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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093424/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-and-vre-pneumonia
#1
Mohannad Abu Omar, Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Sola Kim, Gregory Howell
Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050849/glycin-rich-antimicrobial-peptide-yd1-from-b-amyloliquefaciens-induced-morphological-alteration-in-and-showed-affinity-for-plasmid-dna-of-e-coli
#2
Md Saifur Rahman, Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Jin Cheol Yoo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), low-molecular-weight proteins with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, are the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. A powerful cationic glycine-rich AMP YD1 (MW ~ 1.0 kDa) was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBSYD1 isolated from traditional Korean fermented food kimchi, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Strain CBSYD1 was identified 99.79% similar to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) by 16S rRNA sequence analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040891/quantification-of-d-ala-d-lac-terminated-peptidoglycan-structure-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-using-a-combined-solid-state-nmr-and-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#3
James D Chang, Erin C Foster, Hao Yang, Sung Joon Kim
Induction of vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) involves replacement of the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of peptidoglycan (PG) stems with D-Ala-D-Lac, dramatically reducing the binding affinity of vancomycin to lipid II. Effects from vancomycin resistance induction on Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 51299) were characterized using a combined solid-state NMR and LC-MS analysis. Solid-state NMR directly measured the total amounts of D-Lac and L,D-Ala metabolized from [2-13C]pyruvate, accumulated Park's nucleotide, and changes to the PG bridge-linking density during early exponential growth phase (OD660nm 0...
December 31, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005484/state-health-department-requirements-for-reporting-of-antibiotic-resistant-infections-by-providers-united-states-2013-and-2015
#4
Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Eileen J Carter, Mary Lou Manning, Elaine L Larson
Due to the high burden of antibiotic-resistant infections, several US states mandate public reporting of these infections. To examine the extent to which state departments of health require reporting of antibiotic-resistant infections, we abstracted data from lists of reportable conditions from all 50 states at 2 time points, May 2013 and May 2015. Requirements varied substantially by state. In 2015, most states (n = 44) required reporting of at least 1 antibiotic-resistant infection; vancomycin-intermediate and/or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently reportable infection (n = 40)...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994476/a-novel-combination-approach-of-human-polyclonal-ivig-and-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-positive-bacteria
#5
Mariam Madkour Sallam, Khaled Abou-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi
BACKGROUND: Gram-positive bacteria, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and enterococci, have shown a remarkable ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess possible enhancement of the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by human polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) against 34 multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates, including MRSA, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989378/vana-positive-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-surfaces-of-a-us-hospital-laundry-facility
#6
K E Michael, D No, M C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus spp. are a normal part of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. They are also important pathogens, being responsible for 14% of US nosocomial infections from 2007 to 2010. AIM: To examine a laundry facility that processes clinical linens for the presence and seasonality of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. METHODS: Surface samples were collected four times in 2015 from the dirty and clean areas of the laundry facility...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987112/antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-profile-of-enterococci-isolated-from-poultry-and-cattle-sources-in-nigeria
#7
Emmanuel Ochefije Ngbede, Mashood Abiola Raji, Clara Nna Kwanashie, Jacob Kwada Pajhi Kwaga
This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction...
December 16, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987047/evaluation-of-the-novel-artus-c-difficile-qs-rgq-vanr-qs-rgq-and-mrsa-sa-qs-rgq-assays-for-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-and-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-screening
#8
K A Morris, L R Macfarlane-Smith, M H Wilcox
Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are worldwide prevalent healthcare-associated pathogens. We have evaluated three Qiagen artus QS-RGQ assays for the detection of these pathogens. We examined 200 stool samples previously tested for C. difficile infection (CDI), 94 rectal swabs previously screened for VRE and 200 MRSA screening nasal swabs. With the routine diagnostic laboratory results being adopted as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the artus C...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976593/antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterococcus-strains-isolated-from-healthy-domestic-dogs
#9
Fabrizio Bertelloni, Claudia Salvadori, Giulia Lotti, Domenico Cerri, Valentina Virginia Ebani
Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that cause severe infections in animals and humans, capable to acquire, express, and transfer antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method in 222 Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from the fecal samples of 287 healthy domestic dogs. Vancomycin and ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) tests were also performed. Isolates showed resistance mainly to streptomycin (88...
December 15, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940400/synthesis-and-antibacterial-activities-of-novel-pleuromutilin-derivatives-with-a-substituted-pyrimidine-moiety
#10
Yunpeng Yi, Ximing Xu, Yu Liu, Shuijin Xu, Xin Huang, Jianping Liang, Ruofeng Shang
The alarming growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) has become a major global health hazard. Therefore, urgent demand for new antibiotics with a unique mechanism of action is very necessary. The present study reports the design, synthesis, and antibacterial studies of a series of novel pleuromutilin derivatives with substituted 6-amino pyrimidine moieties. Most of the tested compounds exhibited highly potent anti-MRSA or Staphylococcus aureus (S...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939809/prevalence-of-macrolide-lincosamide-resistance-and-multidrug-resistance-phenotypes-in-streptococcal-isolates-causing-infections-in-european-hospitals-evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-activity-of-oritavancin-and-comparator-agents
#11
Rodrigo E Mendes, Mariana Castanheira, David J Farrell, Robert K Flamm, Helio S Sader, Ronald N Jones
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of resistance to erythromycin alone (M) and to erythromycin and clindamycin (cMLSB) as well as multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes (resistance to at least three classes of drugs) among clinical enterococci from European countries and adjacent geographic regions. The in vitro activity of oritavancin against these isolates was also evaluated. A total of 2569 streptococci collected from 12 European countries as well as Russia, Turkey and Israel were included...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895857/frequency-of-vana-vanb-and-vanh-variants-amongst-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-isolated-from-patients-in-central-region-of-iran
#12
Jaafar Rezvani, Reza Nasr, Fatemeh T Shamsabadi, Mohammad Reza Akbari Eidgahi
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the VRE frequency and the rate of each gene in isolated enterococci from patients with intestinal infection in the central region of Iran. BACKGROUND: Enterococci infections are a public health growing concern due to the glycopeptide antibiotics resistance especially vancomycin. Genes, vanA, B, and H contribute to the influence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted from January to July 2014 in Shahrood university hospital...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889877/maldi-tof-ms-meets-wgs-in-a-vre-outbreak-investigation
#13
S Schlebusch, G R Price, R L Gallagher, V Horton-Szar, L D H Elbourne, P Griffin, D J Venter, S O Jensen, S J Van Hal
The use of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) and WGS (whole genome sequencing) has been described for identification and strain relatedness determination. We describe the complementary use of MALDI-TOF MS and WGS in a VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci) outbreak investigation, and discuss some of the challenges with defining strain similarity across these two platforms. Although both assays indicated multiple clusters involved in the outbreak of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from positive blood cultures of four haematology-oncology patients, the small cohort and discrepancies between findings indicate the limitations of MALDI-TOF MS and the cautious interpretation of MALDI-TOF MS dendrograms during outbreaks...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866673/surveillance-of-tedizolid-activity-and-resistance-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-gram-positive-pathogens-collected-over-5-years-from-the-united-states-and-europe
#14
Mekki Bensaci, Daniel Sahm
In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparators against 11,231 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States (84 centers) and Europe (115 centers) were summarized as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance program between 2009 and 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria...
February 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856721/comparative-in-vitro-activity-of-oritavancin-and-other-agents-against-vancomycin-susceptible-and-resistant-enterococci
#15
Debora Sweeney, Audrey Stoneburner, Dean L Shinabarger, Francis F Arhin, Adam Belley, Greg Moeck, Chris M Pillar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843959/antimicrobial-resistance-pattern-of-gram-positive-bacteria-during-three-consecutive-years-at-the-nephrology-ward-of-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-shiraz-southwest-iran
#16
Iman Karimzadeh, Mona Mirzaee, Niloofar Sadeghimanesh, Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Gram-positive bacteria during three consecutive years at the nephrology ward of Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Southwest of Iran. METHODS: During a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015, data of all biological samples of hospitalized patients at the adult nephrology ward of Namazi Hospital were sent to the central laboratory for identification of Gram-positive microorganisms and subsequently, their antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method were analyzed in a retrospective manner...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843438/a-decade-long-commitment-to-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-in-portugal
#17
REVIEW
Catarina M Marinho, Tiago Santos, Alexandre Gonçalves, Patrícia Poeta, Gilberto Igrejas
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a worldwide problem with serious health and economic repercussions. Since the 1940s, underuse, overuse, and misuse of antibiotics have had a significant environmental downside. Large amounts of antibiotics not fully metabolized after use in human and veterinary medicine, and other applications, are annually released into the environment. The result has been the development and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to many years of selective pressure. Surveillance of AMR provides important information that helps in monitoring and understanding how resistance mechanisms develop and disseminate within different environments...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825401/incidence-and-outcomes-associated-with-infections-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-the-united-states-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Eli N Perencevich, Rajeshwari Nair, Richard E Nelson, Matthew Samore, Karim Khader, Margaret L Chorazy, Loreen A Herwaldt, Amy Blevins, Melissa A Ward, Marin L Schweizer
BACKGROUND Information about the health and economic impact of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can inform investments in infection prevention and development of novel therapeutics. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the incidence of VRE infection in the United States and the clinical and economic outcomes. METHODS We searched various databases for US studies published from January 1, 2000, through June 8, 2015, that evaluated incidence, mortality, length of stay, discharge to a long-term care facility, readmission, recurrence, or costs attributable to VRE infections...
February 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822366/global-variances-in-infection-control-practices-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-results-of-an-electronic-survey
#19
H Isenman, J Michaels, D Fisher
An electronic survey was disseminated amongst infection control practitioners to investigate the variation in practices toward vancomycin resistant enterococci. There were 235 analysable responses, mostly from doctors, in 48 countries. The survey considered active surveillance, in-hospital precautions and tagging and untagging processes. There was a great variation in responses between and within countries highlighting a gap in guidance for practitioners on which to base institutional policy.
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804901/longitudinal-multicenter-analysis-of-outcomes-after-cessation-of-control-measures-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#20
Camille Lemieux, Michael Gardam, Gerald Evans, Michael John, Kathryn N Suh, Carl vanWalraven, Elisa Vicencio, Cameron Coulby, Virginia Roth, Susy Hota
OBJECTIVE To assess clinically relevant outcomes after complete cessation of control measures for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). DESIGN Quasi-experimental ecological study over 3.5 years. METHODS All VRE screening and isolation practices at 4 large academic hospitals in Ontario, Canada, were stopped on July 1, 2012. In total, 618 anonymized abstracted charts of patients with VRE-positive clinical isolates identified between July 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, were reviewed to determine whether the case was a true VRE infection, a VRE colonization or contaminant, or a true VRE bacteremia...
November 2, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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