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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

Mustafa Nakipoğlu, Fadime Yilmaz, Bulent Icgen
Untreated wastewaters and treated effluents even after final disinfection contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes before they are released into surface waters. A correlation between resistant bacteria and antibiotics in surface waters has been found, as have antibiotic resistance genes. Of particular interest are vancomycin-resistant enterococci harboring vanA gene that confers high level of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics including teicoplanin. Therefore, in this study, river water samples were analysed to investigate vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant bacterial isolates harboring vanA gene...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
R Fussen, S Lemmen
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria present an increasing threat for intensive care patients. Whereas colonization of intensive care patients with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in German ICUs has remained at a constant level in recent years and therapeutic options have improved, colonization and infections with MDR gram-negative bacteria and vancomycin-resistant enterococci are increasing year by year. Only a few or even no therapeutic options remain for the treatment of these bacteria...
October 20, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Steven Silverman, John Moses, K Barry Sharpless
Vancomycin has long been considered a drug of last resort. Its efficiency in treating multiple drug-resistant bacterial infections, particularly methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has had a profound effect on the treatment of life-threatening infections. However, the emergence of resistance to vancomycin is a cause for significant world-wide concern, prompting the urgent development of new effective treatments for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. Harnessing the benefits of multivalency and cooperativity against vancomycin-resistant strains, we report a Click Chemistry approach towards reengineered vancomycin derivatives and the synthesis of a number of dimers with increased potency against MRSA and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)...
October 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
S Jolivet, M Fines-Guyon, B Nebbad, J C Merle, D Le Pluart, C Brun-Buisson, J-W Decousser, V Cattoir
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus has rarely been associated with nosocomial infection and outbreaks. AIM: To report the successful control of a nosocomial outbreak of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus in a surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The investigation of the outbreak is reported with control measures taken. Molecular typing of vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus isolates was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Satyendra Kaushal, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba, Ashok Kumar
The increasing reports of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) as a cause of neonatal septicemia are of recent interest. However, in majority of the cases, the source of VRE could not be located. As a consequence, the real importance of VRE and its control measures is undermined. Herein, we report a case of neonatal septicemia due to VRE (Enterococcus faecalis) of vanA genotype with VRE carriage in stool of the neonates as a possible source of sepsis. The report put forwards some lacunae in the infection control practices that are presently followed in the country...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Bente Olesen, Jacob Anhøj, Kenneth Palle Rasmussen, Kåre Mølbak, Marianne Voldstedlund
BACKGROUND: Although the timely isolation of patients is an essential intervention to limit spread of drug-resistant bacteria, information about the colonization status is often unavailable or lost when patients are readmitted or transferred between hospitals. Therefore, carriers of drug resistant bacteria are not recognized sufficiently early, and proper and timely isolation precautions are not taken. Consequently, resistant bacteria of public health concerns including vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can spread epidemically...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Elizaveta M Igumnova, Ekaterina Mishchenko, Tor Haug, Hans-Matti Blencke, Johanna U Ericson Sollid, Elizabeth G Aarag Fredheim, Silje Lauksund, Klara Stensvåg, Morten B Strøm
A library of small aminobenzamide derivatives was synthesised to explore a cationic amphipathic motif found in marine natural antimicrobials. The most potent compound E23 displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5-2μg/ml against several Gram-positive bacterial strains, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).E23 was also potent against 275 clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as methicillin-resistant S...
September 20, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Kyung Mok Sohn, Shinhye Cheon, Yeon-Sook Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
M Krull, I Klare, B Ross, R Trenschel, D W Beelen, D Todt, E Steinmann, J Buer, P-M Rath, J Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has increased in Germany. Here, we report the cluster of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LVRE) in a German department for hematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: In this retrospective analysis we included all patients with LVRE in a university-based department for HSCT in 2014 and 2015. Patients chart reviews were used to investigate the epidemiology and clinical outcome...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Reza Mirnejad, Nikta Sajjadi, Sara Masoumi Zavaryani, Vahhab Piranfar, Maryam Hajihosseini, Maliheh Roshanfekr
Early detection of antibiotic-resistant enterococci is an important part of patient treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance patterns and simultaneously identify and characterise the resistance genes in Enterococcus spp. using a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In all, 150 consecutive Enterococcus spp were collected from several hospitals in Tehran (Iran) from January to December 2015. The Enterococcus species were identified by standard phenotypic/biochemical tests and PCR...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Katherine Reyes, Ana Cecilia Bardossy, Marcus Zervos
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections have acquired prominence as a leading cause of health care-associated infections. Understanding VRE epidemiology, transmission modes in health care settings, risk factors for colonization, and infection is essential to prevention and control of VRE infections. Infection control strategies are pivotal in management of VRE infections and should be based on patient characteristics, hospital needs, and available resources. Hand hygiene is basic to decrease acquisition of VRE...
September 19, 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Mona Nasaj, Seyed Masoud Mousavi, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of virulence determinants and vancomycin-resistant genes among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium obtained from various clinical sources. METHODS: The study was performed on the 280 enterococcal isolated from clinical specimens in Hamadan hospitals, western Iran in 2012-14. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. The presence of vancomycin-resistant genes and virulence genes was investigated using PCR...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
N Monteserin, E Larson
BACKGROUND: Published data regarding temporal trends in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) prevalence within specific regions or healthcare systems are scarce. AIM: To characterize temporal trends and risk factors for healthcare-associated infections caused by VRE. METHODS: The study included all adult discharges occurring from 2006 to 2014 with an entercoccal infection from three hospitals in a large academic healthcare system. Bivariate analyses were used to identify statistically significant factors associated with vancomycin-susceptible or -resistant infection...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Leron Khalifa, Mor Shlezinger, Shaul Beyth, Yael Houri-Haddad, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Cheston B Cunha, Erika M C D'Agata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, continue to rise among the population of chronic hemodialysis. Antimicrobial exposure is the main risk factor for MDRO emergence and dissemination. Up to 30% of antimicrobial doses administered in out-patient dialysis units may not be indicated. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) improve antimicrobial prescribing patterns...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Edson Yukio Komiyama, Laura Soares Souto Lepesqueur, Cinthia Gomes Yassuda, Lakshman P Samaranayake, Nipuna B Parahitiyawa, Ivan Balducci, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito
Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4-11 yrs, adolescents 12-17 yrs, young adults 18-29 yrs, adults 30-59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing...
2016: PloS One
Sushma Kommineni, Christopher J Kristich, Nita H Salzman
Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that bacteriocins produced by commensal enterococci provide an advantage in niche maintenance in the highly competitive environment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (1) . Bacterial production of bacteriocins is a conserved defense strategy to help establish an ecological niche (2, 3) . Bacteriocin-encoding genes in enterococci are often carried on mobile genetic elements, including conjugative plasmids, enabling the transfer of such traits to other community members in a shared niche...
September 13, 2016: Gut Microbes
Alicia M Shams, Laura J Rose, Jonathan R Edwards, Salvatore Cali, Anthony D Harris, Jesse T Jacob, Anna LaFae, Lisa L Pineles, Kerri A Thom, L Clifford McDonald, Matthew J Arduino, Judith A Noble-Wang
OBJECTIVE To determine the typical microbial bioburden (overall bacterial and multidrug-resistant organisms [MDROs]) on high-touch healthcare environmental surfaces after routine or terminal cleaning. DESIGN Prospective 2.5-year microbiological survey of large surface areas (>1,000 cm2). SETTING MDRO contact-precaution rooms from 9 acute-care hospitals and 2 long-term care facilities in 4 states. PARTICIPANTS Samples from 166 rooms (113 routine cleaned and 53 terminal cleaned rooms). METHODS Using a standard sponge-wipe sampling protocol, 2 composite samples were collected from each room; a third sample was collected from each Clostridium difficile room...
September 13, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Kamelia M Osman, Mohamed N Ali, Ismail Radwan, Fatma ElHofy, Ahmed H Abed, Ahmed Orabi, Nehal M Fawzy
Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marianne Frieri, Krishan Kumar, Anthony Boutin
Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is a challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance patterns in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are difficult to treat and may even be untreatable with conventional antibiotics. There is currently a shortage of effective therapies, lack of successful prevention measures, and only a few new antibiotics, which require development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms are involved in multidrug resistance and can present challenges for infection control...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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