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Diabetic retinopathy losartan

T Cavusoglu, T Karadeniz, E Cagiltay, M Karadeniz, G Yigitturk, E Acikgoz, Y Uyanikgil, U Ates, M I Tuglu, O Erbas
AIM: Involvement of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems is possibly the most frequent complication of diabetes. Important risk factors included hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE) inhibitors should be beneficial in all vascular beds, including neuropathy and retinopathy. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan on diabetic neuropathy in a diabetic rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 male, Sprague Dawley albino mature rats were divided into 3 groups; (1) control group: No drug was administered to the remainder of rats which blood glucose levels were under 120 mg/dl, (2) diabetic control: rats were given no medication, but 4 ml per day of tap water was given by oral gavage, (3) losartan groups: rats were given 10 mg/kg/day oral of losartan for 4 weeks...
September 2015: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Wendy W Batenburg, Amrisha Verma, Yunyang Wang, Ping Zhu, Mieke van den Heuvel, Richard van Veghel, A H Jan Danser, Qiuhong Li
Dysfunction of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Prorenin, the precursor of renin is highly elevated in ocular fluid of diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy. Prorenin may exert local effects in the eye by binding to the so-called (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR). Here we investigated the combined effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the putative (P)RR blocker handle-region peptide (HRP) on diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic transgenic (mRen2)27 rats (a model with high plasma prorenin levels) as well as prorenin stimulated cytokine expression in cultured Müller cells...
2014: PloS One
Relu Cernes, Margarita Mashavi, Reuven Zimlichman
The advantages of blood pressure (BP) control on the risks of heart failure and stroke are well established. The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in volume homeostasis and BP regulation and is a target for several groups of antihypertensive drugs. Angiotensin II receptor blockers represent a major class of antihypertensive compounds. Candesartan cilexetil is an angiotensin II type 1 (AT[1]) receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]) that inhibits the actions of angiotensin II on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...
2011: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Tasma Harindhanavudhi, Michael Mauer, Ronald Klein, Bernard Zinman, Alan Sinaiko, M Luiza Caramori
OBJECTIVE: Optimal glycemic control slows diabetic retinopathy (DR) development and progression and is the standard of care for type 1 diabetes. However, these glycemic goals are difficult to achieve and sustain in clinical practice. The Renin Angiotensin System Study (RASS) showed that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade can slow DR progression. In the current study, we evaluate whether glycemic control influenced the benefit of RAS blockade on DR progression in type 1 diabetic patients...
August 2011: Diabetes Care
A K Sjølie, P Dodson, F R R Hobbs
Diabetes management has increasingly focused on the prevention of macrovascular disease, in particular for type 2 diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy, one of the main microvascular complications of diabetes, is also an important public health problem. Much of the care invested in retinopathy relates to treatment rather than prevention of disease. Tight glycaemic and blood pressure control helps to reduce the risk of retinopathy, but this is not easy to achieve in practice and additional treatments are needed for both primary and secondary prevention of retinopathy...
February 2011: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Søren Tang Knudsen
Diabetic vascular complications constitute leading causes of blindness, renal failure, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality world-wide. We studied haemodynamic and structural abnormalities associated with the development of microvascular complications and evaluated the effect of intervention with antihypertensive agents on these risk factors and complications in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). Retinal thickness, urinary albumin excretion rate, and transcapillary escape rate of albumin were strongly associated in T2DM patients with maculopathy, suggesting that macular oedema is a marker of generalised vascular hyperpermeability in T2DM...
June 2010: Danish Medical Bulletin
Kamila C Silva, Mariana A B Rosales, José B Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M Lopes de Faria
PURPOSE: To investigate if nitric oxide (NO) system contributes to the beneficial effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)) blocker losartan in the retina of diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Diabetic SHR were randomized to receive oral treatment with losartan (DM-SHRLos). After 20 days, the rats were euthanized and the retinas collected. RESULTS: Diabetic SHR rats exhibited a significant increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and decrease in occludin, markers of early diabetic retinopathy (DR)...
June 2010: Current Eye Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2009: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Michael Mauer, Bernard Zinman, Robert Gardiner, Samy Suissa, Alan Sinaiko, Trudy Strand, Keith Drummond, Sandra Donnelly, Paul Goodyer, Marie Claire Gubler, Ronald Klein
BACKGROUND: Nephropathy and retinopathy remain important complications of type 1 diabetes. It is unclear whether their progression is slowed by early administration of drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, controlled trial involving 285 normotensive patients with type 1 diabetes and normoalbuminuria and who were randomly assigned to receive losartan (100 mg daily), enalapril (20 mg daily), or placebo and followed for 5 years...
July 2, 2009: New England Journal of Medicine
Sally M Marshall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2009: Diabetes Care
Shingo Satofuka, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Norihiro Nagai, Kousuke Noda, Yoko Ozawa, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Kazuo Tsubota, Hiroshi Itoh, Yuichi Oike, Susumu Ishida
OBJECTIVE: The term "receptor-associated prorenin system" (RAPS) refers to the pathogenic mechanisms whereby prorenin binding to its receptor dually activates the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and RAS-independent intracellular signaling via the receptor. The aim of the present study was to define the association of the RAPS with diabetes-induced retinal inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Long-Evans rats, C57BL/6 mice, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R)-deficient mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with (pro)renin receptor blocker (PRRB)...
July 2009: Diabetes
Kamila C Silva, Mariana A B Rosales, Subrata K Biswas, Jose B Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M Lopes de Faria
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic retinopathy displays the features of a neurodegenerative disease. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. This investigation sought to determine whether hypertension exacerbates the oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and mitochondrial dysfunction that exists in diabetic retinopathy and whether these changes could be minimized by the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blocker (ARB) losartan. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
June 2009: Diabetes
Jin-Zhong Zhang, Xia Xi, Ling Gao, Timothy S Kern
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to examine the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on the development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Rats were made diabetic by injection of streptozotocin and treated with the ACE inhibitor captopril and the AT1 antagonist losartan. The extent of capillary degeneration and leukostasis in the retina were determined. RESULTS: Acellular capillaries and pericyte ghosts in the retina of diabetic animals were increased by approximately two-fold after 8 months of diabetes compared with the nondiabetic control, and captopril completely inhibited this capillary degeneration...
October 2007: Current Eye Research
Ping Chen, Austin M Guo, Paul A Edwards, Gary Trick, A Guillermo Scicli
We studied whether angiotensin II (ANG II) via superoxide may contribute to retinal leukostasis and thus to the pathogenesis of retinopathies. We studied: 1) whether intravitreal ANG II induces retinal leukostasis that is altered by antioxidants or by apocynin, a NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor and 2) whether retinal leukostasis induced by diabetes in rats is also altered by these treatments. Rats were injected intravitreally with ANG II (20 microg in 2 microl), and divided into the following three groups: 1) untreated; 2) treated with tempol doses ( approximately 3 mM/day) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC; approximately 1 g...
October 2007: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Kamila C Silva, Camila C Pinto, Subrata K Biswas, Denise S Souza, José B Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M Lopes de Faria
Hypertension is an important risk factor associated with development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The mechanisms by which hypertension increases the risk for DR are poorly understood. As the inflammatory mechanisms play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of DR, in the present study, we investigated the effects of diabetes, hypertension, and combination of diabetes and hypertension on early inflammatory phenomena in the retina, and the effects of blood pressure control on retinal inflammation...
July 2007: Experimental Eye Research
Ronald Klein, Scot E Moss, Alan R Sinaiko, Bernard Zinman, Robert Gardiner, Samy Suissa, Sandra M Donnelly, Michael S Kramer, Paul Goodyer, Trudy Strand, Michael Mauer
PURPOSE: To examine the association of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and ambulatory pulse rate (APR) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in persons with type 1 diabetes in the Renin-Angiotensin System Study (RASS), a multicenter primary diabetic nephropathy (DN) prevention trial. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ninety-four normotensive RASS participants in 3 centers who are 16 years of age or older with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) of 2 to 20 years' duration...
December 2006: Ophthalmology
Ping Chen, Gloria M Scicli, Meng Guo, Joseph D Fenstermacher, David Dahl, Paul A Edwards, A Guillermo Scicli
To study if the endogenous renin-angiotensin system affects diabetic retinal leukostasis, rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with an ACE inhibitor (ramipril), an angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonist (losartan) and the Ca channel blocker, (nifedipine). In the diabetic rats, these drug treatments reduced systolic blood pressure by approximately 16 mmHg but did not change blood glucose. After 2 weeks, the rats were examined for retinal leukostasis in vivo with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)...
November 2006: Experimental Eye Research
H-H Parving, C E Mogensen, M C Thomas, B M Brenner, M E Cooper
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy is the clinical hallmark of generalized microangiopathy in diabetes. AIM: To examine the relation of this abnormality to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death in type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. METHODS: Of 1513 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy participating in the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study, 1456 (96.5%) were assessed at baseline by ophthalmoscopy or fundus photography...
February 2005: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Grant M Comer, Thomas A Ciulla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a potentially visually devastating complication of chronic hyperglycemia and other associated systemic abnormalities. Numerous large, prospective, randomized clinical trials have delineated the current standard prevention and treatment protocols including intensive glycemic and blood pressure control and laser photocoagulation for neovascularization and clinically significant macular edema. However, despite standard intervention, vision loss from DR still occurs at an alarming rate...
December 2004: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Lawrence G Hunsicker
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and it affects 30% of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 20% of patients with type 2 DM. Clinical features in both types of DM are similar and are characterized by an underlying abnormality of the microcirculation, manifested by both retinopathy and nephropathy. Clinical hallmarks of DN include elevated blood pressure (BP) and elevated urinary protein excretion. Treatment consists of maintaining BP at <130/85 mm Hg in patients without proteinuria and <125/75 mm Hg in patients with microalbuminuria or overt DN...
September 2004: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy: JMCP
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