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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918515/oligodendrocyte-neuron-interactions-impact-on-myelination-and-brain-function
#1
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the past, glial cells were considered to be 'glue' cells whose primary role was thought to be merely filling gaps in neural circuits. However, a growing number of reports have indicated the role of glial cells in higher brain function through their interaction with neurons. Myelin was originally thought to be just a sheath structure surrounding neuronal axons, but recently it has been shown that myelin exerts effects on the conduction velocity of neuronal axons even after myelin formation. Therefore, the investigation of glial cell properties and the neuron-glial interactions is important for understanding higher brain function...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918253/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-elevates-striatal-dopamine-concentration-without-affecting-spontaneous-or-reward-induced-phasic-release
#2
Marianne Klanker, Matthijs Feenstra, Ingo Willuhn, Damiaan Denys
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) induces rapid improvement of depressive symptoms in patients suffering from treatment-refractory major depressive disorder. It has been hypothesized that activation of the dopamine (DA) system contributes to this effect. To investigate whether DBS in the MFB affects DA release in the striatum, we combined DBS with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in freely moving rats. Animals were implanted with a stimulating electrode at the border of the MFB and the ventral tegmental area, and a FSCV microelectrode in the ventromedial striatum to monitor extracellular DA during the acute onset of DBS and subsequent continued stimulation...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918162/how-high-level-of-anxiety-in-panic-disorder-can-interfere-in-working-memory-a-computer-simulation-and-electrophysiological-investigation
#3
Luiza Wanick Di Giorgio Silva, Danielle Aprigio, Jesse Di Giacomo, Mariana Gongora, Henning Budde, Juliana Bittencourt, Mauricio Cagy, Silmar Teixeira, Pedro Ribeiro, Marcele Regine de Carvalho, Rafael Freire, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Luis Fernando Basile, Bruna Velasques
Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by repeated and unexpected attacks of intense anxiety, which are not restricted to a determined situation or circumstance. The coherence function has been used to investigate the communication among brain structures through the quantitative EEG (qEEG). The objective of this study is to analyze if there is a difference in frontoparietal gamma coherence (GC) between panic disorder patients (PDP) and healthy controls (HC) during the Visual oddball paradigm; and verify if high levels of anxiety (produced by a computer simulation) affect PDP's working memory...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918129/where-do-substrates-of-diacylglycerol-kinases-come-from-diacylglycerol-kinases-utilize-diacylglycerol-species-supplied-from-phosphatidylinositol-turnover-independent-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Daisuke Takahashi, Hiromichi Sakai
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). Mammalian DGK comprises ten isozymes (α-κ) and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological events, such as cancer, type II diabetes, neuronal disorders and immune responses. DG and PA consist of various molecular species that have different acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and consequently, mammalian cells contain at least 50 structurally distinct DG/PA species. Because DGK is one of the components of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, the generally accepted dogma is that all DGK isozymes utilize 18:0/20:4-DG derived from PI turnover...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918120/moment-by-moment-in-women-s-recovery-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol-to-test-the-efficacy-of-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-on-treatment-retention-and-relapse-prevention-among-women-in-residential-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#5
Hortensia Amaro, David S Black
Although therapeutic treatments exist for substance use disorder (SUD), about half of individuals who enter treatment leave early and relapse to substance use. Early dropout from residential treatment places individuals at risk of relapse, and women in SUD residential treatment represent a vulnerable population. Evidence gaps persist for the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) among racially and ethnically diverse women with SUDs, especially regarding the efficacy of MBIs adapted to prevent residential dropout and relapse...
September 13, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#6
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918024/antisense-oligonucleotide-mediated-removal-of-the-polyglutamine-repeat-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-mice
#7
Lodewijk J A Toonen, Frank Rigo, Haico van Attikum, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG triplet expansion in exon 10 of the ATXN3 gene. The resultant expanded polyglutamine stretch in the mutant ataxin-3 protein causes a gain of toxic function, which eventually leads to neurodegeneration. One important function of ataxin-3 is its involvement in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway, and long-term downregulation of the protein may therefore not be desirable. In the current study, we made use of antisense oligonucleotides to mask predicted exonic splicing signals, resulting in exon 10 skipping from ATXN3 pre-mRNA...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917828/a-model-of-blood-supply-to-the-brain-via-the-carotid-arteries-effects-of-obstructive-vs-sclerotic-changes
#8
O Onaizah, T L Poepping, M Zamir
The carotid artery is one of the major supply routes of blood to the brain and a common site of vascular disease. Obstructive and sclerotic disorders within the carotid artery impact local blood flow patterns as well as overall impedance and blood supply to the brain. A lumped parameter model and an experimental in-vitro flow loop were used to study the effects of local stenosis and stiffness in the carotid artery based on a family of phantoms with different degrees of stenosis and compliance. The model also allows independent examination of the effects of downstream resistance and compliance...
September 13, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917714/mitochondria-in-the-nervous-system-from-health-to-disease-part-i
#9
EDITORIAL
Brian M Polster, Maria Teresa Carrì, Philip M Beart
In Part I of this Special Issue on "Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease", the editors bring together contributions from experts in brain mitochondrial research to provide an up-to-date overview of mitochondrial functioning in physiology and pathology. The issue provides cutting edge reviews on classical areas of mitochondrial biology that include energy substrate utilization, calcium handling, mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum communication, and cell death regulation. Additional reviews and original research articles touch upon key mitochondrial defects seen across multiple neurodegenerative conditions, including fragmentation, loss of respiratory capacity, calcium overload, elevated reactive oxygen species generation, perturbed NAD(+) metabolism, altered protein acetylation, and compromised mitophagy...
September 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917284/neurosurgical-applications-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-with-magnetic-resonance-thermometry
#10
REVIEW
Rivka R Colen, Iman Sahnoune, Jeffrey S Weinberg
Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) has potential noninvasive effects on targeted tissue. MRgFUS integrates MRI and focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) into a single platform. MRI enables visualization of the target tissue and monitors ultrasound-induced effects in near real-time during FUS treatment. MRgFUS may serve as an adjunct or replace invasive surgery and radiotherapy for specific conditions. Its thermal effects ablate tumors in locations involved in movement disorders and essential tremors...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917252/stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-the-brain-a-review-of-common-indications
#11
Philip Gilbo, Isabella Zhang, Jonathan Knisely
Over the past half-century since Lars Leksell first utilized radiation to address deep and difficult to treat lesions of the central nervous system (CNS), intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become an increasingly valued tool in the hands of neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists. Following developments in medical imaging and radiation technology, radiosurgery has evolved from its first application in movement disorders to widespread use for a varied range of malignant and benign conditions. SRS remains a powerful, minimally invasive instrument that offers additional options for intervention to a diverse patient population...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917111/-11-c-pf-3274167-as-a-pet-radiotracer-of-oxytocin-receptors-radiosynthesis-and-evaluation-in-rat-brain
#12
Benjamin Vidal, Iuliia A Karpenko, François Liger, Sylvain Fieux, Caroline Bouillot, Thierry Billard, Marcel Hibert, Luc Zimmer
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin plays a major role in the regulation of social interactions in mammals by interacting with the oxytocin receptor (OTR) expressed in the brain. Furthermore, the oxytocin system appears as a possible therapeutic target in autism spectrum disorders and other psychiatric troubles, justifying current pharmacological researches. Since no specific PET radioligand is currently available to image OTR in the brain, the aim of this study was to radiolabel the specific OTR antagonist PF-3274167 and to evaluate [(11)C]PF-3274167 as a potential PET tracer for OTR in rat brains...
August 2, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917059/direct-modulation-of-aberrant-brain-network-connectivity-through-real-time-neurofeedback
#13
Michal Ramot, Sara Kimmich, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Vinai Roopchansingh, Haroon Popal, Emily White, Stephen J Gotts, Alex Martin
The existence of abnormal connectivity patterns between resting state networks in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has been well established. Traditional treatment methods in ASD are limited, and do not address the aberrant network structure. Using real-time fMRI neurofeedback, we directly trained 3 brain nodes in participants with ASD, in which the aberrant connectivity has been shown to correlate with symptom severity. Desired network connectivity patterns were reinforced in real-time, without participants' awareness of the training taking place...
September 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916806/rewiring-of-neuronal-networks-during-synaptic-silencing
#14
Jana Katharina Wrosch, Vicky von Einem, Katharina Breininger, Marc Dahlmanns, Andreas Maier, Johannes Kornhuber, Teja Wolfgang Groemer
Analyzing the connectivity of neuronal networks, based on functional brain imaging data, has yielded new insight into brain circuitry, bringing functional and effective networks into the focus of interest for understanding complex neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the analysis of network changes, based on the activity of individual neurons, is hindered by the lack of suitable meaningful and reproducible methodologies. Here, we used calcium imaging, statistical spike time analysis and a powerful classification model to reconstruct effective networks of primary rat hippocampal neurons in vitro...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916769/therapeutic-effects-of-the-mitochondrial-ros-redox-modulator-kh176-in-a-mammalian-model-of-leigh-disease
#15
Ria de Haas, Devashish Das, Alejandro Garanto, Herma G Renkema, Rick Greupink, Petra van den Broek, Jeanne Pertijs, Rob W J Collin, Peter Willems, Julien Beyrath, Arend Heerschap, Frans G Russel, Jan A Smeitink
Leigh Disease is a progressive neurometabolic disorder for which a clinical effective treatment is currently still lacking. Here, we report on the therapeutic efficacy of KH176, a new chemical entity derivative of Trolox, in Ndufs4 (-/-) mice, a mammalian model for Leigh Disease. Using in vivo brain diffusion tensor imaging, we show a loss of brain microstructural coherence in Ndufs4 (-/-) mice in the cerebral cortex, external capsule and cerebral peduncle. These findings are in line with the white matter diffusivity changes described in mitochondrial disease patients...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916503/altered-serotonergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-a-mice-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Christine Winter, Dana M Greene, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Helge Schaper, Reinhard Sohr, Abel Bult-Ito, Georg Juckel
There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916441/monoamine-involvement-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-induced-by-p2-blockade
#17
Cassiano Raf Diniz, Murilo Rodrigues, Plínio C Casarotto, Vítor S Pereira, Carlos C Crestani, Sâmia Rl Joca
Depression is a common mental disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Available monoaminergic antidepressants are far from ideal since they show delayed onset of action and are ineffective in approximately 40% of patients, thus indicating the need of new and more effective drugs. ATP signaling through P2 receptors seems to play an important role in neurophatological mechanisms involved in depression, since their pharmacological or genetic inactivation induce antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (FST)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#18
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916270/understanding-taurine-cns-activity-using-alternative-zebrafish-models
#19
REVIEW
Nathana J Mezzomo, Barbara D Fontana, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Denis B Rosemberg
Taurine is a highly abundant "amino acid" in the brain. Despite the potential neuroactive role of taurine in vertebrates has long been recognized, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to its pleiotropic effects in the brain remain poorly understood. Due to the genetic tractability, rich behavioral repertoire, neurochemical conservation, and small size, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful candidate for neuropsychopharmacology investigation and in vivo drug screening. Here, we summarize the main physiological roles of taurine in mammals, including neuromodulation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and antioxidant action...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#20
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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