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Zeinab El-Taher Hassan, Nehad M Farag, Wael M Elshemey
This work aims at designing a computer program to calculate the necessary amount of shielding for a given or proposed linear accelerator room design in radiotherapy. The program (Shield Calculation in Radiotherapy, SCR) is developed using Microsoft Visual Basic. It applies the treatment room shielding calculations of the NCRP report no. 151 to calculate proper shielding thicknesses for a given linear accelerator treatment room design. The program is composed of six main user-friendly interfaces. The first one enables the user to upload whatever treatment room design of his choice and to measure the distances required for shielding calculations...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Noha M Badawi, Mahmoud H Teaima, Khalid M El-Say, Dalia A Attia, Mohamed A El-Nabarawi, Mohey M Elmazar
Background: Pomegranate extract (PE) is a natural product with potent antioxidant and anticancer activity because of its polyphenols content. The main purpose of this study was to maximize the PE chemotherapeutic efficacy by loading it in an optimized solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) formula. Materials and methods: The influence of independent variables, which were lipid concentration (X1 ), surfactant concentration (X2 ) and cosurfactant concentration (X3 ), on dependent ones, which were particle size (Y1 ), polydispersity index (Y2 ), zeta potential (Y3 ), entrapment efficiency (Y4 ) and cumulative % drug release (Y5 ), were studied and optimized using the Box-Behnken design...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Kayla M Valdes, Ganesh S Sundar, Ashton T Belew, Emrul Islam, Najib M El-Sayed, Yoann Le Breton, Kevin S McIver
Many bacterial pathogens coordinately regulate genes encoding important metabolic pathways during disease progression, including the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-phosphotransferase system (PTS) for uptake of carbohydrates. The Gram-positive Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a pathogen that infects multiple tissues in the human host. The virulence regulator Mga in GAS can be phosphorylated by the PTS, affecting Mga activity based on carbohydrate availability. Here, we explored the effects of glucose availability on the Mga regulon...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Breida, S Alami Younssi, A Bouazizi, B Achiou, M Ouammou, M El Rhazi
In the framework of understanding the transport mechanism that governs the filtration of NO3 - solution through a γ -Al2 O3 membrane with a nominal pore size of 5 nm at low ultrafiltration, a series of various types of nitrate solutions and operating conditions were investigated. The effect of filtration parameters such as pH, applied pressure and NO3 - concentration on the selectivity and permeability of the membrane were studied using binary solutions (KNO3 , NaNO3 , Ca(NO3 )2 and Mg(NO3 )2 ) and ternary solutions ((NaNO3 + KNO3 ), (NaNO3 + Ca(NO3 )2 ) and (Mg(NO3 )2 + Ca(NO3 )2 )...
January 2018: Heliyon
Masayuki Kondo, Kazuhito Ichii, Prabir K Patra, Joseph G Canadell, Benjamin Poulter, Stephen Sitch, Leonardo Calle, Yi Y Liu, Albert I J M van Dijk, Tazu Saeki, Nobuko Saigusa, Pierre Friedlingstein, Almut Arneth, Anna Harper, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Charles Koven, Fang Li, Thomas A M Pugh, Sönke Zaehle, Andy Wiltshire, Frederic Chevallier, Takashi Maki, Takashi Nakamura, Yosuke Niwa, Christian Rödenbeck
An integrated understanding of the biogeochemical consequences of climate extremes and land use changes is needed to constrain land-surface feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 from associated climate change. Past assessments of the global carbon balance have shown particularly high uncertainty in Southeast Asia. Here, we use a combination of model ensembles to show that intensified land use change made Southeast Asia a strong source of CO2 from the 1980s to 1990s, whereas the region was close to carbon neutral in the 2000s due to an enhanced CO2 fertilization effect and absence of moderate-to-strong El Niño events...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
T Eppig, C Spira-Eppig, S Goebels, B Seitz, M El-Husseiny, M Lenhart, K Papavasileiou, N Szentmáry, A Langenbucher
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the inter-eye asymmetry of keratoconus (KC) patients is different from a healthy control group and to investigate how asymmetry changes with increasing severity of the disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included both eyes of 350 patients with KC (age 35 ± 13 years) and 68 candidates planned for refractive surgery (control group, age 37 ± 11 years). Inclusion criteria for the KC group were keratoconus in at least one eye with Pentacam Topographical Keratoconus Classification (TKC) of at least 0...
March 20, 2018: Current Eye Research
Ali H El-Far, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Mahmoud A Gab Allah, Ibrahim Abu Reidah, Hazem M Shaheen, Iman Razeghian-Jahromi, Abd El-Wahab A Alsenosy, Ahmed E Noreldin, Soad K Al Jaouni, Shaker A Mousa
Phoenix dactylifera is a useful traditional medicinal plant, mainly the fruit is used, which is the edible part of the plant (Ajwa date). It is now considered to be a valuable source of natural medicinal products against various diseases. Phytochemical investigations have shown that the fruit contains anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids, and flavonoids. The fruits are a rich source of carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins. P. dactylifera is considered as a complete diet because it also contains different fatty acids, amino acids, proteins, and steroidal substances...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Maria-Eleni Kyriazi, Davide Giust, Afaf H El-Sagheer, Peter M Lackie, Otto L Muskens, Tom Brown, Antonios G Kanaras
The design of nanoparticulate systems which can perform multiple synergistic functions in cells with high specificity and selectivity is of great importance in applications. Here we combine recent advances in DNA-gold nanoparticle self-assembly and sensing to develop gold nanoparticle dimers that are able to perform multiplexed synergistic functions within a cellular environment. These dimers can sense two mRNA targets and simultaneously or independently deliver one or two DNA-intercalating anticancer drugs (doxorubicin and mitoxantrone) in live cells...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
M Yolanda Cobo-Nuñez, Mariam El Assar, Pedro Cuevas, Alberto Sánchez-Ferrer, Jennifer Martínez-González, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Javier Angulo
Etamsylate is indicated for several anti-hemorrhagic indications in human and veterinary medicine. However, etamsylate has been shown to be effective only in specific haemorrhagic situations. Furthermore, mechanism of action of etamsylate is not known but recent research has shown its ability to inhibit heparin binding to several growth factors. We have evaluated the ability of etamsylate to interfere with the activities of heparin. Effects of etamsylate on vasodilatory activity of heparin were evaluated in rat aortic segments...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Margrit M Ayoub, Neveen G Elantouny, Hanan M El-Nahas, Fakhr El-Din S Ghazy
For patient convenience, sustained release Adefovir Poly-d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres were formulated to relieve the daily use of the drug which is a problem for patients treated from chronic hepatitis-B. PLGA microspheres were prepared and characterized by entrapment efficiency, particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In-vitro release and in-vivo studies were carried out. Factors such as drug: polymer ratio, polymer viscosity and polymer lactide content were found to be important variables for the preparation of PLGA Adefovir microspheres...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Monira M Rageh, Reem H El-Gebaly
The radioprotective and antioxidant activities of melanin nanoparticles (MNP) were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and BALB/C mice in vivo. The endpoints measured were cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, DNA damage (comet assay), and histopathological examination of tissues. Irradiated groups showed decreased SOD activity and increased MDA levels. Irradiation caused a 3-10-fold increase in comet parameters such as % tail DNA. Treatment with MNP protected cells from DNA damage and death, restored SOD activity, and decreased MDA production...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Abeer T Al Hanaineh, Dina H Hassanein, Sameh H Abdelbaky, Omar M El Zawahry
PURPOSE: Comparing the effects of topical Rimexolone versus Dexamethasone and Rimexolone versus Fluorometholone on the intraocular pressure in children <13 years. METHODS: A total of 40 patients (80 eyes) undergoing bilateral recession strabismus surgery were divided into two groups. Group A included 20 children (40 eyes); for each, one eye was randomized to receive 1% Rimexolone and the fellow eye received 0.1% Dexamethasone. Group B included 20 children (40 eyes); for each, one eye was randomized to receive 1% Rimexolone and the fellow eye received 0...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Mayada R Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed M Badr, Samah R Khalil, Mohamed S El-Kholy
The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of dietary inclusion of raw Jatropha cucas meal [RJM, 3.5%] on productive and reproductive performances of laying Japanese quail and the influence of physical treatment of jatropha meal by heating at [100o c] for 24 or 48 h [JH24 or JH48 respectively] on reducing these effects. The inclusion of RJM in quail diets significantly decreased the egg production, fertility and hatchability percentages and resulted in a high mortality rate. While heat-treated jatropha meal [JH24 or JH48 ] improved such undesirable effects...
March 12, 2018: Theriogenology
Mohamed M El-Wekil, Ashraf M Mahmoud, Saad A Alkahtani, Adel A Marzouk, Ramadan Ali
Novel and sensitive electrochemical sensor was fabricated for the assay of anti-HCV ledipasvir (LEDV) in different matrices. The designed sensor was based on 3D spinel ferromagnetic NiFe2 O4 nanospheres and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported by morpholinium acid sulphate (MHS), as an ionic liquid (RGO/NSNiFe2 O4 /MHS). This sensor design was assigned to synergistically tailor the unique properties of nanostructured ferrites, RGO, and ionic liquid to maximize the sensor response. Electrode modification prevented aggregation of NiFe2 O4, increasing electroactive surface area and allowed remarkable electro-catalytic oxidation of LEDV with an enhanced oxidation response...
March 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nashwa M Samra, Shaimaa Emad El Abrak, Hanaa H El Dash, Mona El Said El Raziky, Manal A El Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy caused by vitamin D and calcium malabsorption is thought to develop in children with cholestatic liver disease leading to secondary hyperparathyroidism and rickets or osteomalacia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental and bone mineral densities and the serum level of vitamin D in cholestatic infants and children and to correlate this process with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that include 50 patients presenting with cholestasis...
March 15, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Mohamed K S El-Nagar, Hajjaj H M Abdu-Allah, Ola I A Salem, Abdel-Hamid N Kafafy, Hanan S M Farghaly
Three new series of 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives; series I (14, 16-18), series II (19-30) and series III (31-41) were synthesized as potential dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitors. Their chemical structures were confirmed using spectroscopic tools including IR,1 H NMR,13 C NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity for all target compounds was evaluated in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw edema. Compound 36 showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (114.12%) relative to reference drug indomethacin at 4 h interval...
March 6, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Mohamed A Abdelgawad, Madlen B Labib, Waleed A M Ali, Gehan Kamel, Amany A Azouz, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass
A series of newly synthesized 4-aryl-hydrazonopyrazolones were designed and their structures were confirmed by spectral and elemental analyses. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro COXs, 5-LOX inhibition, in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 5d, 5f and 5i were found to be the most potent COX-2/5-LOX inhibitors with superior COX-2 selectivity index values (SI = 5.29-5.69) to reference standard celecoxib (SI = 3.52). Four compounds; 5b, 5c, 5d and 5f showed excellent anti-inflammatory activity (% edema inhibition = 72...
March 8, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Jessica Roa-Garrido, Rosa M Cardenal-Piris, Ahmed Mahmoud El Amrawy, Antonio Gomez-Menchero, Santiago Camacho Freire, Jose Francisco Diaz-Fernandez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
M Gómez-Letona, J Arístegui, A G Ramos, M F Montero, J Coca
The eruption of a submarine volcano south of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in October 2011 led to major physical and chemical changes in the local environment. Large amounts of nutrients were found at specific depths in the water column above the volcano associated with suboxic layers resulting from the oxidation of reduced chemical species expelled during the eruptive phase. It has been suggested that the fertilization with these compounds enabled the rapid restoration of the ecosystem in the marine reserve south of the island once the volcanic activity ceased, although no biological evidence for this has been provided yet...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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