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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735291/subclinical-atherosclerosis-cardiac-and-kidney-function-heart-failure-and-dementia-in-the-very-elderly
#1
Lewis H Kuller, Oscar L Lopez, John S Gottdiener, Dalane W Kitzman, James T Becker, Yuefang Chang, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) and dementia are major causes of disability and death among older individuals. Risk factors and biomarkers of HF may be determinants of dementia in the elderly. We evaluated the relationship between biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and HF and risk of dementia and death. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) higher levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, N-terminal of prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, and cystatin C predict risk of death, cardiovascular disease, HF, and dementia; (2) higher levels of cardiovascular disease biomarkers are associated with increased risk of HF and then secondary increased risk of dementia; and (3) risk of dementia is lower among participants with a combination of lower coronary artery calcium, atherosclerosis, and lower high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (myocardial injury)...
July 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735242/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-larva-taenia-multiceps
#2
W H Li, N Z Zhang, L Yue, Y Yang, L Li, H B Yan, T T Li, Z G Qu, W Z Jia, B Q Fu
Taenia multiceps is an adult worm affiliated to Taeniidae family, Platyhelminthes phylum. The larvae of the parasite (Coenurus cerebralis) parasitic in the brain and spinal cord in domestic and wild ruminants or humans can led to a fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease. The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome profiles of the larvae of T. multiceps by RNA-Seq approach, and to generate large functional gene datasets that could be used to predict the key molecular pathways linked to this cestode...
July 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735144/entorhinal-tau-pathology-disrupts-hippocampal-prefrontal-oscillatory-coupling-during-associative-learning
#3
Stephanie E Tanninen, Bardia Nouriziabari, Mark D Morrissey, Rami Bakir, Robert D Dayton, Ronald L Klein, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
A neural signature of asymptomatic preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is disrupted connectivity between brain regions; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we tested whether a preclinical pathologic feature, tau aggregation in the entorhinal cortex (EC) is sufficient to disrupt the coordination of local field potentials (LFPs) between its efferent regions. P301L-mutant human tau or green fluorescent protein (GFP) was virally overexpressed in the EC of adult rats. LFPs were recorded from the dorsal hippocampus and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex while the rats underwent trace eyeblink conditioning where they learned to associate 2 stimuli separated by a short time interval...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735132/asleep-robot-assisted-surgery-for-the-implantation-of-subthalamic-electrodes-provides-the-same-clinical-improvement-and-therapeutic-window-as-awake-surgery
#4
Michel Lefranc, Yassine Zouitina, Mélissa Tir, Philippe Merle, Martial Ouendo, Jean-Marc Constans, Olivier Godefroy, Johann Peltier, Pierre Krystkowiak
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of not performing an awake clinical evaluation during the robot-assisted implantation subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) electrodes on the stimulation parameters and clinical outcome in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: A total of 23 PD patients underwent robot-assisted surgery for the bilateral implantation of STN-DBS electrodes. Thirteen patients received general anesthesia (GA) and a limited intraoperative evaluation (side effects only), whereas 10 received local anesthesia and a full evaluation...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735121/survival-patterns-of-5750-srs-treated-brain-metastasis-patients-as-a-function-of-the-number-of-lesions
#5
Mir Amaan Ali, Brian R Hirshman, Bayard Wilson, Kate T Carroll, James A Proudfoot, Steven J Goetsch, John F Alksne, Kenneth Ott, Hitoshi Aiyama, Osamu Nagano, Bob S Carter, Gerald Fogarty, Angela Hong, Toru Serizawa, Masaaki Yamamoto, Clark C Chen
BACKGROUND: The number of brain metastases (BM) plays an important role in the decision between stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). METHODS: We analyzed the survival of 5750 SRS-treated BM patients as a function of BM number. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier analysis as well as univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: BM patients were first categorized as those with 1, 2-4, and 5-10 BM based on the scheme proposed by Yamamoto et al (Lancet Oncology 2014)...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735099/subcellular-expression-of-aquaporin-4-in-substantia-nigra-of-normal-and-mptp-treated-mice
#6
Agnete Prydz, Katja Stahl, Maja Puchades, Nina Davarpaneh, Maria Nadeem, Ole Petter Ottersen, Vidar Gundersen, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in mammalian CNS where it is localized at the perivascular astrocytic foot processes abutting brain microvessels. Several lines of evidence suggest that AQP4 is involved in important homeostatic functions and that mislocalization of the perivascular pool of AQP4 is implicated in several different brain disorders. A recent study suggests that the differential susceptibility of midbrain dopaminergic neurons to the parkinsonogenic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) depends on the expression of AQP4...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735012/fgwas-functional-genome-wide-association-analysis
#7
Chao Huang, Paul Thompson, Yalin Wang, Yang Yu, Jingwen Zhang, Dehan Kong, Rivka R Colen, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Hongtu Zhu
Functional phenotypes (e.g., subcortical surface representation), which commonly arise in imaging genetic studies, have been used to detect putative genes for complexly inherited neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, existing statistical methods largely ignore the functional features (e.g., functional smoothness and correlation). The aim of this paper is to develop a functional genome-wide association analysis (FGWAS) framework to efficiently carry out whole-genome analyses of functional phenotypes...
July 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734961/radix-puerariae-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-architecture-and-potentiates-functional-synaptic-plasticity-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Mohibbullah, Yung Kyu Kim, Il Soo Moon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734836/criticality-in-the-brain-a-synthesis-of-neurobiology-models-and-cognition
#9
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Leonardo L Gollo, Andrew Zalesky, Michael Breakspear
Cognitive function requires the coordination of neural activity across many scales, from neurons and circuits to large-scale networks. As such, it is unlikely that an explanatory framework focused upon any single scale will yield a comprehensive theory of brain activity and cognitive function. Modelling and analysis methods for neuroscience should aim to accommodate multiscale phenomena. Emerging research now suggests that multi-scale processes in the brain arise from so-called critical phenomena that occur very broadly in the natural world...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734822/icotinib-versus-whole-brain-irradiation-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-multiple-brain-metastases-brain-a-multicentre-phase-3-open-label-parallel-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Jin-Ji Yang, Caicun Zhou, Yisheng Huang, Jifeng Feng, Sun Lu, Yong Song, Cheng Huang, Gang Wu, Li Zhang, Ying Cheng, Chengping Hu, Gongyan Chen, Li Zhang, Xiaoqing Liu, Hong Hong Yan, Fen Lai Tan, Wenzhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
BACKGROUND: For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China...
July 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734793/hardware-failure-in-patients-with-metastatic-cancer-to-the-spine
#11
Rachel Pedreira, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, A Karim Ahmed, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, C Rory Goodwin, Ziya L Gokaslan, Justin Sacks, Daniel M Sciubba
BACKGROUND: The spine is the most common site of skeletal metastases, affecting approximately 30% of individuals with cancer. The aim of surgical treatment for metastatic spine disease is generally palliative to address pain and/or neurologic compromise, significantly improving patients' quality of life. Patients with metastatic spine disease, however, represent a vulnerable cohort and may have comorbidities or previous treatments that impair the structural integrity of spinal hardware...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734792/genetic-factors-of-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-a-systemic-review
#12
REVIEW
Guohua Wang, Yong Cao, Tianding Wu, Chunyue Duan, Jianhuang Wu, Jianzhong Hu, Hongbin Lu
BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a degenerative disorder of the neck. Recent studies have reported the roles of single nucleotide polymorphisms and abnormal gene expression in the etiology and development of CSM. However, a systemic review of these findings is currently unavailable. METHODS: A systemic review of genetic factors of CSM was conducted through searching PubMed and EMbase databases. A total of 9 studies were included in this study, which included 8 genes: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), osteopontin (OPN), bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 4, collagen IX, vitamin D receptor (VDR), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-1α), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734741/beneficial-effects-of-tqrf-and-tq-nano-and-conventional-emulsions-on-memory-deficit-lipid-peroxidation-total-antioxidant-status-antioxidants-genes-expression-and-soluble-a%C3%AE-levels-in-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-rats
#13
Norsharina Ismail, Maznah Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Muhammad Firdaus Abu Bakar, Zhang Yida, Johnson Stanslas, Dahiru Sani, Hamidon Basri, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah
The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE)...
July 19, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734731/postnatal-corticosteroids-to-prevent-or-treat-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-who-might-benefit
#14
REVIEW
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Y Cheong
Newborn infants born very preterm are at high risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, which is associated with not only mortality but also adverse long-term neurological and respiratory outcomes in survivors. Postnatal corticosteroids might reduce the risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or reduce its severity. However, it is important to minimize exposure to the potentially harmful effects of corticosteroids, particularly on the developing brain. Systemic corticosteroids started after the first week of life have shown the most benefit in infants at highest risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, whereas inhaled corticosteroids have little effect in children with established lung disease...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734662/transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-induces-rnf213-a-moyamoya-disease-susceptibility-gene-in-vulnerable-neurons-of-the-rat-hippocampus-ca1-subregion-and-ischemic-cortex
#15
Mika Sato-Maeda, Miki Fujimura, Sherif Rashad, Yuiko Morita-Fujimura, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Hiroyuki Sakata, Shuntaro Ikawa, Teiji Tominaga
The RING finger protein 213 (RNF213) is an important susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease (MMD) and is also implicated in other types of intracranial major artery stenosis/occlusion (ICAS); however, the role of RNF213 in the development of ICAS including MMD is unclear. The constitutive expression of the RNF213 gene is relatively weak in brain tissue, while information regarding the expression patterns of the RNF213 gene under cerebral ischemia, which is one of characteristic pathologies associated with ICAS, is currently limited...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734196/on-status-epilepticus-and-pins-a-systematic-content-analysis
#16
Naim Mahroum, Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Howard Amital, Kassem Sharif, Samaa Watad, Giulia Adavastro, Giovanna Canepa, Francesco Brigo, Mohammad Adawi
Status epilepticus (SE) can be defined as abnormally prolonged, persistent, or recurrent clinical and/or electrographic epileptic activity and, as such, is a challenging medical emergency requiring an aggressive treatment aimed at promptly terminating the seizures. It imposes a relevant clinical burden, both in terms of comorbidity and mortality. In the era of the Web 2.0, most people search the Web to obtain SE-related information. The current investigation aimed at qualitatively characterizing the pins related to SE: Pinterest, "the world's catalog of ideas", is a visual social networking site that enables users to freely upload visual material, to bookmark, and to share it (repin)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734089/dementia-risk-and-prevention-by-targeting-modifiable-vascular-risk-factors
#17
REVIEW
Sana Tariq, Philip A Barber
The incidence of dementia is expected to double in the next 20 years and will contribute to heavy social and economic burden. Dementia is caused by neuronal loss that leads to brain atrophy years before symptoms manifest. Currently, no cure exists and extensive efforts are being made to mitigate cognitive impairment in late life in order to reduce the burden on patients, caregivers, and society. The most common type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) often co-exists in the brain and shares common, modifiable risk factors, which are targeted in numerous secondary prevention trials...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734065/fdg-pet-dopamine-transporter-spect-and-olfaction-combining-biomarkers-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#18
Sanne K Meles, David Vadasz, Remco J Renken, Elisabeth Sittig-Wiegand, Geert Mayer, Candan Depboylu, Kathrin Reetz, Sebastiaan Overeem, Angelique Pijpers, Fransje E Reesink, Teus van Laar, Lisette Heinen, Laura K Teune, Helmut Höffken, Marcus Luster, Karl Kesper, Sofie M Adriaanse, Jan Booij, Klaus L Leenders, Wolfgang H Oertel
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Hyposmia, reduced dopamine transporter binding, and expression of the brain metabolic PD-related pattern were each associated with increased risk of conversion to PD. The objective of this study was to study the relationship between the PD-related pattern, dopamine transporter binding, and olfaction in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 21 idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder subjects underwent (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, dopamine transporter imaging, and olfactory testing...
July 22, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733972/expression-and-function-of-the-metabotropic-purinergic-p2y-receptor-family-in-experimental-seizure-models-and-patients-with-drug-refractory-epilepsy
#19
Mariana Alves, Rosa Gomez-Villafuertes, Norman Delanty, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Maria Teresa Miras-Portugal, Miguel Diaz Hernandez, David C Henshall, Tobias Engel
OBJECTIVE: ATP is released into the extracellular space during pathologic processes including increased neuronal firing. Once released, ATP acts on P2 receptors including ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors, resulting in changes to glial function and neuronal network excitability. Evidence suggests an involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, but there has been no systematic effort to characterize the expression and function of the P2Y receptor family during seizures and in experimental and human epilepsy...
July 21, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733960/a-review-of-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-moving-from-csf-to-blood
#20
REVIEW
Kaj Blennow
A set of core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42). These biomarkers reflect some of the key aspects of AD pathophysiology, including neuronal degeneration, tau phosphorylation with tangle formation, and Aβ aggregation with deposition of the peptide into plaques. The core AD CSF biomarkers have been validated clinically in numerous studies, and found to have a very high diagnostic performance to identify AD, both in the dementia and in the mild cognitive impairment stages of the disease...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
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