibre increases gut microbial diversity, which may help prevent colonisation and subsequent infection by MDROs. The aim of the Winning the War on Antibiotic Resistance (WARRIOR) project is to examine associations of dietary fibre consumption with the composition of the gut microbiota and gut colonisation by MDROs...
March 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581054/typing-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-with-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-in-a-nosocomial-outbreak-setting
#7
Barbara J Holzknecht, Rimtas Dargis, Michael Pedersen, Mette Pinholt, Jens Jørgen Christensen
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the usefulness of Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) typing as a first-line epidemiological tool in a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). METHODS: Fifty-five VREfm, previously characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS), were included and analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. To take peak reproducibility into account, ethanol-formic acid extraction and other steps of the protocol were conducted as triplets...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572473/lactobacillus-paracasei-cncm-i-3689-reduces-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-persistence-and-promotes-bacteroidetes-resilience-in-the-gut-following-antibiotic-challenge
#8
Laureen Crouzet, Muriel Derrien, Claire Cherbuy, Sandra Plancade, Mélanie Foulon, Benjamin Chalin, Johan E T van Hylckama Vlieg, Gianfranco Grompone, Lionel Rigottier-Gois, Pascale Serror
Enterococci, in particular vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Promoting intestinal resistance against enterococci could reduce the risk of VRE infections. We investigated the effects of two Lactobacillus strains to prevent intestinal VRE. We used an intestinal colonisation mouse model based on an antibiotic-induced microbiota dysbiosis to mimic enterococci overgrowth and VRE persistence. Each Lactobacillus spp. was administered daily to mice starting one week before antibiotic treatment until two weeks after antibiotic and VRE inoculation...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566004/prevalence-of-vancomycin-variable-enterococcus-faecium-vve-among-vana-positive-sterile-site-isolates-and-patient-factors-associated-with-vve-bacteremia
#9
Philipp Kohler, Alireza Eshaghi, Hyunjin C Kim, Agron Plevneshi, Karen Green, Barbara M Willey, Allison McGeer, Samir N Patel
Vancomycin-variable enterococci (VVE) are vanA-positive, vancomycin-susceptible enterococci with the ability to revert to a vancomycin-resistant phenotype on exposure to vancomycin. We sought to assess the prevalence of VVE and to determine clinical characteristics of patients infected with VVE. We prospectively collected Enterococcus faecium sterile site isolates from Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network hospitals from January 2015 to June 2016 and calculated VVE (defined as vanA-positive, vancomycin-susceptible isolates) prevalence among vanA-containing isolates...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562944/long-term-impact-of-universal-contact-precautions-on-rates-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-icus-a-comparative-effectiveness-study
#10
E Yoko Furuya, Bevin Cohen, Haomiao Jia, Elaine L Larson
OBJECTIVETo evaluate the impact of universal contact precautions (UCP) on rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in intensive care units (ICUs) over 9 yearsDESIGNRetrospective, nonrandomized observational studySETTINGAn 800-bed adult academic medical center in New York CityPARTICIPANTSAll patients admitted to 6 ICUs, 3 of which instituted UCP in 2007METHODSUsing a comparative effectiveness approach, we studied the longitudinal impact of UCP on MDRO incidence density rates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae...
May 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560726/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-antibacterial-activity-of-bottromycins
#11
Takeshi Yamada, Miu Yagita, Yutaka Kobayashi, Goh Sennari, Hiroyuki Shimamura, Hidehito Matsui, Yuki Horimatsu, Hideaki Hanaki, Tomoyasu Hirose, Satoshi Omura, Toshiaki Sunazuka
Total synthesis of bottromycin A2 can be accomplished through a diastereoselective Mannich reaction of a chiral sulfinamide, mercury-mediated intermolecular amidination, and cyclization of a constrained tetracyclic peptide. Exploitation of this process allowed the synthesis of several novel bottromycin analogs. The antimicrobial activity of these analogs was evaluated in vitro against Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559785/safety-of-high-dose-daptomycin-in-patients-with-severe-renal-impairment
#12
Chih-Hsun Tai, Chi-Hao Shao, Chen-You Chen, Shu-Wen Lin, Chien-Chih Wu
Background: Treatment options are limited for infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with concentration-dependent killing characteristic and dose-dependent post-antibiotic effect. To achieve optimized pharma-codynamic effect, some experts advocated using a high dose of daptomycin (≥9 mg/kg) for severe infections. However, the safety of high-dose therapy in patients with renal impairment remains unknown. This study was aimed to evaluate the safety of daptomycin in patients with severe renal impairment...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553417/active-surveillance-for-asymptomatic-colonisation-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-patients-transferred-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-the-occupied-palestinian-territory
#13
Adham Abu Taha, Ayman Daoud, Sawsan Zaid, Sajida Sammour, Maram Belleh, Refqa Daifi
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530853/tapering-courses-of-oral-vancomycin-induce-persistent-disruption-of-the-microbiota-that-provide-colonization-resistance-to-clostridium-difficile-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-mice
#14
Myreen E Tomas, Thriveen S C Mana, Brigid M Wilson, Michelle M Nerandzic, Joussef Samira, Miguel Quinones-Mateu, Curtis J Donskey
Vancomycin taper regimens are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. One rationale for tapering and pulsing of the dose at the end of therapy is to reduce the selective pressure of vancomycin on the indigenous intestinal microbiota. Here, we used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that the indigenous microbiota that provide colonization resistance against C. difficile and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is re-populated during tapering courses of vancomycin. Mice were treated orally with vancomycin daily for 10 days, vancomycin in a tapering dose for 42 days, fidaxomicin for 10 days, or saline...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529703/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-a-silver-impregnated-hydrophilic-pu-foam
#15
Steven L Percival
A novel hydrophilic polyurethane (PU) foam dressing which is impregnated with silver chloride, Optifoam® Gentle (OG) Ag+ (Medline Industries Inc., Chicago, Illinois), was evaluated in this study. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of elution of silver from the foam dressing over a period of 168 hours into simulated wound fluid and an evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy using zone of inhibition (ZOI), direct kill, and time-kill viability. Thirty-two microorganisms associated with wounds including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans, and antibiotic-resistant strains (Methicillin-resistant S...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527303/colonization-of-long-term-care-facility-residents-in-three-italian-provinces-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#16
Elisabetta Nucleo, Mariasofia Caltagirone, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Roberto D'Angelo, Elena Fogato, Massimo Confalonieri, Camilla Reboli, Albert March, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Elisabetta Pagani, Richard Aschbacher, Roberta Migliavacca, Laura Pagani
Background: Rationale and aims of the study were to compare colonization frequencies with MDR bacteria isolated from LTCF residents in three different Northern Italian regions, to investigate risk factors for colonization and the genotypic characteristics of isolates. The screening included Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and high-level AmpC cephalosporinases, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii , methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525835/antimicrobial-resistance-amr-nanomachines-mechanisms-for-fluoroquinolone-and-glycopeptide-recognition-efflux-and-or-deactivation
#17
REVIEW
Mary K Phillips-Jones, Stephen E Harding
In this review, we discuss mechanisms of resistance identified in bacterial agents Staphylococcus aureus and the enterococci towards two priority classes of antibiotics-the fluoroquinolones and the glycopeptides. Members of both classes interact with a number of components in the cells of these bacteria, so the cellular targets are also considered. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms include efflux pumps (MepA, NorA, NorB, NorC, MdeA, LmrS or SdrM in S. aureus and EfmA or EfrAB in the enterococci) for removal of fluoroquinolone from the intracellular environment of bacterial cells and/or protection of the gyrase and topoisomerase IV target sites in Enterococcus faecalis by Qnr-like proteins...
March 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525219/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-spiropyrimidinetriones-oxazolidinone-derivatives-as-antibacterial-agents
#18
Asher M Siddiqui, Jitendra A Sattigeri, Kalim Javed, Syed Shafi, M Shamim, Smita Singhal, Zubbair M Malik
Gram-positive bacteria are among the most common human pathogens associated with clinical infections which range from mild skin infections to sepsis. Resistance towards existing class of drugs by Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is a growing concern. There is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics which are active against resistant strains of Gram positive bacteria. We report herein a novel class of spiropyrimidinetrione oxazolidinone derivatives as novel antibacterial agents...
March 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522474/multiresistant-bacteria-isolated-from-activated-sludge-in-austria
#19
Herbert Galler, Gebhard Feierl, Christian Petternel, Franz F Reinthaler, Doris Haas, Juliana Habib, Clemens Kittinger, Josefa Luxner, Gernot Zarfel
Wastewater contains different kinds of contaminants, including antibiotics and bacterial isolates with human-generated antibiotic resistances. In industrialized countries most of the wastewater is processed in wastewater treatment plants which do not only include commercial wastewater, but also wastewater from hospitals. Three multiresistant pathogens-extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (Gram negative bacilli), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)-were chosen for screening in a state of the art wastewater treatment plant in Austria...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521051/typing-of-enterococcus-spp-strains-in-4-hospitals-in-the-ma%C3%A5-opolska-region-in-poland
#20
Katarzyna Talaga, Dalma Odrowąż-Konduracka, Beata Paradowska, Barbara Jagiencarz-Starzec, Zdzisław Wolak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Anna Szczypta
BACKGROUND: In the Małopolska province, the first case of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) occurrence was an outbreak in 2001 caused by strains of the genus E. faecium carrying the vanA operon. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of virulence determinants among Enterococcus spp. in patients hospitalized in the Małopolska region in 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and the E test...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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