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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445637/virulence-determinants-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-different-sources-in-southwest-iran
#1
Maniya Arshadi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Moloud Sadat Motahar, Saber Soltani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
Background: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from different sources in southwest Iran from Mar to Sep 2015. Methods: Overall, 120 E. faecium isolates (80 VRE and 40 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci [VSE] isolates) were obtained from four hospitals. The resistance of the VRE isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the virulence genes carried by the E...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435582/the-importance-of-contact-precautions-for-endemic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#2
Michael A Rubin, Matthew H Samore, Anthony D Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432868/repurposing-niclosamide-for-intestinal-decolonization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#3
Haroon Mohammad, Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Nader S Abutaleb, Mohamed N Seleem
Enterococci are commensal microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans. Though normally innocuous to the host, strains of Enterococcus exhibiting resistance to vancomycin (VRE) have been associated with high rates of infection and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Decolonization of VRE represents a key strategy to curb infection in highly-susceptible patients. However, there is a dearth of decolonizing agents available clinically that are effective against VRE. The present study confirms that niclosamide, an anthelmintic drug, has potent antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant E...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423995/gold-nanoclusters-for-targeting-mrsa-in-vivo
#4
Yangzhouyun Xie, Yong Liu, Junchuan Yang, Yuan Liu, Fupin Hu, Kui Zhu, Xingyu Jiang
Widespread multidrug resistance caused by the abuse of antibiotics calls for novel strategies and materials. Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are scarcely explored for combating multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vivo. We herein synthesize a novel class of AuNCs, namely quaternary ammonia (QA)-capped AuNCs (QA-AuNCs), as potent antibiotics selectively targeting MDR Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in vivo. QA-AuNCs kill bacteria via a combined physicochemical mechanism, and show excellent therapeutic effect on both the skin infection model and the bacteremia model induced by MRSA...
February 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419918/isolation-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre-from-apparently-healthy-human-animal-attendants-cattle-and-cattle-wastes-in-tanzania
#5
B P Madoshi, M M A Mtambo, A P Muhairwa, A M Lupindu, J E Olsen
AIM: The study aimed to isolate and characterise Enterococcus species from apparently healthy waste attendants, cattle and cattle waste in Tanzania. Emphasis was given to antimicrobial resistance and in particular occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. METHODS AND RESULTS: Faecal samples were collected from healthy cattle, cattle waste attendants, and cattle house wastes and isolation of Enterococcus species was performed using Slanetz Bartley agar. Isolates were characterized with regard to species, antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of vancomycin resistance genes...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407752/presence-of-the-esp-gene-in-enterococcus-faecium-derived-from-oropharyngeal-microbiota-of-haematology-patients
#6
Milica Jovanović, Tanja Tošić, Snežana Jovanović, Rajica Stošović, Goran Stevanović, Branko Velebit, Marcus John Zervos
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic use and immunocompromised status in haematology patients have been shown to determine the constituents of commensal microbiota with highly increased resistance, including vancomycin resistant enterococci. We compared the carriage of virulence factor genes and the capacity for biofilm formation in vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) originating from the oropharyngeal and stool cultures of haematology patients. DESIGN: PCR tests were used to investigate the presence of genes encoding pathogenicity factors (esp and hyl) in VRE isolates...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407252/pre-transplant-gut-colonization-with-intrinsically-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-e-gallinarum-and-e-casseliflavus-and-outcomes-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#7
Armin Rashidi, Maryam Ebadi, Robin R Shields-Cutler, Todd E DeFor, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Patricia Ferrieri, Jo-Anne H Young, Gary M Dunny, Dan Knights, Daniel J Weisdorf
Pre-transplant gut colonization with intrinsically vancomycin-resistant enterococci (iVRE: E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus) is uncommon and with unknown clinical impact. In a matched-pairs analysis of patients with vs. without iVRE colonization (n = 18 in each group), we demonstrated significantly higher two-year overall survival (86 [52-96]% vs. 35 [8-65]%, P<0.01) and lower non-relapse mortality (P<0.01) among colonized patients. Putative metabolomes differentiated iVRE from E. faecalis/faecium and may contribute to a healthier gut microbiome in iVRE-colonized patients...
January 30, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403213/risk-factors-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-prospective-study-in-a-level-iii-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#8
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Ramachandran Rameshkumar
PURPOSE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens across the globe. Gut colonization rate with VRE is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to the higher antibiotic pressure. VRE colonization increases the risk of developing infection up to 5-10 folds. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of VRE colonization among the patients admitted to pediatric ICU (PICU) and risk factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected after 48 h of admission to PICU from 198 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396199/clinical-management-of-non-faecium-non-faecalis-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-infection-focus-on-enterococcus-gallinarum-and-enterococcus-casseliflavus-flavescens
#9
REVIEW
Jacopo Monticelli, Anna Knezevich, Roberto Luzzati, Stefano Di Bella
Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus/flavescens are enterococci intrinsically resistant to vancomycin belonging to the E. gallinarum group. They are responsible mainly for healthcare-associated infections, in particular bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical wound infections. Diseases due to these bacteria are significantly increasing worldwide, as they are prone to cause infection in patients with concurrent hepatobiliary or oncohematological disorders. Along with their distinguishing vancomycin resistance, due to a chromosomally-encoded VanC operon, their additional intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics other than glycopeptides limits the therapeutic choices...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390132/a-review-of-combination-antimicrobial-therapy-for-enterococcus-faecalis-bloodstream-infections-and-infective-endocarditis
#10
Maya Beganovic, Megan K Luther, Louis B Rice, Cesar A Arias, Michael J Rybak, Kerry L LaPlante
Enterococci, one of the most common causes of hospital-associated infections, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. Enterococcus faecalis, the more common and virulent species, cause serious high-inoculum infections, namely infective endocarditis, that are associated with cardiac surgery and mortality rates that remained unchanged for the last 30 years. The best cure for these infections are observed with combination antibiotic therapy; however, optimal treatment has not been fully elucidated...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374204/a-retrospective-clinical-comparison-of-daptomycin-vs-daptomycin-and-a-beta-lactam-antibiotic-for-treating-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bloodstream-infections
#11
Yu-Chung Chuang, Pao-Yu Chen, Chi-Ying Lin, Yee-Chun Chen, Jann-Tay Wang, Shan-Chwen Chang
There is limited clinical evidence to support the combination of daptomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics (DAP + BLA) for treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) bloodstream infections (BSI). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of VRE-BSI during 2010-2015. The primary endpoint was mortality at the end of treatment. We included 114 patients who received DAP for VRE-BSI. Of these 87 (76.3%) received DAP + BLA. There were no significant differences in mortality between the DAP and DAP + BLA groups on univariable analysis (10/27 vs...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363971/design-and-syntheses-of-highly-potent-teixobactin-analogues-against-staphylococcus-aureus-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Anish Parmar, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Abhishek Iyer, Venkatesh Mayandi, Eunice Tze Leng Goh, Daniel G Lloyd, Madhavi Latha S Chalasani, Navin Kumar Verma, Stephen H Prior, Roger W Beuerman, Annemieke Madder, Edward J Taylor, Ishwar Singh
The cyclic depsipeptide, teixobactin kills a number of Gram positive bacteria including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis without detectable resistance. To date, teixobactin is the only molecule in its class which has shown in vivo antibacterial efficacy. There have been no in vivo evaluation studies on teixobactin analogues. In this work, we have designed and synthesized 10 new in vivo ready teixobactin analogues. These analogues showed highly potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in vitro...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348921/genetic-characteristics-of-vana-type-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-in-cuba
#13
D Quiñones, M S Aung, J P Sousa Martins, N Urushibara, N Kobayashi
VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates from bloodstream infections in Cuba were genetically characterized. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were assigned to sequence type (ST) 28, closely related to Eastern Europe, while Enterococcus faecium belonged to ST262, ST656 and ST1349, and showed different genetic profiles.
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339295/characteristics-of-clinical-and-environmental-vanm-carrying-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-isolates-from-an-infected-patient
#14
Gensheng Zhang, Xiuhui Lin, Jiachang Cai, Rong Zhang, Huiqing Xiu, Baoping Tian, Wei Cui
vanM, an uncommon glycopeptide resistance gene, was first identified in an Enterococcus faecium isolate from Shanghai, China in 2006 and has been predominant in this city since 2011. We isolated a vanM-carrying E. faecium from bloodstream of a patient in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Hangzhou, China in 2014. Further surveillance screening of a rectal swab and environmental surfaces of the patient yielded a large number of vanM-positive E. faecium. These isolates (including 1 from bloodstream, 1 from the rectal swab, and 43 representatives from environmental samples) were classified into 4 PFGE patterns and 2 sequence types (ST78 and ST564)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329389/in-vivo-daptomycin-efficacy-against-experimental-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-endocarditis
#15
Sophie Reissier, Azzam Saleh-Mghir, François Guerin, Laurent Massias, Idir Ghout, Clara Sinel, Vincent Cattoir, Anne-Claude Cremieux
Objectives: Daptomycin has become a first-line therapeutic option for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infective endocarditis (IE). Although high doses (≥8 mg/kg) are often recommended, optimal doses, particularly for strains with MICs close to the susceptibility breakpoint (4 mg/L), are still debated. Methods: Daptomycin efficacy at doses equivalent to 8 mg/kg daptomycin (DAP8) and 12 mg/kg daptomycin (DAP12) in humans was evaluated in a rabbit model of aortic valve IE induced by 108 cfu of E...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312658/economic-burden-of-nosocomial-infections-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#16
Laura Puchter, Iris Freya Chaberny, Frank Schwab, Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Franz-Christoph Bange, Ella Ebadi
Background: Nosocomial infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major problem during the last years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic burden of nosocomial VRE infections in a European university hospital. Methods: A retrospective matched case-control study was performed including patients who acquired nosocomial infection with either VRE or vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) within a time period of 3 years...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311068/identification-of-a-novel-genomic-island-associated-with-vand-type-vancomycin-resistance-in-six-dutch-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium
#17
Janetta Top, Jan C Sinnige, Ellen C Brouwer, Guido Werner, Jukka Corander, Juliëtte A Severin, Rogier Jansen, E Bathoorn, Marc J M Bonten, John W A Rossen, Rob J L Willems
Genomic comparison of the first six Dutch vanD-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) with four vanD-gene clusters from other enterococcal species and anaerobic gut commensals revealed that the vanD-gene cluster was located on a genomic island of variable size. Phylogenetic inferences revealed that the Dutch-VRE were genetically not closely related and genetic variation of the vanD-genomic island was not species specific, which suggest that this island is transferred horizontally between enterococci and anaerobic gut commensals...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305547/evaluation-of-the-amplidiag-carbar-vre-kit-for-the-accurate-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-bacteria
#18
Saoussen Oueslati, Delphine Girlich, Laurent Dortet, Thierry Naas
As carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (CP-GNB) ( Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonadaceae and Acinetobacter spp.) are becoming a major public health issue, there is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests. Amplidiag® Carba-R+VRE assay is a multiplex nucleic acid-based in-vitro diagnostic test intended for the detection of CP-GNB and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) from cultured colonies.We have evaluated its ability to detect carbapenemases genes in 100 well-characterized GNB, and in 200 consecutive enterobacterial isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems and that were referred to the French National Reference Center for carbapenem-resistance...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277142/carriage-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-among-pediatric-patients-before-and-during-their-hospitalization-in-a-tertiary-pediatric-unit-in-tunisia
#19
Miniar Tfifha, Asma Ferjani, Manel Mallouli, Nesrine Mlika, Saoussen Abroug, Jalel Boukadida
The pandemic spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria (i.e., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii) pose a threat to healthcare Worldwide. We found limited data of MDR bacteria in pediatric patients hospitalized in Tunisian tertiary healthcare.The aim of the study is to evaluate the acquisition rate of MDR acquisition during hospitalization and to explore some of the associated risk factors for both carriage and acquisition at the pediatric department, Sahloul University Hospital...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274469/reduced-susceptibility-of-enterococcus-spp-isolates-from-cairo-university-hospital-to-tigecycline-highlight-on-the-influence-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#20
Reem Mostafa Hassan, Doaa Mohammad Ghaith, Dalia Kadry Ismail, Mai Mahmoud Zafer
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of reduced susceptibility to tigecycline (TIG) is increasing. This study aimed to analyse the in vitro activity of TIG against Enterococcus spp. isolates recovered from hospitalised patients and to evaluate the effect of omeprazole on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TIG against several enterococcal species. METHODS: A total of 67 Enterococcus clinical isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and multiplex PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TIG alone and in combination with omeprazole (10, 30 and 60mg/L) were determined by broth microdilution...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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