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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527358/improving-the-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-pyrinezolid-by-self-assembled-polymeric-micelles
#1
Haiyue Long, Xiaoling Li, Zitai Sang, Lan Mei, Tao Yang, Zicheng Li, Liangxue Zhou, Yu Zheng, Gu He, Gang Guo, Zhenling Wang, Yong Deng, Youfu Luo
Antibiotic-resistance by bacteria is a growing global concern within the healthcare field, and it has provided an impetus for continued antimicrobial development. Pyrinezolid (PZ), a novel oxazolidinone compound, can effectively inhibit most gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Though PZ is a promising antimicrobial candidate, the druggability of PZ is limited by its poor water solubility. Therefore, the amphipathic mPEG-PLLA copolymer was used to prepare the pyrinezolid micelles (PZ-M)...
May 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525287/occurrence-of-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-in-various-clinical-infections-detection-of-their-drug-resistance-and-virulence-determinants
#2
Ali Jahansepas, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Alka Hasani, Yaeghob Sharifi, Toofan Aghazadeh, Jalal Mardaneh
The aim of this study was to characterize virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles in enterococci obtained from various clinical sources in the northwest of Iran. A total of 160 enterococcal clinical isolates from various wards of University Teaching Hospitals were collected and specified by biochemical test, from September 2014 to July 2015. Identification of enterococci was confirmed by multiplex PCR in the genus and species level. Antibiotic resistance properties and virulence determinants were examined by phenotypic and molecular methods...
May 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515904/weekly-screening-supports-terminating-nosocomial-transmissions-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-on-an-oncologic-ward-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Stefanie Kampmeier, Dennis Knaack, Annelene Kossow, Stefanie Willems, Christoph Schliemann, Wolfgang E Berdel, Frank Kipp, Alexander Mellmann
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of weekly screening within the bundle of infection control measures to terminate vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) transmissions on an oncologic ward. METHODS: A cluster of 12 VRE colonisation and five infections was detected on an oncologic ward between January and April 2015. Subsequently, the VRE point prevalence was detected and, as part of a the bundle of infection control strategies to terminate the VRE cluster, we isolated affected patients, performed hand hygiene training among staff on ward, increased observations by infection control specialists, intensified surface disinfection, used personal protective equipment and initiated an admission screening in May 2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511809/characterisation-of-the-selective-binding-of-antibiotics-vancomycin-and-teicoplanin-by-the-vans-receptor-regulating-type-a-vancomycin-resistance-in-the-enterococci
#4
C S Hughes, E Longo, M K Phillips-Jones, R Hussain
A-type resistance towards "last-line" glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin in the leading hospital acquired infectious agent, the enterococci, is the most common in the UK. Resistance is regulated by the VanRASA two-component system, comprising the histidine sensor kinase VanSA and the partner response regulator VanRA. The nature of the activating ligand for VanSA has not been identified, therefore this work sought to identify and characterise ligand(s) for VanSA. In vitro approaches were used to screen the structural and activity effects of a range of potential ligands with purified VanSA protein...
May 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511382/rapid-identification-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-clinical-isolates-using-a-sugar-fermentation-method
#5
Javad Raeisi, Mahnaz Saifi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Mehri Habibi, Hamid Reza Mohajerani, Neda Akbari, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) can be found all over the world. Thus, rapid detection of the isolates could be of high importance in the treatment or prevention of the associated disease. AIM: To measure the turanose fermentation in Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates for rapid differentiation of VRE and Vancomycin-Susceptible E. faecalis (VSE) isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty E. faecalis samples were isolated from 200 clinical samples in Tehran Medical Center, Iran, from October 2012 to December 2012...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506784/healthcare-personnelintestinal-colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#6
Brooke K Decker, Anna F Lau, John P Dekker, Christine D Spalding, Ninet Sinaii, Sean Conlan, David K Henderson, Julia A Segre, Karen M Frank, Tara N Palmore
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the association between patient contact and intestinal carriageof multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) by sampling healthcare personnel (HCP) and staff without patient contact. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited400HCPwho worked in our 200-bed research hospitaland 400 subjectswithout patient contact between November 2013 and February 2015.Participants submitted two self-collected perirectal swabsand a questionnaire...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504889/genetic-characterization-of-vana-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-from-wild-red-legged-partridges-in-portugal
#7
Vanessa Silva, Gilberto Igrejas, Isabel Carvalho, Fernando Peixoto, Lucas Cardoso, José Eduardo Pereira, Rosa Del Campo, Patricia Poeta
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been detected in wild animals representing a public health concern. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a common game bird and its meat is consumed in several countries, including Portugal. Three hundred five fecal samples of red-legged partridge from the north of Portugal were screened for VRE. Samples were cultured on Slanetz-Bartley agar supplemented with vancomycin (4 mg/L) and six vanA-Enterococcus faecium were recovered. Isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499907/occurrence-of-ampicillin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-carrying-esp-gene-in-pet-animals-an-upcoming-threat-for-pet-lovers
#8
Khaled A Abdel-Moein, Mahmoud D El-Hariri, Momtaz O Wasfy, Ahmed Samir
OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to investigate oral colonisation by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in pet dogs and cats, with special reference to antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Oral swabs were collected from 63 pet dogs and 57 pet cats with no known history of hospitalisation. All samples were enriched in Kenner Fecal (KF) broth before being cultured on KF agar to isolate enterococci. E. faecalis and E. faecium were identified by biochemical and molecular techniques...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494236/allied-commensal-forces-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#9
Brayon J Fremin, Ami S Bhatt
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Caballero et al. (2017) define a precise, limited consortium of commensal bacteria that restores resistance to colonization by clinically vexing vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species.
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490489/single-negative-van-qpcr-on-enrichment-broth-can-replace-five-rectal-swab-cultures-for-the-screening-of-vancomycin-resistent-enterococci
#10
J M Fonville, C M C van Herk, P H A C Das, J H B van de Bovenkamp, L van Dommelen
The increased incidence of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE) causes an accumulation of patients that are either VRE-colonized or flagged as potentially VRE-colonized. Since such patients require precautionary isolation upon admission to a hospital, rapid methods to establish VRE-colonization status would improve patient care and optimize hospital operation. We evaluated van qPCR on one enrichment broth as a VRE-screening approach.We obtained 255 sets of five rectal specimens from 243 patients. The specimens were cultured using an amoxicillin-containing enrichment broth...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483600/phenotypic-and-genotypic-study-of-biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections
#11
F Fallah, M Yousefi, M R Pourmand, A Hashemi, A Nazari Alam, D Afshar
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent types of nosocomial and community acquired infections in humans. Management of multidrug-resistant Enterococci UTI due to the limited therapeutic options is a great challenge for physicians and clinical microbiologists. The role of bacterial biofilms in recurrent urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance has great importance for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern as well as the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm formation ability of Enterococci isolates from patients with UTI...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480243/colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-and-risk-for-bloodstream-infection-among-patients-with-malignancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Michail Alevizakos, Apostolos Gaitanidis, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Katerina Tori, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) cause severe infections among patients with malignancy, and these infections are usually preceded by gastrointestinal colonization. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases (up to May 26, 2016) to identify studies that reported data on VRE gastrointestinal colonization among patients with solid or hematologic malignancy. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies, reporting data on 8391 patients with malignancy, were included in our analysis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464539/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-with-vana-and-vanb-genes-in-australian-gulls
#13
Veronika Oravcova, Pavel Svec, Ivan Literak
This study is revealing the possible dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans into the wildlife. We studied silver gulls (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae) in Australia as potential carriers and reservoirs of VRE with acquired vancomycin resistance. In New South Wales (Australia), we have found two multi-resistant isolates belonging to Enterococcus faecium (sequence type 341, vanB genotype) and Enterococcus dispar (vanA genotype). Based on our knowledge, this is the first report of VRE in Australian wildlife...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461813/a-case-report-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-treated-with-korean-medicine-therapy-as-a-substitute-for-chemotherapy
#14
Dong-Hyun Lee, Sung-Su Kim, Shin Seong
The purpose of this case report is to show the potential benefit of Korean medicine therapy for treating multiple metastatic breast cancer. A 45-year-old Korean woman was diagnosed with right breast invasive ductal carcinoma in August 2012 but did not receive any treatment until October 2015 when she was diagnosed with stage 4 right breast cancer with multiple liver, bone, mesentery, retroperitoneum, and axillary lymph node metastases. After chemo-port insertion, she was treated with palliative chemotherapy and the first line of trastuzumab and paclitaxel, and the port was removed due to port infection...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454768/association-of-hospital-contact-precaution-policies-with-emergency-department-admission-time
#15
K Kotkowski, R T Ellison, C Barysauskas, B Barton, J Allison, D Mack, R W Finberg, M Reznek
BACKGROUND: Contact precautions are a widely accepted strategy to reduce in-hospital transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). However, these practices may have unintended deleterious effects on patients. AIM: To evaluate the effect of a modification in hospital-wide contact precaution practices on emergency department (ED) admission times. METHODS: During the study period, the hospital changed its contact precaution policy from requiring contact precautions for all patients with a history of MRSA or VRE to only those who presented with clinical conditions likely to contaminate the environment with pathogens...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453429/anti-microbial-coating-innovations-to-prevent-infectious-diseases-amici-cost-action-ca15114
#16
Colum P Dunne, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Anne Kahru, Birgit Teunissen, Hulya Olmez, Isabel Gouveia, Luis Melo, Kazimierz Murzyn, Martina Modic, Merja Ahonen, Pete Askew, Theofilos Papadopoulos, Christian Adlhart, Francy R L Crijns
Worldwide, millions of patients are affected annually by healthcare-associated infection (HCAI), impacting up to 80,000 patients in European Hospitals on any given day. This represents not only public health risk, but also an economic burden. Complementing routine hand hygiene practices, cleaning and disinfection, antimicrobial coatings hold promise based, in essence, on the application of materials and chemicals with persistent bactericidal or -static properties onto surfaces or in textiles used in healthcare environments...
April 28, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434558/resistance-profiles-and-risk-factors-of-resistant-microorganisms-in-bacteraemia-of-abdominal-origin
#17
J Martín Jaramago, R Armero Ibáñez, J J Camarena Miñana, M Morales Suárez-Varela
OBJECTIVE: The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013...
April 20, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431849/prospective-cluster-controlled-crossover-trial-to-compare-the-impact-of-an-improved-hydrogen-peroxide-disinfectant-and-a-quaternary-ammonium-based-disinfectant-on-surface-contamination-and-health-care-outcomes
#18
John M Boyce, Kerri A Guercia, Linda Sullivan, Nancy L Havill, Renee Fekieta, Janet Kozakiewicz, David Goffman
BACKGROUND: Quaternary ammonium-based (Quat) disinfectants are widely used, but they have disadvantages. METHODS: This was a 12-month prospective cluster controlled crossover trial. On 4 wards, housekeepers performed daily cleaning using a disinfectant containing either 0.5% improved hydrogen peroxide (IHP) or Quat. Each month, 5-8 high-touch surfaces in several patient rooms on each ward were tagged with a fluorescent marker and cultured before and after cleaning...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431846/implementation-of-daily-chlorhexidine-bathing-to-reduce-colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-a-critical-care-unit
#19
Jackson S Musuuza, Ajay K Sethi, Tonya J Roberts, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Colonized patients are a reservoir for transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Not many studies have examined the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing under routine care conditions. We present a descriptive analysis of the trends of MDRO colonization following implementation of daily CHG bathing under routine clinical conditions in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: From May 2010-January 2011, we screened patients admitted to a 24-bed ICU for and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli (FQRGNB)...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428726/successful-treatment-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-due-to-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-with-tedizolid
#20
Sheng Si, Michael J Durkin, Maureen M Mercier, Melanie L Yarbrough, Stephen Y Liang
Few antibiotic options exist for the management of infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). We describe a case involving the safe and successful use of tedizolid, a new oxazolidinone, to treat VRE prosthetic joint infection.
March 2017: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: IDCP
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