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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092791/minor-physical-anomalies-in-bipolar-i-and-bipolar-ii-disorders-results-with-the-m%C3%A3-hes-scale
#1
Hajnalka Berecz, Györgyi Csábi, Sára Jeges, Róbert Herold, Maria Simon, Tamás Halmai, Dániel Trixler, András Hajnal, Ákos Levente Tóth, Tamás Tényi
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are external markers of abnormal brain development, so the more common appearence of these signs among bipolar I and bipolar II patients can confirm the possibility of a neurodevelopmental deficit in these illnesses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate and topological profile of minor physical anomalies in patients with bipolar I and - first in literature - with bipolar II disorders compared to matched healthy control subjects. Using a list of 57 minor physical anomalies (the Méhes Scale), 30 bipolar I and 30 bipolar II patients, while as a comparison 30 matched healthy control subjects were examined...
January 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092376/infectious-immunity-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-brain-function
#4
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Charise Garber, Nicole Howard
Inflammation is emerging as a critical mechanism underlying neurological disorders of various etiologies, yet its role in altering brain function as a consequence of neuroinfectious disease remains unclear. Although acute alterations in mental status due to inflammation are a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) infections with neurotropic pathogens, post-infectious neurologic dysfunction has traditionally been attributed to irreversible damage caused by the pathogens themselves. More recently, studies indicate that pathogen eradication within the CNS may require immune responses that interfere with neural cell function and communication without affecting their survival...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092195/serum-bdnf-levels-in-patients-with-gambling-disorder-are-associated-with-the-severity-of-gambling-disorder-and-iowa-gambling-task-indices
#5
Sam-Wook Choi, Young-Chul Shin, Jung Yeon Mok, Dai-Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, Samuel Suk-Hyun Hwang
Background and aims Gambling disorder (GD) shares many similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs) in clinical, neurobiological, and neurocognitive features, including decision-making. We evaluated the relationships among, GD, decision-making, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as measured by serum BDNF levels. Methods Twenty-one male patients with GD and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were evaluated for associations between serum BDNF levels and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), as well as between serum BDNF levels and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) indices...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092086/anxiety-related-behaviours-associated-with-microrna-206-3p-and-bdnf-expression-in-pregnant-female-mice-following-psychological-social-stress
#6
Zhuang Miao, Fengbiao Mao, Jialong Liang, Moshe Szyf, Yan Wang, Zhong Sheng Sun
Stress during pregnancy can induce various psychological disorders in women. However, the association linking psychological stress during pregnancy with abnormal behaviours in females remains largely unknown. We employed a novel psychological stress model by introducing pregnant mice to witness the defeat process of their mated partner (WDPMP) and examined the effects of WDPMP on depression-/anxiety-like behaviours and on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and miR-206-3p in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092015/enhancing-cognitive-functioning-in-healthly-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-significance-of-commercially-available-computerized-cognitive-training-in-preventing-cognitive-decline
#7
REVIEW
Tejal M Shah, Michael Weinborn, Giuseppe Verdile, Hamid R Sohrabi, Ralph N Martins
Successfully assisting older adults to maintain or improve cognitive function, particularly when they are dealing with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains a major challenge. Cognitive training may stimulate neuroplasticity thereby increasing cognitive and brain reserve. Commercial brain training programs are computerized, readily-available, easy-to-administer and adaptive but often lack supportive data and their clinical validation literature has not been previously reviewed...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090803/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-in-bipolar-disorder-an-expression-study-in-peripheral-tissues
#8
Elena Milanesi, Roberta Zanardini, Gianluca Rosso, Giuseppe Maina, Alessandro Barbon, Cristina Mora, Alessandra Minelli, Massimo Gennarelli, Luisella Bocchio-Chiavetto
OBJECTIVES: Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 (IGFBP2) is a member of the family of high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP1-6) and appears to play a governing role in Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) regulation in the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the putative involvement of IGFBP2 in mood disorder pathogenesis by measuring its expression levels in patient peripheral tissues. METHODS: IGFBP2 protein and mRNA levels were measured in the serum of 93 controls, 41 Bipolar Disorder (BD) and 43 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients and in the skin fibroblasts from 15 controls, 12 BD and 23 MDD patients...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090790/loss-of-interneuron-derived-collagen-xix-leads-to-a-reduction-in-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mammalian-telencephalon
#9
Jianmin Su, James Cole, Michael A Fox
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice-like supramolecular assemblies of extracellular glycoproteins that surround subsets of neuronal cell bodies in the mammalian telencephalon. PNNs emerge at the end of the critical period of brain development, limit neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, and are lost in a variety of complex brain disorders diseases, including schizophrenia. The link between PNNs and schizophrenia led us to question whether neuronally expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with schizophrenia contribute to the assembly of these specialized supramolecular ECM assemblies...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090662/adolescent-depression-linked-to-socioeconomic-status-molecular-approaches-for-revealing-premorbid-risk-factors
#10
Monica Uddin, Stefan Jansen, Eva H Telzer
The means by which social environmental exposures influence risk of mental disorders is a persistent and still open question. A key candidate mechanism for the biologic mediation of environmental effects involves epigenetic factors, which regulate gene function without altering underlying DNA sequence. Recent work has shown that environmental exposures such as childhood abuse, family history of mental disorder, and low socioeconomic status (SES) associate with differential DNA methylation (5mC) - a relatively stable, but modifiable, epigenetic factor...
January 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089676/multimodal-evaluation-of-the-amygdala-s-functional-connectivity
#11
Rebecca Kerestes, Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips, Cecile D Ladouceur, Simon B Eickhoff
The amygdala is one of the most extensively studied human brain regions and undisputedly plays a central role in many psychiatric disorders. However, an outstanding question is whether connectivity of amygdala subregions, specifically the centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF) nuclei, are modulated by brain state (i.e., task vs. rest). Here, using a multimodal approach, we directly compared meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and specific co-activation likelihood estimation (SCALE)-derived estimates of CM, LB and SF task-based co-activation to the functional connectivity of these nuclei as assessed by resting state fmri (rs-fmri)...
January 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089656/how-do-antidepressants-influence-the-bold-signal-in-the-developing-brain
#12
REVIEW
Julia J Harris, Clare Reynell
Depression is a highly prevalent life-threatening disorder, with its first onset commonly occurring during adolescence. Adolescent depression is increasingly being treated with antidepressants, such as fluoxetine. The use of medication during this sensitive period of physiological and cognitive brain development produces neurobiological changes, some of which may outlast the course of treatment. In this review, we look at how antidepressant treatment in adolescence is likely to alter neurovascular coupling and brain energy use and how these changes, in turn, affect our ability to identify neuronal activity changes between participant groups...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089559/microglia-derived-neuregulin-expression-in-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Daisuke Ikawa, Manabu Makinodan, Keiko Iwata, Masahiro Ohgidani, Takahiro A Kato, Yasunori Yamashita, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Sohei Kimoto, Michihiro Toritsuka, Takahira Yamauchi, Shin-Ichi Fukami, Hiroki Yoshino, Kazuki Okumura, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Akio Wanaka, Yuji Owada, Masatsugu Tsujii, Toshiro Sugiyama, Kenji Tsuchiya, Norio Mori, Ryota Hashimoto, Hideo Matsuzaki, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Several studies have revealed that neuregulins (NRGs) are involved in brain function and psychiatric disorders. While NRGs have been regarded as neuron- or astrocyte-derived molecules, our research has revealed that microglia also express NRGs, levels of which are markedly increased in activated microglia. Previous studies have indicated that microglia are activated in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, we investigated microglial NRG mRNA expression in multiple lines of mice considered models of ASD...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089368/the-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-for-youth-with-epilepsy-basic-biological-sociological-and-psychological-issues
#14
REVIEW
Peter Camfield, Carol Camfield, Kanetee Busiah, David Cohen, Alison Pack, Rima Nabbout
Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089250/pathology-of-behavior-in-pd-what-is-known-and-what-is-not
#15
REVIEW
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Simon J G Lewis
Abnormal behavior in Parkinson's disease (PD) stems from a complex orchestration of impaired neural networks that result from PD-related neurodegeneration across multiple levels. Typically, cellular and tissue abnormalities generate neurochemical changes and disrupt specific regions of the brain, in turn creating impaired neural circuits and dysfunctional global networks. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the array of pathological changes that have been linked to different behavioral symptoms of PD such as depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue, impulse control disorders, psychosis, sleep disorders and dementia...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088901/advanced-structure-activity-relationships-applied-to-mentha-spicata-l-subsp-spicata-essential-oil-compounds-as-ache-and-nmda-ligands-in-comparison-with-donepezil-galantamine-and-memantine-new-approach-in-brain-disorders-pharmacology
#16
Speranta Avram, Mernea Maria, Eyup Bagci, Lucian Hritcu, Livia-Cristina Borcan, Dan Mihailescu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy is based on several natural and synthetic compounds that act as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) ligands that have limited efficiency in relieving AD symptoms. Recent studies show that inhibitors isolated from Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata are promising for AD therapy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify novel and more potent phytopharmaceutical compounds for AD treatment by taking into account the compounds from Mentha spicata L...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#17
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088890/nanoparticles-as-a-carrier-system-for-drug-delivery-across-blood-brain-barrier
#18
Alika Sarkar, Ismat Fatima, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Usman Sayeed, M Kalim A Khan, Salman Akhtar, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Alvina Farooqui, Mohammad Haris Siddiqui
Brain, the center of the nervous system and an integral part the body, is protected by two anatomical and biochemical dynamic barriers- Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) and Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier (BCSFB). Blood-Brain Barrier is a highly complex multi-cellular organized structure that protects the brain from harmful substances and invading organisms from the bloodstream and thus protecting it from diseases and injuries. However, it also significantly precludes the delivery of drug to the brain, thus, preventing treatment of a number of neurological disorders...
January 13, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088802/interplay-between-cortical-spreading-depolarization-and-seizures
#19
Daniel R Kramer, Tatsuhiro Fujii, Ifije Ohiorhenuan, Charles Y Liu
Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is an electrophysiologic phenomenon found mostly in the setting of neurologic injury resulting in the disturbance of ion homeostasis and leading to changes in the local vascular response. The bioelectric etiology of CSD shares similarities to those in epileptic disorders, yet the relationship between seizures and CSD is unclear, with several studies observing cortical depression before, during, and after seizure activity, thus obscuring our understanding of whether CSD activity potentiates or limits seizures and vice versa...
January 14, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088795/influence-of-intracranial-air-on-electrode-position-and-clinical-outcomes-following-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#20
J Nicole Bentley, Zhe Guan, Karen S Cummings, Kelvin L Chou, Parag G Patil
BACKGROUND: The introduction of intracranial air during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is believed to negatively impact targeting accuracy and clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship between intracranial air (ICA) volumes, targeting accuracy, and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for Parkinson's disease. METHODS: ICA in 73 consecutive STN DBS cases (146 leads) was measured by high-resolution CT and correlated with proximal lead bowing, electrode displacement, targeting accuracy, and clinical outcomes at 6 and 12 months...
January 14, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
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