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Piezo channel

Ruhma Syeda, Maria N Florendo, Charles D Cox, Jennifer M Kefauver, Jose S Santos, Boris Martinac, Ardem Patapoutian
The conversion of mechanical force to chemical signals is critical for many biological processes, including the senses of touch, pain, and hearing. Mechanosensitive ion channels play a key role in sensing the mechanical stimuli experienced by various cell types and are present in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels are characterized thoroughly, but less is known about their counterparts in vertebrates. Piezos have been recently established as ion channels required for mechanotransduction in disparate cell types in vitro and in vivo...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
Mai Michishita, Kazuo Yano, Ken-Ichi Tomita, Osamu Matsuzaki, Ken-Ichi Kasahara
AIMS: For patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), storage symptoms due to bladder dysfunction are bothersome, and that mechanism elucidation is needed. Piezo1, a mechanically activated ion channel, is believed to play a role in sensing bladder distension. To investigate the involvement of Piezo1 in bladder dysfunction, we examined the expression and distribution of Piezo1 and neurofilament (NF-L) to understand pathological alterations in rat bladders with partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO), an animal model of BPH...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Jason Wu, Amanda H Lewis, Jörg Grandl
In 2010, two proteins, Piezo1 and Piezo2, were identified as the long-sought molecular carriers of an excitatory mechanically activated current found in many cells. This discovery has opened the floodgates for studying a vast number of mechanotransduction processes. Over the past 6 years, groundbreaking research has identified Piezos as ion channels that sense light touch, proprioception, and vascular blood flow, ruled out roles for Piezos in several other mechanotransduction processes, and revealed the basic structural and functional properties of the channel...
October 12, 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Franz Alisch, Alexander Weichert, Karim Kalache, Viola Paradiso, Ann Carolin Longardt, Christof Dame, Katrin Hoffmann, Denise Horn
Gordon syndrome or distal arthrogryposis type 3 is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by contractures of upper and lower limbs. It is distinguishable from other forms of distal arthrogryposis by cleft palate and short stature. Recently, Gordon syndrome has been associated to heterozygous mutations in the piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 gene (PIEZO2). Different mutations of this gene also cause distal arthrogryposis type 5 and Marden-Walker syndrome. Dysfunction of this ion channel provides pleiotropic effects on joints, ocular muscles, and bone development...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Jason Wu, Raman Goyal, Jörg Grandl
Piezos are mechanically activated ion channels that function as sensors of touch and pressure in various cell types. However, the precise mechanism and structures mediating mechanical activation and subsequent inactivation have not yet been identified. Here we use magnetic nanoparticles as localized transducers of mechanical force in combination with pressure-clamp electrophysiology to identify mechanically sensitive domains important for activation and inactivation.
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Donghyuk Lee, Joonhui Kim, Nam-Joon Cho, Taewook Kang, Sangken Kauh, Jungchul Lee
This paper reports a microfabrication-free approach to make hollow channel mass sensors by pulling a glass capillary and suspending it on top of a machined jig. A part of the pulled section makes simple contact with an actuation node and a quartz tuning fork (QTF) which acts as a sensing node. The two nodes define a pulled micro capillary tube resonator (PμTR) simply supported at two contacts. While a piezo actuator beneath the actuation node excites the PμTR, the QTF senses the resonance frequency of the PμTR...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xingqiang Liu, Xiaonian Yang, Guoyun Gao, Zhenyu Yang, Haitao Liu, Qiang Li, Zheng Lou, Guozhen Shen, Lei Liao, Caofeng Pan, Zhong Lin Wang
We report high-performance self-aligned MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) with enhanced photoresponsivity by the piezo-phototronic effect. The FETs are fabricated based on monolayer MoS2 with a piezoelectric GaN nanowire (NW) as the local gate, and a self-aligned process is employed to define the source/drain electrodes. The fabrication method allows the preservation of the intrinsic property of MoS2 and suppresses the scattering center density in the MoS2/GaN interface, which results in high electrical and photoelectric performances...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
Krishna C Balram, Marcelo I Davanço, Jin Dong Song, Kartik Srinivasan
Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect...
May 2016: Nature Photonics
Anthony W Peng, Anthony J Ricci
Hair cells are designed to sense mechanical stimuli of sound using their apical stereocilia hair bundles. Mechanical deflection of this hair bundle is converted into an electrical signal through gating of mechano-electric transduction channels. Stiff probe stimulation of hair bundles is an invaluable tool for studying the transduction channel and its associated processes because of the speed and ability to precisely control hair bundle position. Proper construction of these devices is critical to their ultimate performance as is appropriate placement of the probe onto the hair bundle...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
X Z Shawn Xu
Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel...
June 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
P Pappu, D Madduru, M Chandrasekharan, V Modhukur, S Nallapeta, P Suravajhala
Cigarette smoking leads to serious epidemics in humans, creating torsion of infection in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tracts. Several researchers in the recent past have theorized that the next generation sequencing (NGS), especially transcriptome sequencing has enhanced understanding lung cancers and other epithelial epidemics. Conversely, pathogenesis specific to lung cancer with respect to molecular fraction of genomic ribonucleic acid has some mutant effect in various populations like smokers with lung cancer, healthy never smokers and vice versa...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
Nurunisa Akyuz, Jeffrey R Holt
Mechanosensitive ion channels initiate sensory signals by converting mechanical information into electrochemical signals. In this issue of Neuron (Zhao et al., 2016), a data-rich structure-function study on mammalian mechanosensitive Piezo channels reveals a modular protein architecture that includes a central pore module surrounded by a force-sensing module.
March 16, 2016: Neuron
Qiancheng Zhao, Kun Wu, Jie Geng, Shaopeng Chi, Yanfeng Wang, Peng Zhi, Mingmin Zhang, Bailong Xiao
Piezo proteins have been proposed as the long-sought-after mechanosensitive cation channels in mammals that play critical roles in various mechanotransduction processes. However, the molecular bases that underlie their ion permeation and mechanotransduction have remained functionally undefined. Here we report our finding of the miniature pore-forming module of Piezo1 that resembles the pore architecture of other trimeric channels and encodes the essential pore properties. We further identified specific residues within the pore module that determine unitary conductance, pore blockage and ion selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations and anions...
March 16, 2016: Neuron
Steven W Copp, Joyce S Kim, Victor Ruiz-Velasco, Marc P Kaufman
Mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising from contracting muscles evoke the exercise pressor reflex. This reflex is greater in a rat model of simulated peripheral arterial disease in which a femoral artery is chronically ligated than it is in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. The role played by the mechanically sensitive component of the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in ligated rats is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the mechano-gated channel inhibitor GsMTx4, a relatively selective inhibitor of mechano-gated Piezo channels, reduces the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats with ligated femoral arteries...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Laura F Corns, Walter Marcotti
The mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels located at the stereocilia tip of cochlear hair cells are crucial to convert the mechanical energy of sound into receptor potentials, but the identity of its pore-forming subunits remains uncertain. Piezo1, which has been identified in the transcriptome of mammalian cochlear hair cells, encodes a transmembrane protein that forms mechanosensitive channels in other tissues. We investigated the properties of the MET channel in outer hair cells (OHCs) of Piezo1 mice (postnatal day 6-9)...
February 2016: Physiological Reports
Amanda H Lewis, Jörg Grandl
Piezo1 ion channels mediate the conversion of mechanical forces into electrical signals and are critical for responsiveness to touch in metazoans. The apparent mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 varies substantially across cellular environments, stimulating methods and protocols, raising the fundamental questions of what precise physical stimulus activates the channel and how its stimulus sensitivity is regulated. Here, we measured Piezo1 currents evoked by membrane stretch in three patch configurations, while simultaneously visualizing and measuring membrane geometry...
December 8, 2015: ELife
Steven W Copp, Joyce S Kim, Victor Ruiz-Velasco, Marc P Kaufman
Mechanical and metabolic stimuli from contracting muscles evoke reflex increases in blood pressure, heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity. Little is known, however, about the nature of the mechano-gated channels on the thin fibre muscle afferents that contribute to evoke this reflex, termed the exercise pressor reflex. We determined the effect of GsMTx4, an inhibitor of mechano-gated Piezo channels, on the exercise pressor reflex evoked by intermittent contraction of the triceps surae muscles in decerebrated, unanaesthetized rats...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Chunhua Du, Chunyan Jiang, Peng Zuo, Xin Huang, Xiong Pu, Zhenfu Zhao, Yongli Zhou, Linxuan Li, Hong Chen, Weiguo Hu, Zhong Lin Wang
Visible light communication (VLC) simultaneously provides illumination and communication via light emitting diodes (LEDs). Keeping a low bit error rate is essential to communication quality, and holding a stable brightness level is pivotal for illumination function. For the first time, a piezo-phototronic effect controlled visible light communication (PVLC) system based on InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells nanopillars is demonstrated, in which the information is coded by mechanical straining. This approach of force coding is also instrumental to avoid LED blinks, which has less impact on illumination and is much safer to eyes than electrical on/off VLC...
December 2, 2015: Small
Yanmei Qi, Laura Andolfi, Flavia Frattini, Florian Mayer, Marco Lazzarino, Jing Hu
Sensing force is crucial to maintain the viability of all living cells. Despite its fundamental importance, how force is sensed at the molecular level remains largely unknown. Here we show that stomatin-like protein-3 (STOML3) controls membrane mechanics by binding cholesterol and thus facilitates force transfer and tunes the sensitivity of mechano-gated channels, including Piezo channels. STOML3 is detected in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. In mouse sensory neurons, depletion of cholesterol and deficiency of STOML3 similarly and interdependently attenuate mechanosensitivity while modulating membrane mechanics...
2015: Nature Communications
Jingpeng Ge, Wanqiu Li, Qiancheng Zhao, Ningning Li, Maofei Chen, Peng Zhi, Ruochong Li, Ning Gao, Bailong Xiao, Maojun Yang
Piezo proteins are evolutionarily conserved and functionally diverse mechanosensitive cation channels. However, the overall structural architecture and gating mechanisms of Piezo channels have remained unknown. Here we determine the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the full-length (2,547 amino acids) mouse Piezo1 (Piezo1) at a resolution of 4.8 Å. Piezo1 forms a trimeric propeller-like structure (about 900 kilodalton), with the extracellular domains resembling three distal blades and a central cap. The transmembrane region has 14 apparently resolved segments per subunit...
November 5, 2015: Nature
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