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Cristiane Loiva Reichert, Denise Brentan da Silva, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Almeriane Maria Weffort-Santos, Cid Aimbiré de Moraes Santos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., belonging to the family Lythraceae and popularly known as 'dedaleira' and 'mangava-brava,' is a native tree of the Brazilian Cerrado, and its barks have been traditionally used as a tonic to treat inflammatory conditions, particularly related to gastric ulcers, wounds or fevers and various types of cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: We have previously demonstrated the apoptogenic effects of the methanolic extract of L...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Florian Netzer, Cornelia Herschbach, Akira Oikawa, Yozo Okazaki, David Dubbert, Kazuki Saito, Heinz Rennenberg
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important macronutrients limiting plant growth and development, particularly in forest ecosystems such as temperate beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) forests in Central Europe. Efficient tree internal P cycling during annual growth is an important strategy of beech trees to adapt to low soil-P. Organic P (Porg ) is thought to play a decisive role in P cycling, but the significance of individual compounds and processes has not been elucidated. To identify processes and metabolites involved in P cycling of beech trees, polar-metabolome and lipidome profiling was performed during annual growth with twig tissues from a sufficient (Conventwald, Con) and a low-soil-P (Tuttlingen, Tut) forest...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lukasz Huminiecki
Understanding how regulatory elements control mammalian gene expression is a challenge of post-genomic era. We previously reported that size of proximal promoter architecture predicted the breadth of expression (fraction of tissues in which a gene is expressed). Herein, the contributions of individual transcription factors (TFs) were quantified. Several technologies of statistical modelling were utilized and compared: tree models, generalized linear models (GLMs, without and with regularization), Bayesian GLMs and random forest...
2018: PloS One
Emilio Vilanova, Hirma Ramírez-Angulo, Armando Torres-Lezama, Gerardo Aymard, Luis Gámez, Cristabel Durán, Lionel Hernández, Rafael Herrera, Geertje van der Heijden, Oliver L Phillips, Gregory J Ettl
Using data from 50 long-term permanent plots from across Venezuelan forests in northern South America, we explored large-scale patterns of stem turnover, aboveground biomass (AGB) and woody productivity (AGWP), and the relationships between them and with potential climatic drivers. We used principal component analysis coupled with generalized least squares models to analyze the relationship between climate, forest structure and stem dynamics. Two major axes associated with orthogonal temperature and moisture gradients effectively described more than 90% of the environmental variability in the dataset...
2018: PloS One
Matthew L Danielson, Geri A Sawada, Thomas J Raub, Prashant V Desai
The organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 transporter belongs to the solute carrier superfamily and is highly expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. Several clinical studies showed drug-drug interactions involving OATP1B1 thereby prompting the International Transporter Consortium to label OATP1B1 as a critical transporter that can influence a compound's disposition. To examine OATP1B1 inhibition early in the drug discovery process, we established a medium-throughput concentration-dependent OATP1B1 assay...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
David A Baltrus, Kelly N Orth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: New Phytologist
Camir Ricketts, Victoria Popic, Hosein Toosi, Iman Hajirasouliha
The reconstruction of cancer phylogeny trees and quantifying the evolution of the disease is a challenging task. LICHeE and BAMSE are two computational tools designed and implemented recently for this purpose. They both utilize estimated variant allele fraction of somatic mutations across multiple samples to infer the most likely cancer phylogenies. This unit provides extensive guidelines for installing and running both LICHeE and BAMSE. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
May 16, 2018: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
Lenore Arab, Satvinder K Dhaliwal, Carly J Martin, Alena D Larios, Nicholas J Jackson, David Elashoff
BACKGROUND: Dietary interventions and cohort studies relating tree nut consumption to blood glucose levels suggest a possible effect of walnuts. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between walnut consumption and diabetes risk using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: NHANES survey data on adults conducting 24 hour dietary recall was pooled across the years 1999 through 2014. Diabetes status or risk was based on self-report, medication use, fasting plasma (FPG) glucose levels and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels...
June 21, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Ross E G Upshur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Sungweon Ryu, Jeongsoo Lee, Jee Youn Oh, Byeong Ki Kim, Young Kim, Je Hyeong Kim, Chol Shin, Seung Heon Lee
BACKGROUND: The number of immigrants with tuberculosis (TB) increases each year in South Korea. Determining the transmission dynamics based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) to cluster the strains has been challenging. METHODS: WGS, annotation refinement, and orthology assignment for the GenBank accession number acquisition were performed on two clinical isolates from Chinese immigrants. In addition, the genomes of the two isolates were compared with the genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, from two native Korean and five native Chinese individuals using a phylogenetic topology tree based on the Multiple Alignment of Conserved Genomic Sequence with Rearrangements (Mauve) package...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Colby Long, Laura Kubatko
Coalescent models of evolution account for incomplete lineage sorting by specifying a species tree parameter which determines a distribution on gene trees, and consequently, a site pattern probability distribution. It has been shown that the unrooted topology of the species tree parameter of the multispecies coalescent is generically identifiable, and a reconstruction method called SVDQuartets has been developed to infer this topology. In this paper, we describe a modified multispecies coalescent model that allows for varying effective population size and violations of the molecular clock...
June 20, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Anand S Dixit, Iadalangki Bamon, Namram S Singh
We studied the effects of temperature on the photoperiodic regulation of seasonal reproduction and related events in the subtropical tree sparrow at Shillong, India. In the first experiment, one group of birds was maintained in an outdoor open aviary receiving natural photoperiod and temperature conditions, while the other group was exposed to natural photoperiod and constant temperature of 17 ± 2 °C in an outdoor closed aviary for 12 months. Although both sexes achieved peak gonadal growth at the same time (May) under the two conditions, gonadal regression and feathers molt were delayed under the temperature controlled condition...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
S Pamela K Shiao, James Grayson, Amanda Lie, Chong Ho Yu
To personalize nutrition, the purpose of this study was to examine five key genes in the folate metabolism pathway, and dietary parameters and related interactive parameters as predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) by measuring the healthy eating index (HEI) in multiethnic families. The five genes included methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) 677 and 1298, methionine synthase ( MTR ) 2756, methionine synthase reductase ( MTRR 66), and dihydrofolate reductase ( DHFR ) 19bp , and they were used to compute a total gene mutation score...
June 20, 2018: Nutrients
Walter D Koenig, Johannes M H Knops, William J Carmen, Mario B Pesendorfer, Janis L Dickinson
Mistletoes are a widespread group of plants often considered to be hemiparasitic, having detrimental effects on growth and survival of their hosts. We studied the effects of the Pacific mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum , a member of a largely autotrophic genus, on three species of deciduous California oaks. We found no effects of mistletoe presence on radial growth or survivorship and detected a significant positive relationship between mistletoe and acorn production. This latter result is potentially explained by the tendency of P...
June 2018: Biology Letters
Robert S Sansom, Peter G Choate, Joseph N Keating, Emma Randle
Reconstructing evolutionary histories requires accurate phylogenetic trees. Recent simulation studies suggest that probabilistic phylogenetic analyses of morphological data are more accurate than traditional parsimony techniques. Here, we use empirical data to compare Bayesian and parsimony phylogenies in terms of their congruence with the distribution of age ranges of the component taxa. Analysis of 167 independent morphological data matrices of fossil tetrapods finds that Bayesian trees exhibit significantly lower stratigraphic congruence than the equivalent parsimony trees...
June 2018: Biology Letters
William A Talbot, Alexander R Gerson, Eric Krabbe Smith, Andrew E McKechnie, Blair O Wolf
The thermoregulatory responses of owls to heat stress have been the subject of few studies. Although nocturnality buffers desert-dwelling owls from significant heat stress during activity, roost sites in tree and cactus cavities or in deep shade provide only limited refuge from high environmental temperatures during the day. We measured thermoregulatory responses to acute heat stress in two species of small owls, the elf owl ( Micrathene whitneyi ) and the western screech-owl ( Megascops kennicottii ), which occupy the Sonoran Desert of southwestern North America, an area of extreme heat and aridity...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Su Bin Park, Gwang Hun Park, Ha Na Kim, Hun Min Song, Ho-Jun Son, Ji Ae Park, Hyun-Seok Kim, Jin Boo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Although the inhibitory effect of mistletoe on cancer cell growth has been reported, the underlying mechanisms to explain its anti-proliferative activity are not fully studied. Thus, we elucidated the potential molecular mechanism of the branch from Taxillus yadoriki (TY) parasitic to Neolitsea sericea (NS) (TY-NS-B) for the anti-proliferative effect. METHODS: Anti-cell proliferative effect was evaluated by MTT assay. The change of cyclin D1 protein or mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-RCR, respectively...
June 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Julie Gauzere, Aurore Bontemps, Jean-François Rey, Etienne K Klein
Inter-individual variation in fecundities has major consequences on population evolutionary potential, through genetic drift and selection. Using two spatially explicit mating models that analyze the genotypes of seeds and seedlings, we investigated the variation of male and female fecundities within and among three European beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands situated along an altitudinal gradient. Female and male individual fecundity distributions were both skewed in this monoecious species, and we found a higher variance in female as compared to male fecundities...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Alejandro Ortega-Beltran, Juan Moral, Ryan D Puckett, David P Morgan, Peter J Cotty, Themis J Michailides
Interactions between pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal species in the tree canopy are complex and can determine if disease will manifest in the plant and in other organisms such as honey bees. Seasonal dynamics of fungi were studied in an almond orchard in California where experimental release of the atoxigenic biopesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 to displace toxigenic Aspergillus strains has been conducted for five years. The presence of the vegetative compatibility group (VCG) YV36, to which AF36 belongs, in the blossoms, and the honey bees that attend these blossoms, was assessed...
2018: PloS One
Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Kristiina J Hurme
We propose a practical concept that distinguishes the particular kind of weaponry that has evolved to be used in combat between individuals of the same species and sex, which we term intrasexually selected weapons (ISWs). We present a treatise of ISWs in nature, aiming to understand their distinction and evolution from other secondary sex traits, including from 'sexually selected weapons', and from sexually dimorphic and monomorphic weaponry. We focus on the subset of secondary sex traits that are the result of same-sex combat, defined here as ISWs, provide not previously reported evolutionary patterns, and offer hypotheses to answer questions such as: why have only some species evolved weapons to fight for the opposite sex or breeding resources? We examined traits that seem to have evolved as ISWs in the entire animal phylogeny, restricting the classification of ISW to traits that are only present or enlarged in adults of one of the sexes, and are used as weapons during intrasexual fights...
June 20, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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