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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223120/de-icing-salt-contamination-reduces-urban-tree-performance-in-structural-soil-cells
#1
Camilo Ordóñez-Barona, Vadim Sabetski, Andrew A Millward, James Steenberg
Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223087/oxidative-stress-in-birds-along-a-nox-and-urbanisation-gradient-an-interspecific-approach
#2
Pablo Salmón, Emilie Stroh, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Maria von Post, Caroline Isaksson
Urbanisation is regarded as one of the most threatening global issues for wildlife, however, measuring its impact is not always straight forward. Oxidative stress physiology has been suggested to be a useful biomarker of health and therefore, a potentially important indicator of the impact that urban environmental stressors, especially air pollution, can have on wildlife. For example, nitrogen oxides (NOx), released during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, are highly potent pro-oxidants, thus predicted to affect either the protective antioxidants and/or cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223082/deep-rooted-apple-trees-decrease-groundwater-recharge-in-the-highland-region-of-the-loess-plateau-china
#3
Zhiqiang Zhang, Min Li, Bingcheng Si, Hao Feng
Unlike recharge in shallow rooted ecosystems, estimating the groundwater recharge beneath deep rooted plants that absorb water from deep soil remains difficult. The purpose of this research is to develop an approach to estimate the groundwater recharge beneath deep-rooted vegetation by combining water mass balance and chloride mass balance (CMB) and to quantify how the conversion of shallow-rooted cropland to deep-rooted apple orchards changes groundwater recharge. The proposed groundwater recharge rate under deep-rooted vegetation in this study is the difference between the groundwater recharge rate in a cropland (obtained using CMB) and the mean annual soil water storage deficit beneath an adjacent deep-rooted vegetation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222787/nerve-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-2-the-quail-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay
#4
Philip Lazarovici, Adi Lahiani, Galit Gincberg, Dikla Haham, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Peter I Lelkes
The avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a simple, highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane, which performs multiple functions during embryonic development. Therefore, the models of chicken and quail assays represent robust experimental platforms to study angiogenesis, which reflects perturbation of the entire vascular tree. This experimental approach, when combined with fractal morphometry, is sensitive to changes in vascular branching pattern and density. Nerve growth factor is a neurotrophin promoting angiogenesis in CAM models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222601/monitoring-small-pioneer-trees-in-the-forest-tundra-ecotone-using-multi-temporal-airborne-laser-scanning-data-to-model-height-growth
#5
Marius Hauglin, Ole Martin Bollandsås, Terje Gobakken, Erik Næsset
Monitoring of forest resources through national forest inventory programmes is carried out in many countries. The expected climate changes will affect trees and forests and might cause an expansion of trees into presently treeless areas, such as above the current alpine tree line. It is therefore a need to develop methods that enable the inclusion of also these areas into monitoring programmes. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an established tool in operational forest inventories, and could be a viable option for monitoring tasks...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222461/tree-co-occurrence-and-transcriptomic-response-to-drought
#6
Nathan G Swenson, Yoshiko Iida, Robert Howe, Amy Wolf, María Natalia Umaña, Krittika Petprakob, Benjamin L Turner, Keping Ma
The distribution and co-occurrence of species are partly the outcome of their interactions with environmental drivers. Drought is a key driver related to the distribution of plant species. Drought events continue to increase in frequency and severity and identifying those aspects of plant function that are related to drought is critical. Here, we perform a community-level analysis of gene expression in relation to experimental drought and relate the similarity in gene set enrichment across species to their natural co-occurrence...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222065/testing-the-monophyly-of-simaba-simaroubaceae-evidence-from-five-molecular-regions-and-morphology
#7
Marcelo Fernando Devecchi, William Wayt Thomas, Gregory M Plunkett, José Rubens Pirani
Generic circumscriptions in the mostly pantropical family Simaroubaceae are somewhat controversial. Simaba is the largest genus, currently defined as exclusively neotropical, with around 25 species of trees and shrubs, but both its limits and infrageneric classification have been a matter of discussion and divergence. Traditionally, species of the genus have been treated in three sections: Simaba sect. Tenuiflorae, S. sect. Floribundae and S. sect. Grandiflorae, but a phylogenetic analysis suggested that the latter two may not be monophyletic...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222064/evolution-in-the-amphi-atlantic-tropical-genus-guibourtia-fabaceae-detarioideae-combining-ngs-phylogeny-and-morphology
#8
Félicien Tosso, Olivier J Hardy, Jean-Louis Doucet, Kasso Daïnou, Esra Kaymak, Jérémy Migliore
Tropical rain forests support a remarkable diversity of tree species, questioning how and when this diversity arose. The genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), characterized by two South American and 13 African tree species growing in various tropical biomes, is an interesting model to address the role of biogeographic processes and adaptation to contrasted environments on species diversification. Combining whole plastid genome sequencing and morphological characters analysis, we studied the timing of speciation and diversification processes in Guibourtia through molecular dating and ancestral habitats reconstruction...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221873/modeling-and-prediction-of-regional-municipal-solid-waste-generation-and-diversion-in-canada-using-machine-learning-approaches
#9
Miyuru Kannangara, Rahul Dua, Leila Ahmadi, Farid Bensebaa
The main objective of this study was to develop models for accurate prediction of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and diversion based on demographic and socio-economic variables, with planned application of generating Canada-wide MSW inventories. Models were generated by mapping residential MSW quantities with socio-economic and demographic parameters of 220 municipalities in the province of Ontario, Canada. Two machine learning algorithms, namely decision trees and neural networks, were applied to build the models...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221719/integration-of-different-criteria-for-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer-using-classification-tree-analysis-the-use-of-radiological-tumour-vascular-interface-in-correlation-with-surgical-and-pathological-outcomes
#10
J A Hwang, K M Jang, S H Kim, T W Kang, K D Song, D I Cha, S Ahn
AIM: To integrate various criteria for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) based on radiological parameters using classification tree analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Two hundred and thirty-five tumour-vein interfaces and 67 tumour-artery interfaces in 245 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent both preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed by two independent readers...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221648/benefit-of-using-motion-compensated-reconstructions-for-reducing-inter-observer-and-intra-observer-contouring-variation-for-organs-at-risk-in-lung-cancer-patients
#11
A McWilliam, L Lee, M Harris, H Sheikh, L Pemberton, C Faivre-Finn, M van Herk
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In lung cancer patients, accuracy in contouring is hampered by image artefacts introduced by respiratory motion. With the widespread introduction of 4DCT there is additional uncertainty caused by the use of different reconstruction techniques which will influence contour definition. This work aims to assess both inter- and intra-observer contour variation on average and motion compensated (mid-position) reconstructions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients that received 4DCT were selected and these scans were reconstructed as average and motion compensated datasets...
December 5, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221350/glomus-tumors-of-the-trachea-2-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
Chun Wang, Yuan Ma, Xin Zhao, Pei-Li Sun, Ying-Ming Zhang, Mao Huang, Yan Zhu, Shu-Xian Jin
Glomus tumors (GTs) of the trachea are very rare neoplasms that usually arise from the distal portion of the respiratory tree. The origin of these tumors is modified smooth muscle cells of glomus bodies. In this study, we describe two cases of GT of the trachea, as well as the histologic features of these tumors and their treatments. One tumor was diagnosed via bronchoscopic biopsy, and the other tumor was diagnosed via surgery. Clinical follow-up showed that the two patients are alive and well after 8 and 15 months post-treatment, respectively...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220827/exploring-divers-of-forest-degradation-and-fragmentation-in-sudan-the-case-of-erawashda-forest-and-its-surrounding-community
#13
Hussein M Sulieman
Sudan is a hot spot for forest degradation. Efforts to maintain what remains of its forests should be of the highest priority. However, precise information on its forests' current state is very limited. Therefore, in order to effectively intervene in support of existing resources, it is important to have a better understanding of processes taking place in the country and impacting those resources. The objectives of this study are to quantify the consequences of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on forest degradation and fragmentation and to analyze the anthropogenic factors causing it, taking Erawashda Forest, eastern Sudan, as an example...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220768/analysis-of-airborne-olea-pollen-in-cartagena-spain
#14
M D Galera, B Elvira-Rendueles, J M Moreno, L Negral, M C Ruiz-Abellón, A García-Sánchez, S Moreno-Grau
Olive cultivation is of great importance in Southern Europe but olive pollen is the leading cause of allergy in many regions where it is grown. The best preventive measure for allergic patients is to avoid exposure. Thus, aerobiological monitoring networks must supply realistic pollen classes for the different types of allergic pollen. Even though those pollen classes are defined, they do not necessarily fit local data. Altogether, they should use predictive models to assess flowering intensity in advance. In this study, the Olea pollen degree of exposure classes (OPDEC) are defined based on percentiles and a predictive model is suggested for Cartagena, Spain...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220490/bayesian-inference-of-species-networks-from-multilocus-sequence-data
#15
Chi Zhang, Huw A Ogilvie, Alexei J Drummond, Tanja Stadler
Reticulate species evolution, such as hybridization or introgression, is relatively common in nature. In the presence of reticulation, species relationships can be captured by a rooted phylogenetic network, and orthologous gene evolution can be modeled as bifurcating gene trees embedded in the species network. We present a Bayesian approach to jointly infer species networks and gene trees from multilocus sequence data. A novel birthhybridization process is used as the prior for the species network, and we assume a multispecies network coalescent (MSNC) prior for the embedded gene trees...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219896/an-analysis-of-training-loads-in-elite-under-18-australian-rule-football-players
#16
Emily E Cust, Nathan Elsworthy, Sam Robertson
Differences in training loads (TL) between under 18 (U18) Australian Rules football (AF) State Academy selected and non-selected players were investigated. Players were categorised relating to their highest representative level; State Academy selected (n = 9) and TAC Cup level players (n = 38). Data were obtained from an online training-monitoring tool implemented to collect player training and match information across a 20 - week period during the regular season. Parameters modelled included AF skills, strength, and other sport training sessions...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219808/ferrovibrio-soli-sp-nov-a-novel-cellulolytic-bacterium-isolated-from-stream-bank-soil
#17
Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
Two isolates of bacterial strains A15T and A17 were isolated from stream bank soil in Kyonggi University. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, opaque, and cream coloured. Both strains hydrolysed CM-cellulose. Strains were able to grow at 20-42 °C, pH 5.5-10.0 and at 1.5 % NaCl concentration (w/v). Indole test was positive. Analyses of phylogenetic trees based on its 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain A15T formed a lineage within the family Rhodospirillaceae of the phylum Proteobacteria which was distinct from Ferrovibrio denitrificans S3T (98...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219069/a-boosting-approach-for-prediction-of-protein-rna-binding-residues
#18
Yongjun Tang, Diwei Liu, Zixiang Wang, Ting Wen, Lei Deng
BACKGROUND: RNA binding proteins play important roles in post-transcriptional RNA processing and transcriptional regulation. Distinguishing the RNA-binding residues in proteins is crucial for understanding how protein and RNA recognize each other and function together as a complex. RESULTS: We propose PredRBR, an effectively computational approach to predict RNA-binding residues. PredRBR is built with gradient tree boosting and an optimal feature set selected from a large number of sequence and structure characteristics and two categories of structural neighborhood properties...
December 1, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218912/network-analysis-of-pseudogene-gene-relationships-from-pseudogene-evolution-to-their-functional-potentials
#19
Travis S Johnson, Sihong Li, Jonathan R Kho, Kun Huang, Yan Zhang
Pseudogenes are fossil relatives of genes. Pseudogenes have long been thought of as "junk DNAs", since they do not code proteins in normal tissues. Although most of the human pseudogenes do not have noticeable functions, ∼20% of them exhibit transcriptional activity. There has been evidence showing that some pseudogenes adopted functions as lncRNAs and work as regulators of gene expression. Furthermore, pseudogenes can even be "reactivated" in some conditions, such as cancer initiation. Some pseudogenes are transcribed in specific cancer types, and some are even translated into proteins as observed in several cancer cell lines...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218905/considerations-for-automated-machine-learning-in-clinical-metabolic-profiling-altered-homocysteine-plasma-concentration-associated-with-metformin-exposure
#20
Alena Orlenko, Jason H Moore, Patryk Orzechowski, Randal S Olson, Junmei Cairns, Pedro J Caraballo, Richard M Weinshilboum, Liewei Wang, Matthew K Breitenstein
With the maturation of metabolomics science and proliferation of biobanks, clinical metabolic profiling is an increasingly opportunistic frontier for advancing translational clinical research. Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) approaches provide exciting opportunity to guide feature selection in agnostic metabolic profiling endeavors, where potentially thousands of independent data points must be evaluated. In previous research, AutoML using high-dimensional data of varying types has been demonstrably robust, outperforming traditional approaches...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
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