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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941407/targeted-neurogenesis-pathway-based-gene-analysis-identifies-adora2a-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Emrin Horgusluoglu-Moloch, Kwangsik Nho, Shannon L Risacher, Sungeun Kim, Tatiana Foroud, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Simon Lovestone, Andrew Simmons, Michael W Weiner, Andrew J Saykin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients display hippocampal atrophy, memory impairment, and cognitive decline. New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in 2 regions of the brain implicated in AD, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb. Disruption of this process contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including AD, and many of the molecular players in AD are also modulators of adult neurogenesis. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis in AD have been underexplored...
August 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#2
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941354/modulatory-effect-of-caffeic-acid-on-cholinesterases-inhibitory-properties-of-donepezil
#3
Odunayo Michael Agunloye, Ganiyu Oboh
Background Donepezil hydrochloride commonly used in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD), exhibiting its inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity thereby enhance cognitive function. Caffeic acid member of hydroxycinnamic acid is widely present in human diet. This study aims to investigate influence of caffeic acid on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of donepezil (in vitro). Methods 5 mg of donepezil was dissolved in 50 mL distilled water while 10 mg of caffeic acid was dissolved in 100 mL distilled water...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938337/pulse-pressure-is-associated-with-plasma-amyloid-%C3%AE-transport-dysfunction
#4
Yu Jiang, Suhang Shang, Pei Li, Chen Chen, Liangjun Dang, Jin Wang, Kang Huo, Meiying Deng, Jingyi Wang, Qiumin Qu
OBJECTIVE: Increased pulse pressure (PP) has been implicated in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in middle-aged and elderly adults. Considering the close relationship between peripheral amyloid-β clearance and brain amyloid-β deposition, we investigated the potential association between PP and plasma amyloid-β transport function. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1118 participants underwent a health assessment and quantification of plasma amyloid-β and amyloid-β transporter expression...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938144/the-associative-brain-at-work-evidence-from-paired-associative-stimulation-studies-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
A Suppa, A Quartarone, H Siebner, R Chen, V Di Lazzaro, P Del Giudice, Walter Paulus, J C Rothwell, U Ziemann, J Classen
The original protocol of Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) in humans implies repetitive cortical and peripheral nerve stimuli, delivered at specific inter-stimulus intervals, able to elicit non-invasively long-term potentiation (LTP)- and long-term depression (LTD)-like plasticity in the human motor cortex. PAS has been designed to drive cortical LTP/LTD according to the Hebbian rule of associative plasticity. Over the last two decades, a growing number of researchers have increasingly used the PAS technique to assess cortical associative plasticity in healthy humans and in patients with movement disorders and other neuropsychiatric diseases...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938009/altering-neuronal-excitability-to-preserve-network-connectivity-in-a-computational-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Willem de Haan, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Cornelis J Stam
Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-)pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937952/modeling-the-long-term-consequences-of-repeated-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries
#7
Denes V Agoston
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) caused by playing collision sports or by exposure to blasts during military operations can lead to late onset, chronic diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative condition that manifests in increasingly severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities years after the last injury. Currently, because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, confirmation of a CTE diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of the brain. The hallmarks of CTE are abnormal accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein, TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and astroglial abnormalities, but the pathomechanism leading to these terminal findings remains unknown...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937620/dysbindin-1-involvement-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that afflicts about 1% of the world's population, falling into the top 10 medical disorders causing disability. Existing therapeutic strategies have had limited success on cognitive impairment and long-term disability and are burdened by side effects. Although new antipsychotic medications have been launched in the past decades, there has been a general lack of significant innovation. This lack of significant progress in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia is a reflection of the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937342/do-chimeras-have-minds
#9
Benjamin Capps
Suppose that a colleague proposed a fantastic experiment: to introduce human stem cells into a neonatal mouse so that its entire brain developed into "human-like" neuronal structures. The colleague claimed it would still be a mouse, and that its chimeric brain would be nothing like a "human" one. It would not, as a result, have a moral status beyond its nonhuman animal origins. Thus, the "human neuron mouse" would allow scientists to tinker with human-like neurology in ways that would be precluded if it were a human being, and that would promise to lead to substantial understanding of the destructive and incurable brain diseases that befall humanity...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937337/ethical-and-legal-implications-of-the-methodological-crisis-in-neuroimaging
#10
Philipp Kellmeyer
Currently, many scientific fields such as psychology or biomedicine face a methodological crisis concerning the reproducibility, replicability, and validity of their research. In neuroimaging, similar methodological concerns have taken hold of the field, and researchers are working frantically toward finding solutions for the methodological problems specific to neuroimaging. This article examines some ethical and legal implications of this methodological crisis in neuroimaging. With respect to ethical challenges, the article discusses the impact of flawed methods in neuroimaging research in cognitive and clinical neuroscience, particularly with respect to faulty brain-based models of human cognition, behavior, and personality...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937324/impact-of-2-staged-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-treatment-of-brain-metastases-%C3%A2-2-cm
#11
Lilyana Angelov, Alireza M Mohammadi, Elizabeth E Bennett, Mahmoud Abbassy, Paul Elson, Samuel T Chao, Joshua S Montgomery, Ghaith Habboub, Michael A Vogelbaum, John H Suh, Erin S Murphy, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Sean J Nagel, Gene H Barnett
OBJECTIVE Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the primary modality for treating brain metastases. However, effective radiosurgical control of brain metastases ≥ 2 cm in maximum diameter remains challenging and is associated with suboptimal local control (LC) rates of 37%-62% and an increased risk of treatment-related toxicity. To enhance LC while limiting adverse effects (AEs) of radiation in these patients, a dose-dense treatment regimen using 2-staged SRS (2-SSRS) was used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of this treatment strategy...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937243/relation-of-plasma-selenium-and-lipid-peroxidation-end-products-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Z Chmatalova, M Vyhnalek, J Laczo, J Hort, R Pospisilova, M Pechova, A Skoumalova
Increased oxidative stress in the brain during the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to an imbalance of antioxidants and formation of free radical reaction end-products which may be detected in blood as fluorescent lipofuscin-like pigments (LFPs). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare LFPs with plasma selenium concentrations representing an integral part of the antioxidant system. Plasma samples from subjects with AD dementia (ADD; n=11), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=17) and controls (n=12), were collected...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937044/priming-of-the-cells-hypoxic-preconditioning-for-stem-cell-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Zheng Z Wei, Yan-Bing Zhu, James Y Zhang, Myles R McCrary, Song Wang, Yong-Bo Zhang, Shan-Ping Yu, Ling Wei
OBJECTIVE: Stem cell-based therapies are promising in regenerative medicine for protecting and repairing damaged brain tissues after injury or in the context of chronic diseases. Hypoxia can induce physiological and pathological responses. A hypoxic insult might act as a double-edged sword, it induces cell death and brain damage, but on the other hand, sublethal hypoxia can trigger an adaptation response called hypoxic preconditioning or hypoxic tolerance that is of immense importance for the survival of cells and tissues...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937043/inhibition-of-cd38-cyclic-adp-ribose-pathway-protects-rats-against-ropivacaine-induced-convulsion
#14
Yu Zou, Xin He, Qian-Yi Peng, Qu-Lian Guo
BACKGROUND: The CD38/cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) pathway plays a role in various central nervous system diseases and in morphine tolerance, but its role in local anesthetic intoxication is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the CD38/cADPR pathway in ropivacaine-induced convulsion. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 per group): sham group, ropivacaine group, ropivacaine+8-Br-cADPR (5 nmol) group, ropivacaine+8-Br-cADPR (10 nmol) group, and ropivacaine+8-Br-cADPR (20 nmol) group (no rats died)...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937034/effect-of-cordyceps-sinensis-on-the-treatment-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-a-pilot-study-on-mice-model
#15
Shan-Shan Zhong, Ya-Juan Xiang, Pen-Ju Liu, Yang He, Ting-Ting Yang, Yang-Yang Wang, A Rong, Jun Zhang, Guang-Zhi Liu
BACKGROUND: As a traditional Chinese medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (CS) possesses a variety of immunoregulatory properties. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of CS in a mice model of multiple sclerosis (MS)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55to induce EAE, followed by an instant intragastric feeding with a low dosage of CS (low-CS group, n = 5), high dosage of CS (high-CS group, n = 5), or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 5)...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937033/transcranial-sonographic-alterations-of-substantia-nigra-and-third-ventricle-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-or-without-dementia
#16
Zhi-Fen Dong, Cai-Shan Wang, Ying-Chun Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yu-Jing Sheng, Hua Hu, Wei-Feng Luo, Chun-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a higher prevalence of substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity compared with controls. Our aim was to explore the neuroimaging characteristics of transcranial sonography (TCS) of patients with PD and those with PD with dementia (PDD). The correlation between the echogenicity of the SN and clinical symptoms in Chinese patients with PDD was also assessed. METHODS: The ratios of SN hyperechogenicity (SN+), maximum sizes of SN+, and widths of third ventricle (TV) were measured using TCS for all the recruited patients...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937014/sex-bias-in-basic-and-preclinical-noise-induced-hearing-loss-research
#17
Amanda Marie Lauer, Katrina Marie Schrode
INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in brain biochemistry, physiology, structure, and function have been gaining increasing attention in the scientific community. Males and females can have different responses to medications, diseases, and environmental variables. A small number of the approximately 7500 studies of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have identified sex differences, but the mechanisms and characterization of these differences have not been thoroughly studied. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a mandate in 2015 to include sex as a biological variable in all NIH-funded research beginning in January 2016...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936832/-clinical-medication-characteristics-of-shuxuening-injection-in-treatment-of-cerebral-infarction-research-based-on-registration
#18
Jun-Jie Jiang, Yan-Ming Xie, Yin Zhang, Yi-Kai Zhang, Zuo-Ming Wang, Bing Han
To understand the medication characteristics of Xingxue@Shuxuening solutions in the real world, multi-center, large-sample-size registration design method is adopted in this study. Between October 2012 and October 2015, hospitalized patients in 27 medical institutions who used Shuxuening and diagnosed as cerebral infarction were observed, including their general information, diagnosis information and medication information. Totally 9 473 cases of cerebral infarction were included, with old people as the majority, and males were slightly more men than females; they were complicated with coronary heart disease, vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency, transient brain ischemia and other cerebrovascular diseases; the medication duration was mostly within 14 days; the dosage was mainly 8-20 mL; 0...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936802/significance-of-mitochondrial-protein-post-translational-modifications-in-pathophysiology-of-brain-injury
#19
Nina Klimova, Aaron Long, Tibor Kristian
Mitochondria are complex organelles that undergo constant fusion and fission in order to adapt to the ever-changing cellular environment. The fusion/fission proteins, localized in the inner and outer mitochondrial membrane, play critical roles under pathological conditions such as acute brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Post-translational modifications of these proteins tightly regulate their function and activity, ultimately impacting mitochondrial dynamics and their efficiency to generate ATP. The individual post-translational modifications that are known to affect mitochondrial dynamics include SUMOylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, acetylation, O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, and proteolytic cleavage...
September 21, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936769/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-a-transgenic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-model
#20
Agnese Gugliandolo, Sabrina Giacoppo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disabling progressive disease characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, leading to muscle atrophy and paralysis. The majority of cases are sporadic, but also a familiar form of ALS exists, and some genes causative of the pathology were found. In particular, mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were found in 20% of familiar cases. It is known that neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in several neurodegenerative disorders, including ALS. Inflammasomes are protein complexes that induce inflammation in response to various stimuli, involved also in neuroinflammation...
September 21, 2017: Inflammation
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