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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224313/-incidence-of-blood-stream-infections-of-1265-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-analysis-of-pathogenic-bacteria
#1
Q Z Han, Y Chen, H Yang, X F Zhang, J Chen, D P Wu, S N Chen, H Y Qiu
Objective: To analyze the incidence and microbiological features of blood stream infections (BSI) of patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to provide laboratory data for empirical use of antibiotic for the HSCT patients with BSI. Methods: The incidence of bloodstream infection, the positive rate of blood culture, bacterial spectrum and drug resistance were analyzed in 1 265 HSCT recipients during 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively studied. Results: Of 1265 patients undergoing HSCT, 1 422 cases of suspected BSI occurred in 784 patients (61...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207701/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-hospitalized-patients-and-role-of-gut-colonization
#2
Geetarani Purohit, Rajni Gaind, Reetika Dawar, P K Verma, K C Aggarwal, Raman Sardana, Monorama Deb
Introduction: Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora and have been recognized as important human pathogens. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are global threat as this resistance is transmissible and also poses a challenge for infection control. Aim: This study was undertaken to study phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE from clinically significant infections among hospitalized patients and their association with gut colonization. Materials and Methods: Clinically significant isolates of enterococci (n=250) were studied...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203445/rapid-monitoring-of-local-epidemiology-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-on-a-department-level-by-reppcr
#3
Frank Froeschen, Mike Gajdiss, Julia Uebele, Alina Meilaender, Achim Hoerauf, Martin Exner, Ernst Molitor, Gabriele Bierbaum, Steffen Engelhart, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
BACKGROUND: The current increase in nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) warrants improvement of detection methods and hygiene measures. Knowledge of the local epidemiology is important for monitoring compliance of medical personnel with hygiene measures. AIM: We evaluated semi-automated repPCR for rapid molecular typing of VRE. METHODS: Primary VRE isolates were collected over an observation period of one year and retrospectively typed by repPCR...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195766/dalbavancin-is-active-in-vitro-against-biofilms-formed-by-dalbavancin-susceptible-enterococci
#4
Katharina Neudorfer, Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Robin Patel
We tested the in vitro activity of dalbavancin, vancomycin and daptomycin against 83 enterococcal isolates in planktonic and biofilm states. The MIC90 for vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis was 0.125 and 4μg/mL for dalbavancin and daptomycin, respectively. For vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, the MIC90 was >16 and 2μg/mL for dalbavancin and daptomycin, respectively. Dalbavancin minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) for vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates were ≤0...
September 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186434/rapid-disc-diffusion-antibiotic-susceptibility-testing-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-enterococcus-spp
#5
Michael Hombach, Marion Jetter, Nicolas Blöchliger, Natalia Kolesnik-Goldmann, Peter M Keller, Erik C Böttger
Background: We investigated the feasibility of rapid disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (rAST) with reading of inhibition zones after 6 and/or 8 h of incubation for Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, we evaluated discrimination of resistant populations from the WT populations at early timepoints and the requirement for clinical breakpoint adaptations for proper interpretation of rAST data. Methods: In total, 815 clinical strains [E...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178882/characterization-and-susceptibility-of-streptococci-and-enterococci-isolated-from-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-showing-septicaemia-in-aquaculture-and-wild-sites-in-egypt
#6
Kamelia M Osman, Khalid S Al-Maary, Aymen S Mubarak, Turki M Dawoud, Ihab M I Moussa, Mai D S Ibrahim, Ashgan M Hessain, Ahmed Orabi, Nehal M Fawzy
BACKGROUND: The present investigation was an endeavor into the elucidation of the disease-causing pathogen of streptococcosis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Egypt affecting adult fish cultured and wild fish in the Nile river. Fish were obtained from commercial fishermen, collected as part of their routine fishing activities. The researchers observed the routine fishing process and selected fish for use in the study, at the point of purchase from the fisherman. RESULTS: Diseased fish showed exophthalmia with accumulation of purulent and haemorrhagic fluid around eyes, and ventral petechial haemorrhages...
November 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175606/high-rates-of-colonization-by-ampicillin-resistant-enterococci-in-residents-at-long-term-care-facilities-in-porto-portugal
#7
Ana R Freitas, Carla Novais, Bárbara Duarte, Ana P Pereira, Teresa M Coque, Luísa Peixe
We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Enterococcus spp. resistant to clinically-relevant antibiotics in residents at long-term care facilities (LTCF) of Porto, Portugal, a region with high rates of multidrug-resistant enterococci in infected patients and healthy carriers. Faecal samples from 48 residents in two LTCF (2015-2016) were enriched (with/without antibiotics) and plated on Slanetz-Bartley with/without the same antibiotics (ampicillin/vancomycin/linezolid). Two colonies per morphology/sample were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing and species identification...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174563/invasive-fungi-derived-defensins-kill-drug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#8
Jiajia Wu, Shijie Liu, Hao Wang
Fungi-derived defensins are a class of antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic potential due to their high antibacterial efficacy and low toxicity. Based on the genomic strategy, we have identified 68 fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs) in five new genera, including Trichosporon, Apophysomyces, Lichtheimia, Beauveria and Scedosporium and characterized a new synthetic defensin (scedosporisin) from an invasive fungus. It was active against Gram-positive bacteria but not active against negative bacteria. Importantly, it killed several clinical resistant isolates such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci at low molecular concentrations...
November 21, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169321/lbjmr-medium-a-new-polyvalent-culture-medium-for-isolating-and-selecting-vancomycin-and-colistin-resistant-bacteria
#9
Lucie Bardet, Stéphanie Le Page, Thongpan Leangapichart, Jean-Marc Rolain
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a phenomenon which is on the increase around the world, particularly with the emergence of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci strains. The recent discovery of a plasmid-mediated colistin resistance with the description of the transferable mcr-1 gene raised concerns about the need for an efficient detection method for these pathogens, to isolate infected patients as early as possible. The LBJMR medium was developed to screen for all polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including mcr-1 positive isolates, and vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria...
November 23, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162494/prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-migrant-children-admitted-to-an-italian-cardiac-surgery-department-2015-2016
#10
E Costa, M Tejada, P Gaia, M Cornetta, A Moroni, E Carfora, R Valaperta, C De Siena, N Moussaidi, G Isgrò, A Frigiola
Screening on hospital admission to identify multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization is a frequently discussed topic. We report the results of microbiological screening in 141 Italian and 354 migrant children candidates for cardiac surgery conducted in 2015-2016. In all, 25% of Italian children and more than 65.4% of African and Romanian children carried at least one MDRO (meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes; carbapenemase producers; and vancomycin-resistant enterococci)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152678/first-year-results-of-an-antibiotic-stewardship-program-in-a-greek-tertiary-care-hospital
#11
K Chrysou, O Zarkotou, S Kalofolia, P Papagiannakopoulou, G Chrysos, K Themeli-Digalaki, A Tsakris, S Pournaras
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the implementation of an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic consumption in our 428-bed hospital. The Infection Control Committee implemented an ASP beginning in January 2016, aiming to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use through improved prescribing practices. The ASP included both pre-authorization and prospective audit and feedback strategies. We collected pharmacy and hospital data for the years 2015 (pre-intervention) and 2016 (post-intervention)...
November 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144223/no-touch-disinfection-methods-to-decrease-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136420/assessment-of-environmental-contamination-with-pathogenic-bacteria-at-a-hospital-laundry-facility
#13
Karen E Michael, David No, William E Daniell, Noah S Seixas, Marilyn C Roberts
Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112913/multifunctional-nanocomplex-for-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-imaging-and-near-infrared-photodynamic-antimicrobial-therapy-of-vancomycin-resistant-bacteria
#14
Zilong Zhou, Shanshan Peng, Minghao Sui, Shiguang Chen, Lishi Huang, Hui Xu, Tingting Jiang
Since vancomycin (Van)-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains first emerged as a serious threat to public health, extensive studies focused on optical imaging and antimicrobial therapy have been performed for monitoring and microbiological control. In this study, we developed silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine dihydroxide (Nc) and Van functionalized silica-encapsulated, silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@AgNP@SiO2@Nc-Van) as a novel theranostic system for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) of VRE strains...
November 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111433/longitudinal-study-on-antimicrobial-consumption-and-resistance-in-rabbit-farming
#15
Fabrizio Agnoletti, Romina Brunetta, Luca Bano, Ilenia Drigo, Elena Mazzolini
Reliable indicators of antimicrobial consumption (AMC) measured with harmonized data and supported with indicators for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) at herd level are necessary to target antimicrobial misuse in food producing animals. To this scope in 2010-2015 we collected AMC data in 32 Italian industrial rabbit holdings weighted with semester production and standardized with animal daily dose (ADD). Herd level AMR against eight antimicrobials was assessed in E. coli, E. faecalis and E. hirae collected in 2014 and 2015...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109580/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-species-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-urinary-isolates
#16
Linda B Ou, Lynn Nadeau
Background: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to drug-resistant species of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus (e.g., organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] or AmpC β-lactamase, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]). However, this type of therapy can promote selection of resistant organisms and may necessitate venous access. Fosfomycin is an orally administered, single-dose antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089850/characterization-of-enterococcal-community-isolated-%C3%A2-from-an-artisan-istrian-raw-milk-cheese-biotechnological-and-safety-aspects
#17
Mirna Mrkonjic Fuka, Ana Zgomba Maksimovic, Irina Tanuwidjaja, Natasa Hulak, Michael Schloter
In this study, prevalence, biotechnological and safety profiles of 588 Enterococcus isolates isolated from raw milk and Istrian cheese during different stages of ripening were analyzed. Despite the low and variable presence of enterococci in milk ((3.65±2.93) log CFU/mL), highly comparable enterococcal populations were established after 30 days of cheese ripening ((7.96±0.80) log CFU/g), confirming Enterococcus spp. as a major part of the core microbiota of Istrian cheese. The dominant species were E. faecium (53...
September 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083894/antibacterial-3-6-disubstituted-4-hydroxy-5-6-dihydro-2h-pyran-2-ones-from-serratia-plymuthica-mf371-2
#18
Joakim Bjerketorp, Jolanta J Levenfors, Christer Sahlberg, Christina L Nord, Pierre F Andersson, Bengt Guss, Bo Öberg, Anders Broberg
Bioassay-guided fractionation of culture extracts of Serratia plymuthica strain MF371-2 resulted in the isolation of two new antibacterial compounds with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus LMG 15975 (MRSA). A spectroscopic investigation, in combination with synthesis, enabled the characterization of the compounds as 3-butyryl-4-hydroxy-6-heptyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (plymuthipyranone A, 1) and 3-butyryl-4-hydroxy-6-nonyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (plymuthipyranone B, 2)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079115/molecular-characterization-of-glycopeptide-and-macrolide-resistance-genes-among-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-strains
#19
Asieh Taji, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Hossein Kazemian, Hamid Heidari
BACKGROUND: Multiple-drug-resistant enterococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are major cause of healthcare associated infections due to their antibiotic resistance traits. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen causing various hospital-acquired infections. METHODS: A total of 51 E. faecalis strains were isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs), bloodstream infections, respiratory tract infections, abdominal infections, and eye infection...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066140/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-isolates-colonizing-and-infecting-haematology-patients-clonality-and-virulence-and-resistance-profile
#20
A P Marchi, L V P Neto, R C R Martins, C F Rizek, C H Camargo, L Z Moreno, A M Moreno, M V Batista, M S Basqueira, F Rossi, U Amigo, T Guimaraes, A S S Levin, S F Costa
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important agent of colonization and infection in haematology patients. However, the role of virulence on VRE colonization and infection is controversial. The aim of this study was to characterize the lineage, virulence and resistance profile of VRE infection and colonization isolates; as well as their impact on outcome of haematology patients using a regression logistic model. METHODS: Eighty-six isolates (80 Enterococcus faecium and 6 E. faecalis) from 76 patients were evaluated...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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