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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150140/visual-pathways-from-the-perspective-of-cost-functions-and-multi-task-deep-neural-networks
#1
REVIEW
H Steven Scholte, Max M Losch, Kandan Ramakrishnan, Edward H F de Haan, Sander M Bohte
Vision research has been shaped by the seminal insight that we can understand the higher-tier visual cortex from the perspective of multiple functional pathways with different goals. In this paper, we try to give a computational account of the functional organization of this system by reasoning from the perspective of multi-task deep neural networks. Machine learning has shown that tasks become easier to solve when they are decomposed into subtasks with their own cost function. We hypothesize that the visual system optimizes multiple cost functions of unrelated tasks and this causes the emergence of a ventral pathway dedicated to vision for perception, and a dorsal pathway dedicated to vision for action...
October 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140483/integrative-whole-person-oncology-care-in-the-uk
#2
Catherine Zollman, Axel Walther, Helen E Seers, Rachel C Jolliffe, Marie J Polley
The term "whole-person cancer care"-an approach that addresses the needs of the person as well as treating the disease-is more widely understood in the United Kingdom than its synonym "integrative oncology." The National Health Service (NHS) provides free access to care for all, which makes it harder to prioritize NHS funding of whole-person medicine, where interventions may be multimodal and lacking in cost-effectiveness data. Despite this, around 30% of cancer patients are known to use some form of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137659/the-effectiveness-of-research-implementation-strategies-for-promoting-evidence-informed-policy-and-management-decisions-in-healthcare-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Mitchell N Sarkies, Kelly-Ann Bowles, Elizabeth H Skinner, Romi Haas, Haylee Lane, Terry P Haines
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126454/an-analysis-on-intersectional-collaboration-on-non-communicable-chronic-disease-prevention-and-control-in-china-a-cross-sectional-survey-on-main-officials-of-community-health-service-institutions
#4
Xing-Ming Li, Alon Rasooly, Bo Peng, JianWang, Shu-Yu Xiong
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to design a tool of evaluating intersectional collaboration on Non-communicable Chronic Disease (NCD) prevention and control, and further to understand the current status of intersectional collaboration in community health service institutions of China. METHODS: We surveyed 444 main officials of community health service institutions in Beijing, Tianjin, Hubei and Ningxia regions of China in 2014 by using a questionnaire. A model of collaboration measurement, including four relational dimensions of governance, shared goals and vision, formalization and internalization, was used to compare the scores of evaluation scale in NCD management procedures across community healthcare institutions and other ones...
November 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125535/an-intelligent-cooperative-visual-sensor-network-for-urban-mobility
#5
Giuseppe Riccardo Leone, Davide Moroni, Gabriele Pieri, Matteo Petracca, Ovidio Salvetti, Andrea Azzarà, Francesco Marino
Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic...
November 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097543/topological-and-modality-specific-representation-of-somatosensory-information-in-the-fly-brain
#6
Asako Tsubouchi, Tomoko Yano, Takeshi K Yokoyama, Chloé Murtin, Hideo Otsuna, Kei Ito
Insects and mammals share similarities of neural organization underlying the perception of odors, taste, vision, sound, and gravity. We observed that insect somatosensation also corresponds to that of mammals. In Drosophila, the projections of all the somatosensory neuron types to the insect's equivalent of the spinal cord segregated into modality-specific layers comparable to those in mammals. Some sensory neurons innervate the ventral brain directly to form modality-specific and topological somatosensory maps...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089553/homeostatic-plasticity-shapes-the-visual-system-s-first-synapse
#7
Robert E Johnson, Nai-Wen Tien, Ning Shen, James T Pearson, Florentina Soto, Daniel Kerschensteiner
Vision in dim light depends on synapses between rods and rod bipolar cells (RBCs). Here, we find that these synapses exist in multiple configurations, in which single release sites of rods are apposed by one to three postsynaptic densities (PSDs). Single RBCs often form multiple PSDs with one rod; and neighboring RBCs share ~13% of their inputs. Rod-RBC synapses develop while ~7% of RBCs undergo programmed cell death (PCD). Although PCD is common throughout the nervous system, its influences on circuit development and function are not well understood...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069391/dimensions-and-intensity-of-inter-professional-teamwork-in-primary-care-evidence-from-five-international-jurisdictions
#8
Jean-Frederic Levesque, Mark F Harris, Cathie Scott, Benjamin Crabtree, William Miller, Lisa M Halma, William E Hogg, Jan-Willem Weenink, Jenny R Advocat, Jane Gunn, Grant Russell
Background: Inter-professional teamwork in primary care settings offers potential benefits for responding to the increasing complexity of patients' needs. While it is a central element in many reforms to primary care delivery, implementing inter-professional teamwork has proven to be more challenging than anticipated. Objective: The objective of this study was to better understand the dimensions and intensity of teamwork and the developmental process involved in creating fully integrated teams...
October 23, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069046/analysis-of-three-surgical-treatments-for-spontaneous-supratentorial-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Qiang Cai, Huaping Zhang, Dong Zhao, Zhaohui Yang, Keqi Hu, Long Wang, Wenfei Zhang, Zhibiao Chen, Qianxue Chen
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 3 surgical procedures for Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage (SICH).A total of 63 patients with SICH were randomized into 3 groups. Group A (n = 21) underwent craniotomy surgery, group B (n = 22) underwent burr hole, urokinase infusion and catheter drainage, and group C (n = 20) underwent neuroendoscopic surgery. The hematoma evacuation rate of the operation was analyzed by 3D Slice software and the average surgery time, visualization during operation, decompressive effect, mortality, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) improvement, complications include rebleeding, pneumonia, intracranial infection were also compared among 3 groups...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068729/the-consultant-practitioner-an-evolving-role-to-meet-changing-nhs-needs
#10
Elizabeth Rosser, Rachael Grey, Deborah Neal, Julie Reeve, Caroline Smith, Janine Valentine, Kate Brookman
Since the introduction of the consultant practitioner role, with its huge variability in purpose and context, it has had to evolve in response to the changing needs of the NHS to achieve sustainability and transformation of services. AIM: This article reflects on the relevance of the consultant practitioner role and the impact of an action learning set in hastening its evolution in one NHS foundation trust. METHOD: From a process of collective critical reflection on their practice, six consultant practitioners analysed the impact they have had on influencing services and empowerment of their patients...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068387/bioactivity-of-olive-oil-phenols-in-neuroprotection
#11
REVIEW
Cristina Angeloni, Marco Malaguti, Maria Cristina Barbalace, Silvana Hrelia
Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066394/beyond-the-word-and-image-ii-structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-a-common-semantic-system
#12
A L Jouen, T M Ellmore, C J Madden-Lombardi, C Pallier, P F Dominey, J Ventre-Dominey
Understanding events requires interplaying cognitive processes arising in neural networks whose organisation and connectivity remain subjects of controversy in humans. In the present study, by combining diffusion tensor imaging and functional interaction analysis, we aim to provide new insights on the organisation of the structural and functional pathways connecting the multiple nodes of the identified semantic system -shared by vision and language (Jouen et al., 2015). We investigated a group of 19 healthy human subjects during experimental tasks of reading sentences or seeing pictures...
October 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053555/case-series-analysis-of-myopic-progression-control-with-a-unique-extended-depth-of-focus-multifocal-contact-lens
#13
Jeffrey Cooper, Brett OʼConnor, Ronald Watanabe, Randall Fuerst, Sharon Berger, Nadine Eisenberg, Sally M Dillehay
OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of myopia progression in children fit with a commercially available extended depth of focus (center distance) multifocal soft contact lens with attributes theoretically expected to slow the progression of myopia. METHODS: A retrospective case series analysis of 32 patients (ages 6-19 years, mean 10.98±2.95) from 10 practice locations was performed. At initial presentation, 44% wore spectacles, 37.5% spherical soft contact lenses, 15...
October 19, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035664/understanding-of-how-older-adults-with-low-vision-obtain-process-and-understand-health-information-and-services
#14
Hyung Nam Kim
INTRODUCTION: Twenty-five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act, there has still been a lack of advancement of accessibility in healthcare for people with visual impairments, particularly older adults with low vision. This study aims to advance understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and use health information and services, and to seek opportunities of information technology to support them. METHODS: A convenience sample of 10 older adults with low vision participated in semi-structured phone interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis...
October 16, 2017: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028197/multi-task-vehicle-detection-with-region-of-interest-voting
#15
Wenqing Chu, Yao Liu, Chen Shen, Deng Cai, Xian-Sheng Hua
Vehicle detection is a challenging problem in autonomous driving systems, due to its large structural and appearance variations. In this paper, we propose a novel vehicle detection scheme based on multi-task deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) and region-of-interest (RoI) voting. In the design of CNN architecture, we enrich the supervised information with subcategory, region overlap, bounding-box regression and category of each training RoI as a multi-task learning framework. This design allows the CNN model to share visual knowledge among different vehicle attributes simultaneously, thus detection robustness can be effectively improved...
October 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976241/attitudes-and-perceptions-of-eye-care-workers-and-health-administrators-regarding-task-sharing-in-screening-and-detection-for-management-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-pakistan
#16
Mufarriq Shah, Ayesha Noor, Gail M Ormsby, Rahul Chakrabarti, C Alex Harper, Fakir Amirul Islam, Jill Keeffe
PURPOSE: The shortage of ophthalmologists in many countries is a major barrier to timely provision of eye care. A team work approach to screen, detect and manage diabetic retinopathy (DR) could achieve greater screening coverage of people with diabetes to prevent vision loss. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of eye care workers and health administrators regarding task sharing for management of DR. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, 121 eye and health care workers in five selected hospitals in two provinces in Pakistan were recruited...
October 4, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943731/multi-source-multi-target-dictionary-learning-for-prediction-of-cognitive-decline
#17
Jie Zhang, Qingyang Li, Richard J Caselli, Paul M Thompson, Jieping Ye, Yalin Wang
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Identifying correct biomarkers may determine pre-symptomatic AD subjects and enable early intervention. Recently, Multi-task sparse feature learning has been successfully applied to many computer vision and biomedical informatics researches. It aims to improve the generalization performance by exploiting the shared features among different tasks. However, most of the existing algorithms are formulated as a supervised learning scheme. Its drawback is with either insufficient feature numbers or missing label information...
June 2017: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: Proceedings of the ... Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937140/how-the-vision-of-a-clinician-and-an-educator-brought-the-ma-dental-law-and-ethics-course-to-life
#18
H S Wassif, L D'Cruz
This paper reflects on an educational development, a dental law and ethics course, as the course approaches its fifth anniversary. The authors outline their personal journey into developing and delivering this course, as well as sharing their best practice in relation to teaching dental postgraduate students who may approach the subject in different ways. It also highlights the vision behind this provision and how it is received by dental practitioners. The paper shares the learners' perception of topics such as ethics in comparison to law, and it highlights the perspective of both authors in teaching and following the students' journey in this course...
September 22, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934920/agreed-definitions-and-a-shared-vision-for-new-standards-in-stroke-recovery-research-the-stroke-recovery-and-rehabilitation-roundtable-taskforce
#19
Julie Bernhardt, Kathryn S Hayward, Gert Kwakkel, Nick S Ward, Steven L Wolf, Karen Borschmann, John W Krakauer, Lara A Boyd, S Thomas Carmichael, Dale Corbett, Steven C Cramer
The first Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable established a game changing set of new standards for stroke recovery research. Common language and definitions were required to develop an agreed framework spanning the four working groups: translation of basic science, biomarkers of stroke recovery, measurement in clinical trials and intervention development and reporting. This paper outlines the working definitions established by our group and an agreed vision for accelerating progress in stroke recovery research...
September 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929096/contaminants-in-foods-of-animal-origin-in-cameroon-a-one-health-vision-for-risk-management-from-farm-to-fork
#20
REVIEW
Guy B Pouokam, B U Saha Foudjo, Chi Samuel, Philomina Fankam Yamgai, A Kamda Silapeux, Joel Taguemkam Sando, G Fankam Atonde, Chiara Frazzoli
Foods of animal origin represent an important share in the diet of Cameroonian populations. Cameroon is known to be a food basket in the west and central Africa sub-region, and an important supplier of foods on the international markets. In the meantime, food importation is continuously increasing to meet the high demand of a more westernized segment of the population. Cereals, fish, sea products, eggs, honey, shrimps, chicken, and feed ingredients are important share in the international trade of agricultural products...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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