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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207828/the-wide-spectrum-high-biocidal-potency-of-bioxy-formulation-when-dissolved-in-water-at-different-concentrations
#1
Dori Dagher, Ken Ungar, Richard Robison, Fadi Dagher
Traditional surface disinfectants that have long been applied in medicine, animal husbandry, manufacturing and institutions are inconvenient at best and dangerous at worst. Moreover, some of these substances have adverse environmental impacts: for example, quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats") are reproductive toxicants in both fish and mammals. Halogens are corrosive both to metals and living tissues, are highly reactive, can be readily neutralized by metals, and react with organic matter to form toxic, persistent by-products such as dioxins and furans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203378/screening-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-with-xpert%C3%A2-vana-vanb-diagnostic-accuracy-and-impact-on-infection-control-decision-making
#2
B J Holzknecht, D S Hansen, L Nielsen, A Kailow, J O Jarløv
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are increasingly important nosocomial pathogens and screening for colonization status is a mainstay in infection control. We implemented PCR-based screening during vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium outbreaks in four university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Xpert(®)vanA/vanB was performed directly on rectal swabs and the vanA PCR result was used to guide infection control measures. Concurrently, all samples were selectively cultured including an overnight enrichment step...
March 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196696/patients-hospitalized-abroad-as-importers-of-multiresistant-bacteria-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Tamim Khawaja, Juha Kirveskari, Sara Johansson, Juuso Väisänen, Aurora Djupsjöbacka, Annika Nevalainen, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: The pandemic spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria poses a threat to healthcare worldwide, with highest prevalence in indigent regions of the (sub)tropics. As hospitalization constitutes a major risk factor for colonization, infection control management in low-prevalence countries urgently needs background data on patients hospitalized abroad. METHODS: We collected data on 1122 patients who, after hospitalization abroad, were treated at the Helsinki University Hospital between 2010 and 2013...
February 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184339/correlation-between-infective-factors-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-enterococci-clinical-isolates-in-west-of-iran
#4
Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Mona Nasaj, Seyed Masoud Mousavi
The present study was done to scrutinize the possible relation between infective genes and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Considering the fact that the presence of recognized infective determinants among clinical isolates may promote the emergence of infections and persistence of Enterococci in hospital settings, which can lead to an increase in antimicrobial resistance. 175 E. faecalis and 67 E. faecium isolated from clinical specimens were used. The isolates were identified, and then antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed...
January 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166916/black-brown-discoloration-and-hairy-tongue-a-rare-linezolid-side-effect
#5
A K Jain, Man Mohan Puri, R Sarin
INTRODUCTION: Linezolid was approved for clinical use for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. Additionally it is used in the management of drug resistant tuberculosis. It is well-tolerated however bone marrow suppression and neuropathies may occur in patients taking this antibiotic for more than 2 weeks. Black discoloration and black hairy tongue (BHT) due to linezolid is rarely reported. We report two cases of BHT. CASE REPORTS: Two patients of drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis developed benign hairy tongue with linezolid 600mg per day...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161461/infectious-disease-exposures-and-outbreaks-at-a-south-african-neonatal-unit-with-review-of-neonatal-outbreak-epidemiology-in-africa
#6
A Dramowski, M Aucamp, A Bekker, S Mehtar
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing and shared equipment. METHODS: We describe neonatal outbreaks attended by the Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Infection Prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (1 May 2008 - 30 April 2016) reporting pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source and outbreak control measures...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144040/lipophilic-teicoplanin-pseudoaglycon-derivatives-are-active-against-vancomycin-and-teicoplanin-resistant-enterococci
#7
Zsolt Szűcs, Ilona Bereczki, Magdolna Csávás, Erzsébet Rőth, Anikó Borbás, Gyula Batta, Eszter Ostorházi, Réka Szatmári, Pál Herczegh
A selection of nine derivatives of teicoplanin pseudoaglycon were tested in vitro against clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains possessing vanA, vanB or both genes. The bacteria were characterized by PCR for the identification of their resistance genes. The tested compounds contain lipoic acid, different carbohydrates and aryl groups as lipophilic moieties. About one-third of the teicoplanin-resistant strains were shown to be susceptible to one or more of the glycopeptide derivatives.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139543/antibiotic-resistance-pathogen-profile-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#8
Abhijit Chaudhury, A Shobha Rani, Usha Kalawat, Sachin Sumant, Anju Verma, B Venkataramana
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important hospital-acquired infection with substantial mortality. Only a few studies are available from India addressing the microbiological aspects of VAP, which have been done with small study populations. This study was carried out in the intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care hospital to assess the profile of pathogens and to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of clinically suspected cases of VAP...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139519/emergence-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-at-a-teaching-hospital-saudi-arabia
#9
Fawzia E Alotaibi, Elham E Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a major and emerging hospital-acquired pathogen associated with high mortality, particularly among the critically ill and Intensive Care Units (ICUs) patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and demographic and clinical characteristics of VRE among patients admitted to a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A study was conducted during the period from September 2014 to November 2015 at King Khalid University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, including in-patients with VRE infection...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132649/measures-to-prevent-and-control-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-do-they-really-matter
#10
Hilary Humphreys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129822/-antimicrobial-spectrum-of-dalbavancin-mechanism-of-action-and-in-vitro-activity-against-gram-positive-microorganisms
#11
Emilia Cercenado
Because of the increase in bacterial resistance, there is a need for new antimicrobial agents. Dalbavancin is a semisynthetic glycopeptide that inhibits the late stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis in the same way as vancomycin, but in addition, its lipophilic side chain anchors dalbavancin to the cellular membrane and allows enhanced activity compared with that of vancomycin. Dalbavancin possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, being 4-8 times more potent than vancomycin...
January 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122803/a-decade-of-development-of-chromogenic-culture-media-for-clinical-microbiology-in-an-era-of-molecular-diagnostics
#12
REVIEW
John D Perry
In the last 25 years, chromogenic culture media have found widespread application in diagnostic clinical microbiology. In the last decade, the range of media available to clinical laboratories has expanded greatly, allowing specific detection of additional pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, group B streptococci, Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. New media have also been developed to screen for pathogens with acquired antimicrobial resistance, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115354/characterization-of-class-iia-bacteriocin-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecium
#13
Kathryn Geldart, Yiannis N Kaznessis
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, particularly resistant E. faecium, pose an escalating threat in nosocomial environments because of their innate resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin, a treatment of last resort. Many class IIa bacteriocins strongly target these enterococci and may offer a potential alternative for the management of this pathogen. However, E. faecium's resistance to these peptides remains relatively uncharacterized. Herein, we explore the development of resistance of E. faecium to a cocktail of three class IIa bacteriocins; Enterocin A, Enterocin P, and Hiracin JM79...
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108098/comparative-efficacies-of-daptomycin-vancomycin-and-linezolid-in-experimental-enterococcal-peritonitis
#14
Toshiki Kajihara, Shigeki Nakamura, Naoki Iwanaga, Kazuhiro Oshima, Katsuji Hirano, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Shigeru Kohno, Hiroshi Mukae
Enterococci have become increasingly important pathogens for nosocomial infection (e.g. bacteremia, intra-abdominal infection, endocarditis, etc.), related to their intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Although the in vitro susceptibility of daptomycin (DAP) against Enterococci is well established, the Food and Drug Administration has only approved its use for complicated skin and skin structure infections induced by Enterococcus faecalis. In this study we evaluated the potential therapeutic application of DAP in a murine model of enterococcal experimental peritonitis...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104287/enhanced-terminal-room-disinfection-and-acquisition-and-infection-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-and-clostridium-difficile-the-benefits-of-enhanced-terminal-room-disinfection-study-a-cluster-randomised-multicentre-crossover-study
#15
Deverick J Anderson, Luke F Chen, David J Weber, Rebekah W Moehring, Sarah S Lewis, Patricia F Triplett, Michael Blocker, Paul Becherer, J Conrad Schwab, Lauren P Knelson, Yuliya Lokhnygina, William A Rutala, Hajime Kanamori, Maria F Gergen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to hospital can acquire multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile from inadequately disinfected environmental surfaces. We determined the effect of three enhanced strategies for terminal room disinfection (disinfection of a room between occupying patients) on acquisition and infection due to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, C difficile, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, crossover trial at nine hospitals in the southeastern USA...
January 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100194/interspecies-transfer-of-vancomycin-erythromycin-and-tetracycline-resistance-among-enterococcus-species-recovered-from-agrarian-sources
#16
M Conwell, V Daniels, P J Naughton, J S G Dooley
BACKGROUND: Enterococci are now well recognised for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and for their association with nosocomial infections, but less is known regarding their relevance in the wider environment. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were isolated from a range of agrarian associated sources (low-flow water, septic tank, poultry litter, high flow water, slurry/soil) and were assessed for latent ability to transfer antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS: The isolates were tested for phenotypic clumping in the presence of cell-free supernatant from other isolates...
January 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093424/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-and-vre-pneumonia
#17
Mohannad Abu Omar, Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Sola Kim, Gregory Howell
Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050849/glycin-rich-antimicrobial-peptide-yd1-from-b-amyloliquefaciens-induced-morphological-alteration-in-and-showed-affinity-for-plasmid-dna-of-e-coli
#18
Md Saifur Rahman, Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Jin Cheol Yoo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), low-molecular-weight proteins with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, are the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. A powerful cationic glycine-rich AMP YD1 (MW ~ 1.0 kDa) was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBSYD1 isolated from traditional Korean fermented food kimchi, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Strain CBSYD1 was identified 99.79% similar to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) by 16S rRNA sequence analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040891/quantification-of-the-d-ala-d-lac-terminated-peptidoglycan-structure-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-using-a-combined-solid-state-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#19
James D Chang, Erin E Foster, Hao Yang, Sung Joon Kim
Induction of vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) involves replacement of the d-Ala-d-Ala terminus of peptidoglycan (PG) stems with d-Ala-d-Lac, dramatically reducing the binding affinity of vancomycin for lipid II. Effects from vancomycin resistance induction in Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 51299) were characterized using a combined solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Solid-state NMR directly measured the total amounts of d-Lac and l,d-Ala metabolized from [2-(13)C]pyruvate, accumulated Park's nucleotide, and changes to the PG bridge-linking density during the early exponential growth phase (OD660 = 0...
January 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005484/state-health-department-requirements-for-reporting-of-antibiotic-resistant-infections-by-providers-united-states-2013-and-2015
#20
Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Eileen J Carter, Mary Lou Manning, Elaine L Larson
Due to the high burden of antibiotic-resistant infections, several US states mandate public reporting of these infections. To examine the extent to which state departments of health require reporting of antibiotic-resistant infections, we abstracted data from lists of reportable conditions from all 50 states at 2 time points, May 2013 and May 2015. Requirements varied substantially by state. In 2015, most states (n = 44) required reporting of at least 1 antibiotic-resistant infection; vancomycin-intermediate and/or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently reportable infection (n = 40)...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
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