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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922872/ancient-occasional-host-switching-of-maternally-transmitted-bacterial-symbionts-of-chemosynthetic-vesicomyid-clams
#1
Genki Ozawa, Shigeru Shimamura, Yoshihiro Takaki, Kiyotaka Takishita, Tetsuro Ikuta, James P Barry, Tadashi Maruyama, Katsunori Fujikura, Takao Yoshida
Vesicomyid clams in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems harbor sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in their gill epithelial cells. These symbionts, which are vertically transmitted, are species-specific and thought to have cospeciated with their hosts. However, recent studies indicate incongruent phylogenies between some vesicomyid clams and their symbionts, suggesting that symbionts are horizontally transmitted. To more precisely understand the evolution of vesicomyid clams and their symbionts, we compared the evolution of vesicomyid clams and their symbionts through phylogenetic analyses using multi-gene data sets...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922751/inositol-hexakis-phosphate-is-the-seasonal-phosphorus-reservoir-in-the-deciduous-woody-plant-populus-alba-l
#2
Yuko Kurita, Kei'ichi Baba, Miwa Ohnishi, Ryosuke Matsubara, Keiko Kosuge, Aya Anegawa, Chizuko Shichijo, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Yasuko Kaneko, Masahiko Hayashi, Toshinobu Suzaki, Hidehiro Fukaki, Tetsuro Mimura
Seasonal recycling of nutrients is an important strategy for deciduous perennials. Deciduous perennials maintain and expand their nutrient pools by the autumn nutrient remobilization and the subsequent winter storage throughout their long life. Phosphorus (P), one of the most important elements in living organisms, is remobilized from senescing leaves during autumn in deciduous trees. However, it remains unknown how phosphate is stored over winter. Here we show that in poplar trees (Populus alba L.), organic phosphates are accumulated in twigs from late summer to winter, and that IP6 (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis phosphate: phytic acid) is the primary storage form...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922368/a-tree-of-life-based-on-ninety-eight-expressed-genes-conserved-across-diverse-eukaryotic-species
#3
Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Vivek Dogra, Asheesh Shanker, Tilak Raj Sharma, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies have resulted in the accumulation of large data sets in the public domain, facilitating comparative studies to provide novel insights into the evolution of life. Phylogenetic studies across the eukaryotic taxa have been reported but on the basis of a limited number of genes. Here we present a genome-wide analysis across different plant, fungal, protist, and animal species, with reference to the 36,002 expressed genes of the rice genome. Our analysis revealed 9831 genes unique to rice and 98 genes conserved across all 49 eukaryotic species analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922323/face-graft-scaffold-production-in-a-rat-model
#4
Jérôme Duisit, Hadrien Amiel, Giuseppe Orlando, Adeline Dedriche, Catherine Behets, Pierre Gianello, Benoît Lengelé
BACKGROUND: As a route towards face bioengineering, our group previously reported the production of a complete scaffold production by perfusion-decellularization of a porcine ear subunit graft and partial recellularization. In order to extend the scaffold to the whole face and to down-scale it, we applied our findings to a rodent hemi-facial graft model. METHODS: After euthanasia, seven full-thickness rat hemi-face grafts were harvested with the CCA and the EJV as pedicle, and cannulated...
September 14, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921904/developing-a-dna-barcode-library-for-perciform-fishes-in-the-south-china-sea-species-identification-accuracy-and-cryptic-diversity
#5
Gang Hou, Wei-Tao Chen, Huo-Sheng Lu, Fei Cheng, Song-Guang Xie
DNA barcodes were studied for 1,353 specimens representing 272 morphological species belonging to 149 genera and 55 families of Perciformes from the South China Sea (SCS). The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances within species, genera, and families were 0.31%, 8.71%, and 14.52%, respectively. A Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum-likelihood (ML) trees and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) revealed 260, 253 and 259 single-species-representing clusters, respectively. Barcoding Gap Analysis (BGA) demonstrated that barcode gaps were present for 178 of 187 species analysed with multiple specimens (95...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#6
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait response-effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P and N+P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921771/iron-deficiency-stress-can-induce-mxnas1-protein-expression-to-facilitate-iron-redistribution-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#7
Chaohua Sun, Mudan Yuan, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Iron (Fe) is a vital trace element in plants and deficiency of this element in apple trees can reduce fruit quality. Nicotianamine (NA) is known to play an important role in Fe transport and endogenous hormone balance. In the present study, we investigated the role of a nicotianamine synthase 1 gene (MxNas1) in an apple species, Malus xiaojinensis, that has an Fe-efficient genotype than other apple species and ecotypes. To characterize the response of M. xiaojinensis to Fe-deficiency, we used quantitative Q-PCR to determine the level of expression of MxNas1 and western blot to measure protein levels...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921765/assessing-fire-impacts-on-the-carbon-stability-of-fire-tolerant-forests
#8
Lauren T Bennett, Matthew J Bruce, Josephine Machunter, Michele Kohout, Saravanan Jangammanaidu Krishnaraj, Cristina Aponte
The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognise the myriad of ways that fires influence the carbon balance including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in south-eastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤ 10 years before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921550/sugars-from-woody-tissue-photosynthesis-reduce-xylem-vulnerability-to-cavitation
#9
Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Roberto Luis Salomón, Linus De Roo, Kathy Steppe
Reassimilation of internal CO2 via woody tissue photosynthesis has a substantial effect on tree carbon income and wood production. However, little is known about its role in xylem vulnerability to cavitation and its implications in drought-driven tree mortality. Young trees of Populus nigra were subjected to light exclusion at the branch and stem levels. After 40 d, measurements of xylem water potential, diameter variation and acoustic emission (AE) were performed in detached branches to obtain acoustic vulnerability curves to cavitation following bench-top dehydration...
September 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921530/sympatric-parallel-diversification-of-major-oak-clades-in-the-americas-and-the-origins-of-mexican-species-diversity
#10
Andrew L Hipp, Paul S Manos, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Marlene Hahn, Matthew Kaproth, John D McVay, Susana Valencia Avalos, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) are the dominant tree genus of North America in species number and biomass, and Mexico is a global center of oak diversity. Understanding the origins of oak diversity is key to understanding biodiversity of northern temperate forests. A phylogenetic study of biogeography, niche evolution and diversification patterns in Quercus was performed using 300 samples, 146 species. Next-generation sequencing data were generated using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-seq) method. A time-calibrated maximum likelihood phylogeny was inferred and analyzed with bioclimatic, soils, and leaf habit data to reconstruct the biogeographic and evolutionary history of the American oaks...
September 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921403/biochar-composites-with-nano-zerovalent-iron-and-eggshell-powder-for-nitrate-removal-from-aqueous-solution-with-coexisting-chloride-ions
#11
Munir Ahmad, Mahtab Ahmad, Adel R A Usman, Abdullah S Al-Faraj, Adel S Abduljabbar, Mohammad I Al-Wabel
Biochar (BC) was produced from date palm tree leaves and its composites were prepared with nano zerovalent iron (nZVI-BC) and hen eggshell powder (EP-BC). The produced BC and its composites were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET, and FTIR for surface structural, mineralogical, and chemical groups and tested for their efficiency for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of chloride ions. The incidence of graphene and nano zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) in the nZVI-BC composite was confirmed by XRD...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920851/loktanella-acticola-sp-nov-isolated-from-seawater
#12
Sooyeon Park, Su Jung Choi, Sung-Min Won, Jung-Hoon Yoon
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated OISW-6T, was isolated from seawater near Oido, a South Korean island, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain OISW-6T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain OISW-6T fell within the clade comprising the type strains of Loktanella species. Strain OISW-6T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920831/algoriphagus-marisflavi-sp-nov-isolated-from-water-of-an-estuary-environment
#13
Sooyeon Park, Ji-Min Park, Jung-Hoon Yoon
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped or ovoid bacterial strain, designated KEM-106T, was isolated from water of an estuary environment on the Yellow Sea, South Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain KEM-106T grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KEM-106T belonged to the genus Algoriphagus, clustering with the type strains of Algoriphagus litorisediminis and Algoriphagus aquaemixtae...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920830/reclassification-of-thiomicrospira-hydrogeniphila-watsuji-et-al-2016-to-thiomicrorhabdus-hydrogenophila-comb-nov-with-emended-description-of-thiomicrorhabdus-boden-et-al-2017
#14
Rich Boden, Kathleen M Scott, Alexander W Rae, Lee P Hutt
The genus Thiomicrorhabdus (Tmr) in the Piskirickettsiaceae in the Thiotrichales of the Gammaproteobacteria contains four species of sulfur-oxidising obligate chemolithoautotroph with validly published names, all previously classified as Thiomicrospira (Tms) species. Here we demonstrate that Thiomicrospira hydrogeniphila, a recently published hydrogen-utilising chemolithoautotroph closely related to Thiomicrorhabdus frisia (type species of Thiomicrorhabdus) should be classified as a member of the genus Thiomicrorhabdus and not Thiomicrospira, as Thiomicrorhabdus hydrogeniphila comb...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920829/allobranchiibius-huperziae-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-member-of-dermacoccaceae-isolated-from-the-root-of-a-medicinal-plant-huperzia-serrata-thunb
#15
Meng-Jie Ai, Ye Sun, Hong-Min Sun, Hong-Yu Liu, Li-Yan Yu, Yu-Qin Zhang
A Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming actinobacterial strain, designated CPCC 204077T, was isolated from the surface-sterilized root of a medicinal plant Huperzia serrata (Thunb.) collected from Sichuan Province, south-west China. The peptidoglycan type of strain CPCC 204077T was detected as A4α with an l-Lys-l-Ser-d-Asp interpeptide bridge. Galactose, glucose, rhamnose and ribose were the sugar compositions in the whole-cell hydrolysates. MK-8(H4) was the only menaquinone. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified glycolipid...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920794/intraocular-pressure-and-examination-findings-in-three-species-of-central-and-south-american-tree-frogs-cruziohyla-craspedopus-cruziohyla-calcarifer-and-anotheca-spinosa
#16
Andrew C Lewin, Jennifer C Hausmann, Paul E Miller
The purpose of this prospective study was to describe intraocular pressure (IOP) and examination findings in three tree frog species (Cruziohyla craspedopus [fringe leaf frog], Cruziohyla calcarifer [splendid leaf frog], and Anotheca spinosa [spiny-headed or coronated tree frog]). Thirty-one C. craspedopus, four C. calcarifer, and five A. spinosa were weighed, sexed based on phenotype where possible, and examined using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. IOP was measured using the TonoVet and TonoLab rebound tonometers while the frogs were held two ways (unrestrained, then restrained)...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920778/first-report-of-trypanosoma-evansi-infection-surra-in-a-puma-felis-concolor-of-lahore-zoo-pakistan
#17
Imran Rashid, Haroon Akbar, Mohamed Gharbi, Farooq Riaz, Saher Islam, Muhammad Baber Saleem, Sammuel Shahzad, Wasim Shehzad, Mariem Rouatbi, Kamran Ashraf
The blood protozoan Trypanosoma evansi, which is transmitted by biting flies, is frequently neglected due to subclinical infections. This report describes a case of trypanosomiasis due to T. evansi in a 9-yr-old male puma (Felis concolor) housed at the Lahore Zoo in Pakistan. Early in January 2015, this male puma presented with chronic lethargy, weight loss, incoordination, hyperthermia, anorexia, sunken eyes, and unthriftiness. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears showed numerous Trypanosoma parasites...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920670/fabrication-of-hierarchical-porous-carbon-nanoflakes-for-high-performance-supercapacitors
#18
Yamin Yao, Yunqiang Zhang, Li Li, Shulan Wang, Shi Xue Dou, Xuan Liu
In the current work, the carbon nanoflakes (CNs-Fe/KOH) and porous carbon (PC-Ni/KOH) have been produced by using Fe(NO3)3/KOH and Ni(NO3)2/KOH as the co-graphitization/activation catalysts to treat the natural plane tree fluff, respectively. The as-prepared carbon materials show different morphologies when treated with different metal ions. Compared with PC-Ni/KOH, the CNs-Fe/KOH have both high graphitization degree (IG/ID = 1.53) and large SBET (1416 m2/g). In a three-electrode setup, the CNs-Fe/KOH electrode shows a high specific capacitance of 253 F/g at 10 A/g, with a capacitance retention of 92...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920507/navigating-the-structure-function-evolutionary-relationship-of-csaa-chaperone-in-archaea
#19
Archana Sharma, Shikha Rani, Manisha Goel
CsaA is a protein involved in the post-translational translocation of proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. It is considered to be a functional homolog of SecB which participates in the Sec-dependent translocation pathway in an analogous manner. CsaA has also been reported to act as a molecular chaperone, preventing aggregation of unfolded proteins. It is essentially a prokaryotic protein which is absent in eukaryotes, but found extensively in bacteria and earlier thought to be widely present in archaea...
September 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919942/genome-sequence-of-the-white-rot-fungus-irpex-lacteus-f17-a-type-strain-of-lignin-degrader-fungus
#20
Mengwei Yao, Wenman Li, Zihong Duan, Yinliang Zhang, Rong Jia
Irpex lacteus, a cosmopolitan white-rot fungus, degrades lignin and lignin-derived aromatic compounds. In this study, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of I. lacteus F17, isolated from a decaying hardwood tree in the vicinity of Hefei, China. The genome is 44,362,654 bp, with a GC content of 49.64% and a total of 10,391 predicted protein-coding genes. In addition, a total of 18 snRNA, 842 tRNA, 15 rRNA operons and 11,710 repetitive sequences were also identified. The genomic data provides insights into the mechanisms of the efficient lignin decomposition of this strain...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
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