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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449565/effect-of-oxcarbazepine-on-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-bipolar-mania-an-exploratory-study
#1
Rituparna Maiti, Biswa Ranjan Mishra, Jaseem Jowhar, Debadatta Mohapatra, Sansita Parida, Debasis Bisoi
Objective: In bipolar disorder, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level decreases leading to dysfunctions of critical neurotrophic, cellular plasticity and neuroprotective processes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the change in serum BDNF level with oxcarbazepine monotherapy in bipolar mania. Methods: The present study is a prospective, interventional, open label clinical study conducted on 25 patients of bipolar mania and 25 healthy controls...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449561/differences-in-resting-state-quantitative-electroencephalography-patterns-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-or-without-comorbid-symptoms
#2
Jun Won Kim, Soo Yeon Kim, Jae-Won Choi, Kyoung Min Kim, Sojeong Hannah Nam, Kyung Joon Min, Young Sik Lee, Tae Young Choi
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of comorbid psychiatric symptoms on quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) activities in boys with the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: All participants were male students in the second, third or fourth grade in elementary school. Therefore, there were no significant differences in age or sex. Participants with ADHD were assigned to one of three groups: pure ADHD (n=22), ADHD with depressive symptoms (n=11), or ADHD with problematic internet use (n=19)...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449558/in-silicomodel-driven-assessment-of-the-effects-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-deficiency-on-glutamate-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-implications-for-understanding-schizophrenia-pathophysiology
#3
Rimjhim Agrawal, Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Deficient brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the important mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity abnormalities in schizophrenia. Aberration in BDNF signaling pathways directly or circuitously influences neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). For the first time, this study attempts to construct and simulate the BDNF-neurotransmitter network in order to assess the effects of BDNF deficiency on glutamate and GABA. Methods: Using CellDesigner, we modeled BDNF interactions with calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- Calmodulin activation; synthesis of GABA via cell cycle regulators protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase and β-catenin; transportation of glutamate and GABA...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449374/genetic-variability-in-adenosine-deaminase-like-contributes-to-variation-in-alcohol-preference-in-mice
#4
Heidi M B Lesscher, Alexis Bailey, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
BACKGROUND: A substantial part of the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is determined by genetic factors. We previously used chromosome substitution (CSS) mice, to identify a QTL for alcohol preference on mouse chromosome 2. The aim of this study was to identify candidate genes within this QTL that confer the risk for alcohol preference. METHODS: In order to delineate the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol consumption, we expanded on the QTL approach to identify candidate genes for high alcohol preference in mice...
April 27, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449321/a-review-of-associated-controversies-surrounding-glucocorticoid-use-in-veterinary-emergency-and-critical-care
#5
Maya A Aharon, Jennifer E Prittie, Kate Buriko
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature in human and veterinary medicine regarding the indications for, efficacy of, and controversies surrounding glucocorticoid (GC) administration in the emergency and critical care (ECC) setting, and to provide an overview of the most commonly used synthetic GC formulations. MEDICATIONS: Synthetic GCs vary in GC and mineralocorticoid potency, hypothalamic pituitary axis suppression, duration of action, route of administration, and clinical indication for use...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449132/sex-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-white-matter-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-plus-meta-analysis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#6
Saba Shahab, Laura Stefanik, George Foussias, Meng-Chuan Lai, Kelly K Anderson, Aristotle N Voineskos
Sex is considered an understudied variable in health research. Schizophrenia is a brain disorder with known sex differences in epidemiology and clinical presentation. We systematically reviewed the literature for sex-based differences of diffusion properties of white matter tracts in schizophrenia. We then conducted a meta-analysis examining sex-based differences in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia. Medline and Embase were searched to identify relevant papers. Studies fulfilling the following criteria were included: (1) included individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, (2) included a control group of healthy individuals, (3) included both sexes in the patient and the control groups, (4) used diffusion tensor imaging, and (5) involved analyzing metrics of white matter microstructural integrity...
April 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449119/mutations-in-thap11-cause-an-inborn-error-of-cobalamin-metabolism-and-developmental-abnormalities
#7
Anita M Quintana, Hung-Chun Yu, Alison Brebner, Mihaela Pupavac, Elizabeth A Geiger, Abigail Watson, Victoria L Castro, Warren Cheung, Shu-Huang Chen, David Watkins, Tomi Pastinen, Flemming Skovby, Bruce Appel, David S Rosenblatt, Tamim H Shaikh
CblX (MIM309541) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by defects in cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism and other developmental defects. Mutations in HCFC1, a transcriptional co-regulator which interacts with multiple transcription factors, have been associated with cblX. HCFC1 regulates cobalamin metabolism via the regulation of MMACHC expression through its interaction with THAP11, a THAP domain-containing transcription factor. The HCFC1/THAP11 complex potentially regulates genes involved in diverse cellular functions including cell cycle, proliferation, and transcription...
April 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449036/resting-connectivity-between-salience-nodes-predicts-recognition-memory
#8
Joseph M Andreano, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Bradford C Dickerson, Lisa Feldman Barrett
The resting connectivity of the brain's salience network, particularly the ventral subsystem of the salience network, has been previously associated with various measures of affective reactivity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that increased affective arousalleads to enhanced consolidation of memory. This suggests that individuals with greater ventral salience network connectivity will exhibit greater responses to affective experience, leading to a greater enhancement of memory by affect. To test this hypothesis, resting ventral salience connectivity was measured in 41 young adults, who were then exposed to neutral and negative affect inductions during a paired associate memory test...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448978/quantitative-evaluation-of-brain-stem-atrophy-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-adult-patients-with-alexander-disease
#9
Tomokatsu Yoshida, Rei Yasuda, Ikuko Mizuta, Masanori Nakagawa, Toshiki Mizuno
Brain MRI in adult patients with Alexander disease (AxD) mainly shows atrophy in the medulla oblongata. However, currently there is no quantitative standard for assessing this atrophy. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the brain stem of AxD patients with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutation using conventional MRI to evaluate its usefulness as an aid to diagnosing AxD in daily clinical practice. Nineteen AxD patients with GFAP mutation were compared with 14 patients negative for GFAP mutation in whom AxD was suspected due to "atrophy of the medulla oblongata...
April 28, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448942/assessing-knowledge-of-symptoms-and-first-aid-care-of-epilepsy-in-grenada-west-indies
#10
Sean C Cofano, Disep Ojukwu, Natasha Mozumdar, Zainab Raza, Shipra Saigal, Shashank Musku, Safwan Zar, Michael Merolla, Tuula O Jalonen
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that is increasingly prevalent in developing countries. It is critical to provide appropriate support to patients during seizures in order to prevent injuries. False beliefs regarding the etiology or pathogenesis of the epilepsy and inadequate health information may put patients with epilepsy or other seizure disorders at increased risk of injury. Our objective was to assess the level of epilepsy awareness amongst the general population in Grenada and educate the participants regarding proper first-aid measures...
April 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448044/generation-of-ipsc-derived-human-brain-organoids-to-model-early-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#11
Elke Gabriel, Jay Gopalakrishnan
The restricted availability of suitable in vitro models that can reliably represent complex human brain development is a significant bottleneck that limits the translation of basic brain research into clinical application. While induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have replaced the ethically questionable human embryonic stem cells, iPSC-based neuronal differentiation studies remain descriptive at the cellular level but fail to adequately provide the details that could be derived from a complex, 3D human brain tissue...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447803/psychometrics-and-the-neuroscience-of-individual-differences-internal-consistency-limits-between-subjects-effects
#12
Greg Hajcak, Alexandria Meyer, Roman Kotov
In the clinical neuroscience literature, between-subjects differences in neural activity are presumed to reflect reliable measures-even though the psychometric properties of neural measures are almost never reported. The current article focuses on the critical importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency reliability-the homogeneity of "items" that comprise a neural "score." We demonstrate how variability in the internal consistency of neural measures limits between-subjects (i.e., individual differences) effects...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447621/direct-involvement-of-androgen-receptor-in-oxytocin-gene-expression-possible-relevance-for-mood-disorders
#13
Dan Dai, Qiao-Chu Li, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Shao-Hua Hu, Rawien Balesar, Dick Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
Oxytocin (OXT), synthesized in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and then released into different brain areas, may play a crucial role in various behaviors and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. Testosterone has been proposed by clinical studies to have the opposite effect of oxytocin in these disorders. We began by studying, in the postmortem hypothalamus of fifteen patients with mood disorders and fifteen matched controls, the expression of OXT in the PVN by means of immunocytochemistry (ICC) and the co-localization of OXT and androgen receptor (AR) by means of double labeling ICC...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447569/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#14
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, arecritical for maintaining healthy brain function particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447491/mobile-communication-jacket-for-people-with-severe-speech-impairment
#15
Renée Lampe, Tobias Blumenstein, Varvara Turova, Ana Alves-Pinto
PURPOSE: Cerebral palsy is a movement disorder caused by damage to motor control areas of the developing brain during early childhood. Motor disorders can also affect the ability to produce clear speech and to communicate. The aim of this study was to develop and to test a prototype of an assistive tool with an embedded mobile communication device to support patients with severe speech impairments. METHODS: A prototype was developed by equipping a cycling jacket with a display, a small keyboard, a LED and an alarm system, all controlled by a microcontroller...
April 27, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447333/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-lithium-in-treating-acute-mania-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#16
A Duffy, S Patten, S Goodday, A Weir, N Heffer, A Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological, clinical, and high-risk studies have provided evidence that the peak period for onset of diagnosable episodes of mania and hypomania starts in mid-to-late adolescence. Moreover, clinically significant manic symptoms may occur even earlier, especially in children at familial risk. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for acute mania in adults, yet to our knowledge, there is no published systematic review assessing lithium treatment of mania in children or adolescents...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446965/role-of-circulating-factors-in-cardiac-aging
#17
REVIEW
Antonio Cannatà, Gabriella Marcon, Giovanni Cimmino, Luca Camparini, Giulio Ciucci, Gianfranco Sinagra, Francesco S Loffredo
Worldwide increase in life expectancy is a major contributor to the epidemic of chronic degenerative diseases. Aging, indeed, simultaneously affects multiple organ systems, and it has been hypothesized that systemic alterations in regulators of tissue physiology may regulate this process. Cardiac aging itself is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and, because of the intimate relationship with the brain, may contribute to increase the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Blood-borne factors may play a major role in this complex and still elusive process...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446953/neuroprotective-effects-of-exercise-on-brain-edema-and-neurological-movement-disorders-following-the-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-rats
#18
Nabi Shamsaei, Soheila Erfani, Masoud Fereidoni, Ali Shahbazi
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion causes physiological and biochemical changes in the neuronal cells that will eventually lead to cell damage. Evidence indicates that exercise reduces the ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain damages in animal models of stroke. In the present study, the effect of exercise preconditioning on brain edema and neurological movement disorders following the cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats was investigated. METHODS: Twenty-one adult male wistar rats (weighing 260-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups: sham operated, exercise plus ischemia, and ischemia group (7 rats per group)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446949/reliability-of-motor-evoked-potentials-induced-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-the-effects-of-initial-motor-evoked-potentials-removal
#19
Fahimeh Hashemirad, Maryam Zoghi, Paul B Fitzgerald, Shapour Jaberzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a useful tool for assessment of corticospinal excitability (CSE) changes in both healthy individuals and patients with brain disorders. The usefulness of TMS-elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the assessment of CSE in a clinical context depends on their intra-and inter-session reliability. This study aimed to evaluate if removal of initial MEPs elicited by using two types of TMS techniques influences the reliability scores and whether this effect is different in blocks with variable number of MEPs...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446829/experimental-evaluation-of-hi%C3%A1-gv%C3%A4-di-gh%C3%A1-ta-in-behavioral-despair-using-animal-models
#20
Poonam Ashish Gupte, Jayshree Dawane, Asmita Ashish Wele
CONTEXT: Depression, a sustained mood disorder caused by selective diminution of specialized cells in brain is increasing at an alarming rate. It will be the second largest morbid illness by next decade and is the leading cause of suicidal deaths. The available antidepressant medications benefit only a third of its recipients and have many side effects. Hence, it is imperative to search in Ayurveda for leads. AIM: To evaluate Anti- depressant activity of Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in vivo ...
October 2016: Ancient Science of Life
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