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Vancomycin resistance enterococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629876/effect-of-antibiotic-stewardship-on-the-incidence-of-infection-and-colonisation-with-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
David Baur, Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Francesco Burkert, Elena Carrara, Federico Foschi, Stefanie Döbele, Evelina Tacconelli
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship programmes have been shown to reduce antibiotic use and hospital costs. We aimed to evaluate evidence of the effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infections and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science for studies published from Jan 1, 1960, to May 31, 2016, that analysed the effect of antibiotic stewardship programmes on the incidence of infection and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile infections in hospital inpatients...
June 16, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627852/multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-travel
#2
Serge De Vallière
Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem which affects also tropical countries. Travelers to these regions expose themselves to the risk of being colonised and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria. The region visited, the occurrence of diarrhoea and the use of antibiotics are the principal risk factors leading to colonisation with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which can affect up to 80% of travellers. Colonisation with meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistant enterococci are often due to contacts with the health care system of the visited country...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627467/time-to-review-the-gold-standard-for-genotyping-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-epidemiology-comparing-whole-genome-sequencing-with-pfge-and-mlst-in-three-suspected-outbreaks-in-sweden-during-2013-2015
#3
Birgitta Lytsy, Lars Engstrand, Åke Gustafsson, Rene Kaden
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a challenge to the health-care system regarding transmission rate and treatment of infections. VRE outbreaks have to be controlled from the first cases which means that appropriate and sensitive genotyping methods are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of whole genome sequencing based analysis compared to Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) in epidemiological investigations as well as the development of a user friendly method for daily laboratory use...
June 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620204/neo-actinomycins-a-and-b-natural-actinomycins-bearing-the-5h-oxazolo-4-5-b-phenoxazine-chromophore-from-the-marine-derived-streptomyces-sp-imb094
#4
Qiang Wang, Yixuan Zhang, Mian Wang, Yi Tan, Xinxin Hu, Hongwei He, Chunling Xiao, Xuefu You, Yiguang Wang, Maoluo Gan
Neo-actinomycins A and B (1 and 2), two new natural actinomycins featuring an unprecedented tetracyclic 5H-oxazolo[4,5-b]phenoxazine chromophore, were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. IMB094. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The presence of this ring system was proposed to originate from a condensation between actinomycin D (3) with α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate, respectively. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxic activities against human cancer HCT116 and A549 cell lines in the nanomolar range (IC50: 38...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617193/are-contact-precautions-ethically-justifiable-in-contemporary-hospital-care
#5
Joanna Harris, Kenneth Walsh, Susan Dodds
Hospital infection control practices known as Contact Precautions are recommended for the management of people with pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. BACKGROUND: The patient is isolated, and staff are required to wear gloves, and a gown or apron when providing care. A notice is displayed to remind staff of these requirements and an 'alert' message is placed in the patient's medical record. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss and explore whether practices used in hospitals to reduce the transmission of endemic antibiotic-resistant organisms are ethically justified in today's healthcare environment in the developed world...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609453/evaluation-of-a-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-assisted-selective-broth-method-to-screen-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-patients-at-high-risk
#6
Tsi-Shu Huang, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Chia-Chien Lee, Chiu-Yen Chen, Fang-Chen Chen, Bao-Chen Chen, Cheng Len Sy, Kuan-Sheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Bile esculin azide with vancomycin (BEAV) medium is a sensitive, but slightly less specific method for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) screening. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for identification of clinical pathogens. This study aimed to assess the performance of a novel combination screening test for VRE, using BEAV broth combined with MALDI-TOF MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical specimens were collected from patients at risk of VRE carriage, and tested by the novel combination method, using selective BEAV broth culture method followed by MALDI-TOF MS identification (SBEAVM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600076/the-contribution-and-limits-of-clinical-specimens-for-the-screening-of-intestinal-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-view-of-laboratory-automation
#7
Geraud De Galassus Alix, Florence Cizeau, Aurélie Agathine, Cecilia Domrane, David Ducellier, Vincent Fihman, Jean-Winoc Decousser
The detection of multidrug-resistant bacteria carriers constitutes a race against time for infection preventionists. Alongside standard analysis for diagnosis purposes and rectal screening strategy, we tested a heavy-loaded selective method against 562 clinical specimens from 439 patients to detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Our approach identified five more specimens positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae than standard analysis, and 6 out of 9 known VRE/CPE carriers (three new CPE/VRE strains were also identified in this cohort)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592333/effect-of-cessation-of-contact-isolation-for-endemic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#8
Mark E Rupp, Teresa Fitzgerald, Kim Hayes, Trevor Van Schooneveld, Angela Hewlett, Ryan Clevenger, Elizabeth Lyden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584459/susceptibility-pattern-of-enterococci-at-tertiary-care-hospital
#9
Sadhana Sachan, Vinita Rawat, Umesh, Mukesh Kumar, Tripta Kaur, Preeti Chaturvedi
The study was aimed to characterize enterococci from various clinical specimens, to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and to explore the association between virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 283 clinical enterococcal isolates were speciated and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Virulence factors (hemolysin, gelatinase, and biofilm production) were detected phenotypically. Of the 283 enterococci isolated, 12 species were identified; predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis (82...
April 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579835/transmission-of-health-care-associated-infections-from-roommates-and-prior-room-occupants-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Bevin Cohen, Catherine Crawford Cohen, Borghild Løyland, Elaine L Larson
Pathogens that cause health care-associated infections (HAIs) are known to survive on surfaces and equipment in health care environments despite routine cleaning. As a result, the infection status of prior room occupants and roommates may play a role in HAI transmission. We performed a systematic review of the literature evaluating the association between patients' exposure to infected/colonized hospital roommates or prior room occupants and their risk of infection/colonization with the same organism. A PubMed search for English articles published in 1990-2014 yielded 330 studies, which were screened by three reviewers...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578090/genotyping-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-factor-gene-profiles-of-vancomycin-resistance-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-blood-culture
#11
Shahnaz Armin, Fatemeh Fallah, Abdollah Karimi, Marjan Rashidan, Mehdi Shirdust, Leila Azimi
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus spp. is the common of intestinal micro flora in humans but nowadays this gram-positive bacterium causes the variety of nosocomial infections. Resistance to antibiotic and also, presence of different virulence genes in the enterococcus spp. can change it to problematic microorganisms in the health care centers. The aim of this study was determined the genotyping, antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of vancomycin resistance Enterococcus faecalis isolated from blood culture...
May 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574692/cell-wall-remodeling-by-a-synthetic-analog-reveals-metabolic-adaptation-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#12
Sean E Pidgeon, Marcos M Pires
Drug-resistant bacterial infections threaten to overburden our healthcare system and disrupt modern medicine. A large class of potent antibiotics, including vancomycin, operate by interfering with bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) evade the blockage of cell wall biosynthesis by altering cell wall precursors, rendering them drug insensitive. Herein, we reveal the phenotypic plasticity and cell wall remodeling of VRE in response to vancomycin in live bacterial cells via a metabolic probe...
June 2, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573492/bactericidal-activity-and-synergy-studies-of-peptide-ap-cect7121-against-multi-resistant-bacteria-isolated-from-human-and-animal-soft-tissue-infections
#13
Gastón Delpech, Mariana Bistoletti, Mónica Ceci, Sabina Lissarrague, Sergio Sánchez Bruni, Mónica Sparo
AP-CECT7121 is an antimicrobial peptide, produced by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121, with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of AP-CECT7121, alone and with gentamicin, against multi-resistant bacteria isolated from human and animals with soft tissue infections. During the period 2014-2015, bacterial strains producing human and animal soft tissue infections were studied. Samples from patients attended at a general hospital and cattle from four dairies in the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina) were included...
June 1, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572111/patients-hand-washing-and-reducing-hospital-acquired-infection
#14
Stacy Haverstick, Cara Goodrich, Regi Freeman, Shandra James, Rajkiran Kullar, Melissa Ahrens
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers. OBJECTIVES: To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections. METHODS: In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer...
June 2017: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571980/effectiveness-of-cleaning-disinfection-wipes-and-sprays-against-multidrug-resistant-outbreak-strains
#15
Nikki Kenters, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Sophie C J de Wit, Joost van Rosmalen, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: Hospital rooms play an important role in the transmission of several health care-associated pathogens. During the last few years, a number of innovative cleaning-disinfecting products have been brought to market. In this study, commercially available products combining cleaning and disinfection were compared, using 2 different application methods. The aim was to determine which product was most effective in simultaneous cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. METHODS: Seven cleaning-disinfecting wipes and sprays based on different active ingredients were tested for their efficacy in removal of microbial burden and proteins...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570012/vancomycin-dependent-response-in-live-drug-resistant-bacteria-via-metabolic-labeling
#16
Marcos Moura Pires, Sean E Pidgeon
The surge in drug-resistant bacterial infections threatens to overburden healthcare systems worldwide. Bacterial cell walls are essential to bacteria - making them unique targets for the development of antibiotics. We describe a cellular reporter to directly monitor the phenotypic switch in drug resistant bacteria with temporal resolution. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) escape the bactericidal actions of vancomycin by chemically modifying their cell wall precursors, which renders them drug insensitive...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566074/-evaluation-of-virulence-factors-in-enterococcus-species
#17
Ergun Mete, İlknur Kaleli, Nural Cevahir, Melek Demir, Yüksel Akkaya, Özgün Kiriş Satılmış
Enterococci have recently become important due to their increased isolation rates in community-based and nosocomial infections and resistance to many antibiotics, including glycopeptides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptible patterns and virulence factors of various clinical specimens; urine (n= 149), blood (n= 38), wound (n= 17), stool (n= 13), and other (n= 12) with a total of 229 enterococci including 138 E.faecalis and 91 E.faecium isolates. Aggregation factor (AF), enterococcus surface protein (esp), cytolysins and gelatinase encoding genes (asa1, esp, cylM, cylBcyl A, cylll, cylls, gelE, respectively) were investigated by molecular methods...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559345/peripheral-modifications-of-%C3%AE-ch2nh-tpg-4-vancomycin-with-added-synergistic-mechanisms-of-action-provide-durable-and-potent-antibiotics
#18
Akinori Okano, Nicholas A Isley, Dale L Boger
Subsequent to binding pocket modifications designed to provide dual d-Ala-d-Ala/d-Ala-d-Lac binding that directly overcome the molecular basis of vancomycin resistance, peripheral structural changes have been explored to improve antimicrobial potency and provide additional synergistic mechanisms of action. A C-terminal peripheral modification, introducing a quaternary ammonium salt, is reported and was found to provide a binding pocket-modified vancomycin analog with a second mechanism of action that is independent of d-Ala-d-Ala/d-Ala-d-Lac binding...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558010/effect-of-meteorological-factors-and-geographic-location-on-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-colonization-in-the-us
#19
Natalia Blanco, Eli Perencevich, Shan Shan Li, Daniel J Morgan, Lisa Pineles, J Kristie Johnson, Gwen Robinson, Deverick J Anderson, Jesse T Jacob, Lisa L Maragakis, Anthony D Harris
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of meteorological conditions and geographical location on bacterial colonization rates particularly of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of season, meteorological factors, and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization. METHODS: The prospective cohort included all adults admitted to 20 geographically-dispersed ICUs across the US from September 1, 2011 to October 4, 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542602/antimicrobial-resistance-status-of-enterococcus-from-australian-cattle-populations-at-slaughter
#20
Robert S Barlow, Kate E McMillan, Lesley L Duffy, Narelle Fegan, David Jordan, Glen E Mellor
Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacterial associated diseases. A consequence of their use is the potential development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis that are resistant to antimicrobials are of increased concern to public health officials throughout the world as they may compromise the ability of various treatment regimens to control disease and infection in human medicine. Australia is a major exporter of beef; however it does not have an ongoing surveillance system for AMR in cattle or foods derived from these animals...
2017: PloS One
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