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Xiao Lin Song, Xi Ning Zhao, Xiao Dong Gao, Pu Te Wu, Wen Ma, Jie Yao, Xiao Li Jiang, Wei Zhang
Water scarcity is a critical factor influencing rain-fed agricultural production on the Loess Plateau, and the exploitation of rainwater is an effective avenue to alleviate water scarcity in this area. This study was conducted to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture in the 0-300 cm under a 21-year-old apple orchard with the rainwater collection and infiltration (RWCI) system by using a time domain reflectometer (TDR) probe on the Loess Plateau. The results showed that there was a low soil moisture zone in the 40-80 cm under the CK, and the RWCI system significantly increased soil moisture in this depth interval...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Guo Chun Li, Hua Dong Song, Qi Li, Shu Hai Bu
In Abies fargesii forests of the giant panda's habitats in Mt. Taibai, the spatial distribution patterns and interspecific associations of main tree species and their spatial associations with the understory flowering Fargesia qinlingensis were analyzed at multiple scales by univariate and bivaria-te O-ring function in point pattern analysis. The results showed that in the A. fargesii forest, the number of A. fargesii was largest but its population structure was in decline. The population of Betula platyphylla was relatively young, with a stable population structure, while the population of B...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Sen Bao Lu, Yun Ming Chen, Ya Kun Tang, Xu Wu, Jie Wen
Thermal dissipation probe (TDP) was used to continuously measure the sap flux density (Fd ) of Pinus tabuliformis and Hippophae rhamnoides individuals in hilly Loess Plateau, from June to October 2015, and the environmental factors, i.e., photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), water vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and soil water content (SWC), were simultaneously monitored to clarify the difference of rainfall utilization between the two tree species in a mixed plantation. Using the methods of a Threshold-delay model, stepwise multiple regression analyses, and partial correlation analyses, this paper studied the process of Fd in these two species in response to the rainfall pulses and then determined the effects of environmental factors on Fd ...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Hai Bing Yan, Hui Jing Ma, Fan Feng, Nan Liang, Chan Shi, Xiu Qing Yang, You Zhi Han
Based on the monitoring data from the plots of Changbai Mountains in the temperate zone (CBS), Guandi Mountain in the warm temperate zone (GDS), Heishiding Mountain in the subtropical zone (HSD), we analyzed the spatial distribution of tree species from three families (Pinaceae, Fagaceae, Rosaceae) and their correlation using paired correlation function g(r). The results showed that the individual number and size class structural characteristics of the trees from the three families varied among different regions...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Kan Kan Shang, Bo Chen, Liang Jun Da
The population structure, regeneration ways and spatial relationships of six relict deci-duous broadleaved trees were examined based on community investigation on Mount Tianmu, East China. The results showed that relict deciduous broadleaved trees had a strong ability of vegetative reproduction and their population structure was generally belonged to intermittent type. Some relict species such as Cyclocarya paliurus and Liquidamb aracalycina regenerated discontinuously at appropriate sites via long-distance diffusion...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiao Han Yin, Guang You Hao
Hydraulic characteristics of trees are strongly influenced by their xylem structures. The divergence in wood type between ring-porous and diffuse-porous species is expected to lead to significantly different hydraulic architecture between these two functional groups. However, there is a lack of comprehensive comparative studies in hydraulic traits between the two groups, in that no study has compared the whole-shoot level hydraulic conductance and detailed pit-level xylem anatomy has not been reported yet. In the present study, detailed hydraulic related traits were stu-died in three ring-porous and four diffuse-porous tree species commonly found in the broadleaf tree species of the Changbai Mountains, including whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (Kshoot ), resis-tance to drought-induced embolism (P50 ), and detailed tissue- and pit-level anatomical characteristics...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Li Ting Zheng, Tian Su, Xiang Yu Liu, Fang Yin, Chao Guo, Bin Tuo, En Rong Yan
Island vegetation plays an important role in biodiversity research across the world. The study of plant diversity in island is helpful for understanding the mechanism of plant diversity maintenance under land-sea interaction. Here, four typical plant communities (Quercus acutissima community, Robinia pseudoacacia community, Pinus thunbergii community and Vitex negundo community) in Miao Archipelago were selected to examine the species, functional and structural diversities and their responses to environmental factors at the community scale by using species diversity indices, functional diversity indices, as well as structural diversity indices...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Wei Wei Jia, Can Cui, Feng Ri Li
Based on 1534 knot data from 60 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm, Heilongjiang Province, China, mixed effect model of knot attributefactors (knot diameter, sound knot length, year of death of knot and knot angle) of Korean pine plantation was established using NLMIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS software. The prediction accuracy of models was compared using evaluation statistics, such as Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), -2Log likelihood(-2LL), and likelihood ratio test (LRT)...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yan Fang Wang, Ling Liu, Zhi Chao Li, Xiao Feng Shi, Xiao Yan Yang, Zhou Ping ShangGuan
In the study, the method of space substituting time was used to investigate the distribution pattern of carbon and nitrogen storages in Quercus and Platycladus orientalis plantation ecosystems at different ages in hilly area of western Henan Province, China. We also analyzed the dynamic changes of soil carbon and nitrogen storages in different soil layers in the two plantation ecosystems. The results showed that the carbon storage in the arbor and litter layers increased with the increasing tree age. The storage of carbon and nitrogen in soil aggregated mainly in the surface layer and showed a trend of decrease-increase-decrease with the increasing tree age in all soil layers...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Guo Zong, Xue Jiao Bai, Shu Yuan Zhang, Jun Qi Cai
We established a 4 hm2 (200 m×200 m) temperate secondary forest plot in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China, and analyzed the spatial patterns and interspecific spatial associations of tree seedlings at scales of 0-50 m. The results showed that under complete spatial randomness null model, 95% of the species at the scale of 0-20 m showed a significant aggregation pattern, and 19 species at the scale of 0-16 m showed an aggregation pattern. The proportion of species exhibiting aggregated patterns decreased with the spatial scale...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Fumihiko Taya, Stavros I Dimitriadis, Andrei Dragomir, Julian Lim, Yu Sun, Kian Foong Wong, Nitish V Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos
Fronto-parietal subnetworks were revealed to compensate for cognitive decline due to mental fatigue by community structure analysis. Here, we investigate changes in topology of subnetworks of resting-state fMRI networks due to mental fatigue induced by prolonged performance of a cognitively demanding task, and their associations with cognitive decline. As it is well established that brain networks have modular organization, community structure analyses can provide valuable information about mesoscale network organization and serve as a bridge between standard fMRI approaches and brain connectomics that quantify the topology of whole brain networks...
April 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Alexander M Levy, Massimo A Fazio, Rafael Grytz
PURPOSE: Myopia progression is thought to involve biomechanical weakening of the sclera, which leads to irreversible deformations and axial elongation of the eye. Scleral crosslinking has been proposed as a potential treatment option for myopia control by strengthening the mechanically weakened sclera. The biomechanical mechanism by which the sclera weakens during myopia and strengthens after crosslinking is not fully understood. Here, we assess the effect of lens-induced myopia and exogenous crosslinking using genipin on the inelastic mechanical properties of the tree shrew sclera measured by cyclic tensile tests...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Qing-Ting Huang, Hai-Hao Ma, Xi-Le Deng, Hang Zhu, Jia Liu, Yong Zhou, Xiao-Mao Zhou
The β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2) belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. It regulates important physiological functions in insects, thus is potentially a good target for insecticides. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the Pxoa2b2 gene in Plutella xylostella was cloned. Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. PxOA2B2 was transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Sylvanus Mensah, Ben du Toit, Thomas Seifert
Forest stratification plays a crucial role in light interception and plant photosynthetic activities. However, despite the increased number of studies on biodiversity-ecosystem function, we still lack information on how stratification in tropical forests modulates biodiversity effects. Moreover, there is less investigation and argument on the role of species and functional traits in forest layers. Here, we analysed from a perspective of forest layer (sub-canopy, canopy and emergent species layers), the relationship between diversity and aboveground biomass (AGB), focusing on functional diversity and dominance, and underlying mechanisms such as niche complementarity and selection...
April 24, 2018: Oecologia
Jason McClelland, David Koslicki
Both the weighted and unweighted UniFrac distances have been very successfully employed to assess if two communities differ, but do not give any information about how two communities differ. We take advantage of recent observations that the UniFrac metric is equivalent to the so-called earth mover's distance (also known as the Kantorovich-Rubinstein metric) to develop an algorithm that not only computes the UniFrac distance in linear time and space, but also simultaneously finds which operational taxonomic units are responsible for the observed differences between samples...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Cihan Kayasandik, Pooran Negi, Fernanda Laezza, Manos Papadakis, Demetrio Labate
Fluorescence confocal microscopy has become increasingly more important in neuroscience due to its applications in image-based screening and profiling of neurons. Multispectral confocal imaging is useful to simultaneously probe for distribution of multiple analytes over networks of neurons. However, current automated image analysis algorithms are not designed to extract single-neuron arbors in images where neurons are not separated, hampering the ability map fluorescence signals at the single cell level. To overcome this limitation, we introduce NeuroTreeTracer - a novel image processing framework aimed at automatically extracting and sorting single-neuron traces in fluorescent images of multicellular neuronal networks...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Samyak Tamrakar, Michael Conrath, Stefan Kettemann
The energy transition towards high shares of renewable energy will affect the stability of electricity grids in many ways. Here, we aim to study its impact on propagation of disturbances by solving nonlinear swing equations describing coupled rotating masses of synchronous generators and motors on different grid topologies. We consider a tree, a square grid and as a real grid topology, the german transmission grid. We identify ranges of parameters with different transient dynamics: the disturbance decays exponentially in time, superimposed by oscillations with the fast decay rate of a single node, or with a smaller decay rate without oscillations...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Genki Terashi, Daisuke Kihara
An increasing number of protein structures are determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) at near atomic resolution. However, tracing the main-chains and building full-atom models from EM maps of ~4-5 Å is still not trivial and remains a time-consuming task. Here, we introduce a fully automated de novo structure modeling method, MAINMAST, which builds three-dimensional models of a protein from a near-atomic resolution EM map. The method directly traces the protein's main-chain and identifies Cα positions as tree-graph structures in the EM map...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Rupert Seidl, Günther Klonner, Werner Rammer, Franz Essl, Adam Moreno, Mathias Neumann, Stefan Dullinger
Forests mitigate climate change by sequestering large amounts of carbon (C). However, forest C storage is not permanent, and large pulses of tree mortality can thwart climate mitigation efforts. Forest pests are increasingly redistributed around the globe. Yet, the potential future impact of invasive alien pests on the forest C cycle remains uncertain. Here we show that large parts of Europe could be invaded by five detrimental alien pests already under current climate. Climate change increases the potential range of alien pests particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Gairu Li, Ruyi Wang, Cheng Zhang, Shilei Wang, Wanting He, Junyan Zhang, Jie Liu, Yuchen Cai, Jiyong Zhou, Shuo Su
The H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) originated from an avian species. Since its emergence, it has circulated in multiple states and has caused pandemics among dog populations; however, no comprehensive studies have explored the causes driving these ongoing cases. The study of the codon usage patterns of viruses can reveal the genetic changes required for the viruses to adapt to new hosts and the external environment. Here we performed a thorough genetic, evolutionary, and codon usage analysis. We identified three evolutionary H3N2 CIV clades from a timescaled phylogenetic tree, namely, Origin, China, and Korea/USA, by principal component analysis (PCA)...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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