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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044211/identification-of-novel-mazef-pemik-family-toxin-antitoxin-loci-and-their-distribution-in-the-staphylococcus-genus
#1
Michal Bukowski, Karolina Hyz, Monika Janczak, Marcin Hydzik, Grzegorz Dubin, Benedykt Wladyka
The versatile roles of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been investigated for more than three decades. Diverse TA loci in Bacteria and Archaea have been identified in genome-wide studies. The advent of massive parallel sequencing has substantially expanded the number of known bacterial genomic sequences over the last 5 years. In staphylococci, this has translated into an impressive increase from a few tens to a several thousands of available genomes, which has allowed us for the re-evalution of prior conclusions...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039717/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-libyan-war-casualties-admitted-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-germany
#2
Benedikt Lohr, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ursel Heudorf, Christoph Rangger, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
The ongoing Libyan conflict constantly causes victims among the military and civilian population. Cross-border transfer of patients represents a high risk of introducing multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), for example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms (CROs), into the country of destination. This study assessed the MDRO status in Libyan war casualties (n = 67) admitted to Northwest Medical Centre in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, from August 2016 till January 2017...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038276/reduced-chlorhexidine-and-daptomycin-susceptibility-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-after-serial-chlorhexidine-exposure
#3
Pooja Bhardwaj, Amrita Hans, Kinnari Ruikar, Ziqiang Guan, Kelli L Palmer
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) are critical public health concerns because they are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a bisbiguanide cationic antiseptic that is routinely used for patient bathing and other infection control practices. VREfm are likely frequently exposed to CHX; however, the long-term effects of CHX exposure have not been studied in enterococci. In this study, we serially exposed VREfm to increasing concentrations of CHX for a period of 21 days in two independent experimental evolution trials...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031432/discontinuing-contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Marin L Schweizer, Grace W Ryan, Daniel J Diekema
BACKGROUND: Several single-center studies have suggested that eliminating contact precautions (CPs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) control in nonoutbreak settings has no impact on infection rates. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of discontinuing contact precautions in the acute care setting. METHODS: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Embase through December 2016 for studies evaluating discontinuation of contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031431/implementing-an-antibiotic-stewardship-program-at-a-long-term-acute-care-hospital-in-detroit-michigan
#5
Ammara Mushtaq, Reda A Awali, Suganya Chandramohan, Amar Krishna, Caitlin Biedron, Olufemi Jegede, Teena Chopra
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to assess health care providers' (HCPs) knowledge and attitude toward antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and implement an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH). METHODS: A questionnaire on antibiotic use and resistance was administered to HCP in an LTACH in Detroit, Michigan, between August 2011 and October 2011. Concurrently, a retrospective review of common antibiotic prescription practices and costs was conducted...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030448/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococci-isolated-from-retail-meats-in-the-united-states-2002-2014
#6
Gregory H Tyson, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Emily Crarey, Claudine Kabera, Claudia Lam, Crystal Rice-Trujillo, Patrick F McDermott, Heather Tate
Bacteria of the genus Enterococcus are important human pathogens that are frequently resistant to a number of clinically important antibiotics. They are also used as a marker of animal fecal contamination of human foods, and are employed as sentinel organisms for tracking trends in resistance to antimicrobials with gram-positive activity. As part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), we evaluated several retail meat commodities for the presence of enterococci from 2002-2014, finding 92...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030312/antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-thai-fermented-pork-in-chiang-rai-province-thailand
#7
Kamonnaree Chotinantakul, Nittaya Chansiw, Seiji Okada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of resistant phenotypes and genes of Enterococcus spp. to explore the range of resistant profiles from Thai traditional fermented pork. METHODS: A total of 120 Thai fermented pork specimens in Chiang Rai, Thailand were collected and antimicrobial resistance was identified using 11 antimicrobial agents in enterococcal isolates, via an agar disk diffusion method. The antibiotic resistant genes from resistant phenotypes and virulence genes were observed...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023515/a-novel-bacteriocin-from-enterococcus-faecalis-478-exhibits-a-potent-activity-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#8
Uraporn Phumisantiphong, Kanokrat Siripanichgon, Onrapak Reamtong, Pornphan Diraphat
The emergence of multidrug-resistant enterococci (MDRE) and particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is considered a serious health problem worldwide, causing the need for new antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize bacteriocin against clinical isolates of MDRE and VRE. Over 10,000 bacterial isolates from water, environment and clinical samples were screened. E. faecalis strain 478 isolated from human feces produced the highest antibacterial activity against several MDRE and VRE strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020115/genetic-characteristics-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-isolates-from-caribbean-countries
#9
Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Shivnarine Kissoon, Padman Jayaratne, Clyde Wilson, George R Golding, Alison M Nicholson, Delores B Lewis, Sandra M Hermelijn, Alexis Wilson-Pearson, Ashley Smith
Emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) that first appeared on the stage about three decades ago is now a major concern worldwide as it has globally reached every continent. Our aim was to simply undertake a multinational study to delineate the resistance and virulence genes of clinical isolates of VRE isolates from the Caribbean. We employed both conventional (standard microbiological methods including use of E-test strips, chromogenic agar) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reactions-PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-PFGE and multilocus sequence typing-MLST) to analyze and characterize 245 Enterococci species and 77 VRE isolates from twelve hospitals from eight countries in the Caribbean...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994446/colonization-of-residents-and-staff-of-an-italian-long-term-care-facility-and-an-adjacent-acute-care-hospital-geriatric-unit-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#10
Albert March, Richard Aschbacher, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Malgorzata Kaczor, Roberta Migliavacca, Aurora Piazza, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Laura Pagani, Katia Scalzo, Valentina Pasquetto, Elisabetta Pagani
In 2016, we undertook a point prevalence screening study for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), high-level AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases, and also methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) and the associated acute care hospital geriatric unit in Bolzano, Northern Italy. Urine samples and rectal, inguinal, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs were plated on selective agars. Demographic data were collected...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991330/-longitudinal-multicenter-analysis-of-outcomes-after-cessation-of-control-measures-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#11
Luis Delpiano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989519/outbreak-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-on-a-haematology-ward-management-and-control
#12
Diego García Martínez de Artola, Beatriz Castro, María José Ramos, Zaida Díaz Cuevas, Sunil Lakhwani, María Lecuona
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections and outbreaks are still infrequent in Spain. A six-month outbreak, which took place in a haematology ward, its control and management are described in this study. A total of 22 patients were colonised and two bloodstream infections occurred during this period. Even though there were two waves of new colonised patients, a multidisciplinary approach, quick interventions and enhanced infection control policies were required in order to control this outbreak.
May 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985019/polycyclic-polyprenylated-acylphloroglucinols-an-emerging-class-of-non-peptide-based-mrsa-and-vre-active-antibiotics
#13
Bernd Plietker, Claudia Guttroff, Aslihan Baykal, Huanhuan Wang, Peter Popella, Frank Kraus, Nicole Biber, Sophia Krauss, Friedrich Götz
In the past twenty years peptide-based antibiotics, such as vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, etc., were often considered as second defense line antibiotics. However, within recent years an increasing number of reports on vancomycin-resistance in pathogens appeared, which forces researchers to find novel lead structures for potent new antibiotics. Herein we report the total synthesis of a defined endo-type B PPAP library and their antibiotic activity against multiple resistant S. aureus and various vancomycin-resistant Enterococci...
October 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983010/draft-genome-sequence-of-enterococcus-canintestini-49-a-potential-probiotic-that-produces-multiple-bacteriocins
#14
Jeella Z Acedo, Cherry Ibarra Romero, Sarah T Miyata, Alysson H Blaine, Lynn M McMullen, John C Vederas, Marco J van Belkum
Enterococcus canintestini 49, isolated from dog feces, is active against Clostridium perfringens, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Listeria monocytogenes Its draft genome sequence reported herein contains a gene cluster encoding multiple bacteriocins and indicates the absence of genes for virulence factors. These characteristics signify the strain's potential for use as a probiotic.
October 5, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974396/two-tier-approach-combining-molecular-and-culture-based-techniques-for-optimized-detection-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#15
Anna Both, Gefion C Franke, Nadine Mirwald, Marc Lütgehetmann, Martin Christner, Eva-Maria Klupp, Cristina Belmar Campos, Henning Büttner, Martin Aepfelbacher, Holger Rohde
Given constantly high or even rising incidences of both colonization and infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), timely and accurate identification of carriers in high-risk patient populations is of evident clinical importance. In this study, a two-tier approach consisting of PCR-based screening and cultural confirmation of positive results is compared to the conventional approach solely based on culture on selective media. The 2-tier strategy was highly consistent with the conventional approach, and was found to possess high sensitivity and specificity (93...
August 24, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969155/linezolid-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-therapeutic-problem
#16
Garima Yadav, Bhaskar Thakuria, Molly Madan, Vivek Agwan, Anita Pandey
INTRODUCTION: Enterococci are recognized as opportunistic pathogens, as well as commensals in both humans and animals. They are an important cause of nosocomial infections, difficult to treat, as the organism have intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics. AIM: To isolate and identify clinically relevant Enterococcus up to species level from all the clinical samples processed in the microbiology laboratory and also to study their resistance pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out for a period of one year from May 2014 to April 2015 at the Department of Microbiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961701/zaaps-program-results-for-2015-an-activity-and-spectrum-analysis-of-linezolid-using-clinical-isolates-from-medical-centres-in-32-countries
#17
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer M Streit, Patricia A Hogan, Robert K Flamm
Objectives: To report the linezolid in vitro activity obtained during the 2015 ZAAPS Program. Methods: In total, 7587 organisms causing documented infections were consecutively collected in 65 centres in 32 ex-USA countries. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed. Isolates displaying linezolid MIC results of ≥ 4 mg/L were molecularly characterized. Results: Linezolid inhibited >99.9% of Staphylococcus aureus at ≤ 2 mg/L, with MIC 50 results of 1 mg/L, regardless of methicillin resistance...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950921/an-evaluation-of-the-prevalence-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-hospital-food
#18
Jennie H Kwon, Kimberly A Reske, Tiffany Hink, Sondra M Seiler, Meghan A Wallace, Kerry M Bommarito, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Erik R Dubberke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924925/in-vitro-activity-of-linezolid-alone-and-combined-with-other-antibiotics-against-clinical-enterococcal-isolates
#19
Mahtab Beitdaghar, Roya Ahmadrajabi, Afsaneh Karmostaji, Fereshteh Saffari
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance has led to research on finding new antimicrobial agents or identifying drug combinations with synergistic effects. Enterococcal infections, particularly those associated with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs), are therapeutic problems. Linezolid (LZD), an oxazolidinone antibiotic, shows good activity against Gram-positive bacteria including enterococci. To avoid the emergence of linezolid-resistant subpopulations and achieve enhanced activity or bactericidal effect, the use of combined therapy has been considered...
September 18, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924472/the-effect-of-antibiotic-use-on-prevalence-of-nosocomial-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-an-ecologic-study
#20
Cornelius Remschmidt, Michael Behnke, Axel Kola, Luis A Peña Diaz, Anna M Rohde, Petra Gastmeier, Frank Schwab
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are among the most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Although antibiotic use has been identified as a risk factor for VRE, it remains unclear which antimicrobial agents particularly facilitate VRE selection. Here, we assessed whether use of specific antimicrobial agents is independently associated with healthcare-associated (HA) VRE rates in a university hospital setting in Berlin, Germany. METHODS: We conducted the study between January 2014 and December 2015 at the Charité-university hospital of Berlin, Germany...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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