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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727741/antimicrobial-resistance-rates-in-gram-positive-bacteria-do-not-drive-glycopeptides-use
#1
Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Andrea Cona, Parichehr Shamsrizi, Tuba Vilken, Winfred V Kern, Nisar Malek, Evelina Tacconelli
Surveillance data are considered essential to appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy and stewardship. The objective of this study was to determine if a change in the rates of antibiotic resistance impacts antibiotic use in European hospitals. Glycopeptides use was selected to study the correlation between resistance rates and antibiotic use because of the restricted spectrum against resistant gram positive bacteria. PubMed, ECDC databases and national/regional surveillance systems were searched to identify glycopeptides´ consumption in defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitant-days (DID) and rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in European countries between 1997 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722595/multidrug-resistant-microorganisms-colonizing-lower-extremity-wounds-in-patients-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-lima-peru
#2
Rafael Mendo-Lopez, Luis Jasso, Ximena Guevara, Aurora Lizeth Astocondor, Saul Alejos, Ana C Bardossy, Tyler Prentiss, Marcus J Zervos, Jan Jacobs, Coralith García
Multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections cause high morbidity and mortality, and high costs to patients and hospitals. The study aims were to determine the frequency of MDRO colonization and associated factors in patients with lower-extremity wounds with colonization. A cross-sectional study was designed during November 2015 to July 2016 in a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. A wound swab was obtained for culture and susceptibility testing. MDRO colonization was defined if the culture grew with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and/or extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) microorganisms...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720810/biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-genotype-phenotype-correlations-and-inhibition-by-vancomycin
#3
Yomna A Hashem, Heba M Amin, Tamer M Essam, Aymen S Yassin, Ramy K Aziz
Enterococci are nosocomial pathogens that can form biofilms, which contribute to their virulence and antibiotic resistance. Although many genes involved in biofilm formation have been defined, their distribution among enterococci has not been comprehensively studied on a genome scale, and their diagnostic ability to predict biofilm phenotypes is not fully established. Here, we assessed the biofilm-forming ability of 90 enterococcal clinical isolates. Major patterns of virulence gene distribution in enterococcal genomes were identified, and the differentiating virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 31 of the clinical isolates...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708453/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-enterococci-isolated-from-healthy-breastfed-infants
#4
José M Landete, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, Juan L Arqués, Eva Rodríguez-Mínguez
Pathogenic ability has been extensively studied in clinical enterococci, but to a lesser extent in community-derived ones. Most studies to date in enterococci from healthy infants have been focused on Enterococcus faecalis, despite the growing concern about nosocomial infections caused by E. faecium. In this work, we studied the antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants of 26 E. faecalis and 15 E. faecium intestinal isolates from Spanish healthy breastfed infants. Overall, commensal enterococci studied contained antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, although their patterns were not according to those described for antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated enterococci...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696611/-prevention-of-health-care-associated-infections-and-bacterial-resistance-guidance-for-good-practice
#5
Alain Kenfak Foguena, Alain Cometta, Laurence Senn
Despite improvement of infection control measures during the last 20 years, incidence of health care associated infections (HAI) remains high. HAI, also known as nosocomial infections, are mainly due to susceptible bacteria. However, resistant bacteria are responsible for some of them. In Switzerland, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus incidence is decreasing but enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase are increasing. In addition, emerging resistance challenges such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci or carbapenemase-producing bacteria were observed occasionally during recent years...
November 23, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690877/colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-on-the-efficiency-of-local-decolonization-procedures
#6
Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Hagen Frickmann
The effectiveness of a disinfectant-based decolonization strategy for multidrug-resistant bacteria like extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Gram-negative bacteria with or without additional fluoroquinolon and carbapenem resistance as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. Between 2011 and 2015, 25 patients from Libya, Syria, and the Ukraine with war traumata were treated at the Bundeswehr hospital Hamburg. The patients were heavily colonized and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria, altogether comprising 371 distinct combinations of pathogens and isolation sites...
June 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670644/carriage-of-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-and-enterococcus-faecalis-among-apparently-healthy-humans
#7
Solayide A Adesida, Cynthia C Ezenta, Ajoke O Adagbada, Amudat A Aladesokan, Akitoye O Coker
BACKGROUND: Enterococci are indigenous flora of the gastro-intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Recently, interest in two major species, E. faecium and E. faecalis, has heightened because of their ability to cause serious infections and their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of E. faecium and E. faecalis in human faecal samples and evaluating the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred faecal samples were collected from apparently healthy individuals and analysed using conventionalbacteriological methods...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666756/ampicillin-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-spp-vre-a-single-center-university-hospital-experience
#8
Kairav J Shah, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Joseph Shultz, Samuel Borgert, Reuben Ramphal, Kenneth P Klinker
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infections and are typically multi-drug resistant, including ampicillin. This retrospective study evaluated outcomes of 84 adult patients hospitalized between January 2007 and December 2015 with ampicillin and vancomycin resistant-enterococcus isolates causing UTI and treated with ampicillin. Treatment response was classified as clinical cure and microbiological eradication. Clinical cure was achieved in 88.1% (74/84) of patients. In patients with follow up cultures, microbiologic eradication was achieved in 86% (50/58) of patients...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666305/prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-refugees-a-prospective-case-control-study-in-an-obstetric-cohort
#9
Kathrin Oelmeier de Murcia, Birgit Glatz, Stephanie Willems, Annelene Kossow, Marlit Strobel, Bianca Stühmer, Frieder Schaumburg, Alexander Mellmann, Frank Kipp, Ralf Schmitz, Mareike Möllers
Purpose To determine the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in a cohort of pregnant refugee women. Methods In a prospective case control study, surveillance cultures for MDR bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE], MDR Gram-negative bacteria [MRGN]) were analysed between October 2015 and June 2016 from a cohort of 50 pregnant refugee women and 50 resident controls in the obstetric unit of a German tertiary referral hospital. Results Prevalence of MRSA was noticeably higher among refugee women compared to residents (6 vs...
June 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659889/rapid-phenotypic-detection-of-microbial-resistance-in-gram-positive-bacteria-by-a-real-time-laser-scattering-method
#10
Evgeny A Idelevich, Matthias Hoy, Dennis Görlich, Dennis Knaack, Barbara Grünastel, Georg Peters, Matthias Borowski, Karsten Becker
We developed a methodology for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) based on the BacterioScan(TM)216R laser scattering technology, using methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistance in enterococci as exemplar for important resistance phenotypes. Fifty methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and 50 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) S. aureus, as well as 50 vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and 50 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) isolates were used for the study. Optimal test conditions were derived by investigating the effects of inoculum size, medium, incubation temperature and broth filtration...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645649/evaluation-of-a-selective-chromogenic-medium-for-detecting-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#11
Renata Oliveira Soares, Adriana Medianeira Rossato, Gustavo Enck Sambrano, Neidimar Cezar Corrêa Tolfo, Juliana Caierão, Thiago Galvão da Silva Paim, Pedro Alves d'Azevedo
Rapid identification of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can assist in choosing the appropriate treatment and preventing VRE spread. The performance of chromID™ VRE agar was evaluated using 184 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. and reference strains. The test had a sensitivity of 95.52% but a low specificity of 30%.
June 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629876/effect-of-antibiotic-stewardship-on-the-incidence-of-infection-and-colonisation-with-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
David Baur, Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Francesco Burkert, Elena Carrara, Federico Foschi, Stefanie Döbele, Evelina Tacconelli
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship programmes have been shown to reduce antibiotic use and hospital costs. We aimed to evaluate evidence of the effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infections and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science for studies published from Jan 1, 1960, to May 31, 2016, that analysed the effect of antibiotic stewardship programmes on the incidence of infection and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile infections in hospital inpatients...
June 16, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627852/multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-travel
#13
Serge De Vallière
Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem which affects also tropical countries. Travelers to these regions expose themselves to the risk of being colonised and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria. The region visited, the occurrence of diarrhoea and the use of antibiotics are the principal risk factors leading to colonisation with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which can affect up to 80% of travellers. Colonisation with meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistant enterococci are often due to contacts with the health care system of the visited country...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627467/time-to-review-the-gold-standard-for-genotyping-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-epidemiology-comparing-whole-genome-sequencing-with-pfge-and-mlst-in-three-suspected-outbreaks-in-sweden-during-2013-2015
#14
Birgitta Lytsy, Lars Engstrand, Åke Gustafsson, Rene Kaden
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a challenge to the health-care system regarding transmission rate and treatment of infections. VRE outbreaks have to be controlled from the first cases which means that appropriate and sensitive genotyping methods are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of whole genome sequencing based analysis compared to Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) in epidemiological investigations as well as the development of a user friendly method for daily laboratory use...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620204/neo-actinomycins-a-and-b-natural-actinomycins-bearing-the-5h-oxazolo-4-5-b-phenoxazine-chromophore-from-the-marine-derived-streptomyces-sp-imb094
#15
Qiang Wang, Yixuan Zhang, Mian Wang, Yi Tan, Xinxin Hu, Hongwei He, Chunling Xiao, Xuefu You, Yiguang Wang, Maoluo Gan
Neo-actinomycins A and B (1 and 2), two new natural actinomycins featuring an unprecedented tetracyclic 5H-oxazolo[4,5-b]phenoxazine chromophore, were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. IMB094. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The presence of this ring system was proposed to originate from a condensation between actinomycin D (3) with α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate, respectively. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxic activities against human cancer HCT116 and A549 cell lines in the nanomolar range (IC50: 38...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617193/are-contact-precautions-ethically-justifiable-in-contemporary-hospital-care
#16
Joanna Harris, Kenneth Walsh, Susan Dodds
Hospital infection control practices known as Contact Precautions are recommended for the management of people with pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. BACKGROUND: The patient is isolated, and staff are required to wear gloves, and a gown or apron when providing care. A notice is displayed to remind staff of these requirements and an 'alert' message is placed in the patient's medical record. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss and explore whether practices used in hospitals to reduce the transmission of endemic antibiotic-resistant organisms are ethically justified in today's healthcare environment in the developed world...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609453/evaluation-of-a-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-assisted-selective-broth-method-to-screen-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-patients-at-high-risk
#17
Tsi-Shu Huang, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Chia-Chien Lee, Chiu-Yen Chen, Fang-Chen Chen, Bao-Chen Chen, Cheng Len Sy, Kuan-Sheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Bile esculin azide with vancomycin (BEAV) medium is a sensitive, but slightly less specific method for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) screening. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for identification of clinical pathogens. This study aimed to assess the performance of a novel combination screening test for VRE, using BEAV broth combined with MALDI-TOF MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical specimens were collected from patients at risk of VRE carriage, and tested by the novel combination method, using selective BEAV broth culture method followed by MALDI-TOF MS identification (SBEAVM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600076/contribution-and-limits-of-clinical-specimens-for-the-screening-of-intestinal-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-in-view-of-laboratory-automation
#18
A Geraud de Galassus, F Cizeau, A Agathine, C Domrane, D Ducellier, V Fihman, J-W Decousser
The detection of multi-drug-resistant bacteria carriers constitutes a race against time for infection preventionists. Alongside standard analysis for diagnostic purposes and a rectal screening strategy, the authors tested a heavy-loaded selective method against 562 clinical specimens from 439 patients to detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The approach identified five more specimens positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae than standard analysis, and six out of nine known VRE/CPE carriers (three new CPE/VRE strains were also identified in this cohort)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592333/effect-of-cessation-of-contact-isolation-for-endemic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#19
Mark E Rupp, Teresa Fitzgerald, Kim Hayes, Trevor Van Schooneveld, Angela Hewlett, Ryan Clevenger, Elizabeth Lyden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584459/susceptibility-pattern-of-enterococci-at-tertiary-care-hospital
#20
Sadhana Sachan, Vinita Rawat, Umesh, Mukesh Kumar, Tripta Kaur, Preeti Chaturvedi
The study was aimed to characterize enterococci from various clinical specimens, to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and to explore the association between virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 283 clinical enterococcal isolates were speciated and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Virulence factors (hemolysin, gelatinase, and biofilm production) were detected phenotypically. Of the 283 enterococci isolated, 12 species were identified; predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis (82...
April 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
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