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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775777/antidepressant-potential-of-novel-flavonoids-derivatives-from-sweet-violet-viola-odorata-l-pharmacological-biochemical-and-computational-evidences-for-possible-involvement-of-serotonergic-mechanism
#1
Nasiara Karim, Imran Khan, Abeer Abdelhalim, Ajmal Khan, Sobia Ahsan Halim
Plant-derived natural constituents are of great interest in modern drug discovery due to their natural diversity. Viola odorata L has been traditionally used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study was undertaken to isolate phytoconstituents including three flavonoids 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone[1] 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'dimethoxyflavone [2] and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone [3] from the whole plant of Viola odorata L and to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of these compounds and their possible mechanism of action using antagonists of the serotonergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic system...
May 15, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775696/tph2-polymorphisms-across-the-spectrum-of-psychiatric-morbidity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Koen Willem Ottenhof, Mari Sild, Mélissa Luce Lévesque, Henricus Gerardus Ruhé, Linda Booij
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in brain serotonin synthesis. The TPH2 gene has frequently been investigated in relation to psychiatric morbidity. The aim of the present review is to integrate results from association studies between TPH2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and various psychiatric disorders, which we furthermore quantified with meta-analysis. We reviewed 166 studies investigating 69 TPH2 SNPs in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including over 30,000 patients...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775613/suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-attenuates-stress-induced-depression-like-behavior-in-nlgn3-deficient-mice
#3
Ze-Qun Li, Zhi-Yuan Yan, Bo-Jun Lan, Yi-Qun Dong, Ye Xiong
Depression, regulated by central nervous system (CNS), is a significant inflammatory disorder. Neuroligin3 (NLGN3) has been implicated in brain functions. In the study, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in wild type (WT) or NLGN3-knockout (KO) mice was established to explore the role of NLGN3 in regulating depression and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. The results indicated that NLGN3-knockout markedly reversed the loss of body weight, the reduction of sucrose consumption, the decrease of immobile time in the forced swimming tests (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST) induced by CUMS paradigm...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775413/human-cerebral-collateral-arteriole-function-in-normal-cognition-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-subjects
#4
Raymond Q Migrino, Seth Truran, Nina Karamanova, Geidy Serrano, Calvin Madrigal, Hannah A Davies, Jillian Madine, Peter Reaven, Thomas G Beach
Clinical and preclinical studies suggest a link between cardiovascular disease and dementia disorders but the role of collateral brain circulation in cognitive dysfunction remains unknown. We aim to test the hypothesis that leptomeningeal arteriole (LMA) function and response to metabolic stressors differ among dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN) subjects. Following rapid autopsy, LMA were isolated from CN (N=10), MCI (N=12) or dementia subjects (N=42, Alzheimer's disease [AD], vascular dementia [VaD], or Other Dementia) and endothelial and smooth muscle-dependent function were measured at baseline and following exposure to β-amyloid (Aβ42 2 μM), palmitic acid (PA 150 μM) or medin (5μM) and compared...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774797/-brain-disorders-by-henry-calderwood-1879
#5
G E Berrios
Henry Calderwood, a nineteenth-century Scottish philosopher interested in madness, published in 1879 an important work on the interaction between philosophy of mind, the nascent neurosciences and mental disease. Holding a spiritual view of the mind, he considered the phrase 'mental disease' (as Feuchtersleben had in 1845) to be but a misleading metaphor. His analysis of the research work of Ferrier, Clouston, Crichton-Browne, Maudsley, Tuke, Sankey, etc., is detailed, and his views are correct on the very limited explanatory power that their findings had for the understanding of madness...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774379/-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#6
REVIEW
J M Lieb, F J Ahlhelm
CLINICAL ISSUE: Agenesis of the corpus callosum is reported to have an incidence of about 1:4000 live births. In 30-45% of cases, genetic etiologies can be identified, e. g., 10% chromosomal anomalies and 20-35% genetic syndromes. Environmental factors like fetal alcohol syndrome are also known to be prone to callosal agenesis. Callosal agenesis can be complete or partial and can be isolated or associated with other central nervous system (CNS) anomalies (e. g., cortical developmental disorders, callosal lipoma, intracranial cysts) or extra-CNS anomalies (e...
May 17, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774002/on-the-drive-specificity-of-freudian-drives-for-the-generation-of-seeking-activities-the-importance-of-the-underestimated-imperative-motor-factor
#7
Michael Kirsch, Wolfgang Mertens
Doubters of Freud's theory of drives frequently mentioned that his approach is outdated and therefore cannot be useful for solving current problems in patients with mental disorders. At present, many scientists believe that affects rather than drives are of utmost importance for the emotional life and the theoretical framework of affective neuroscience, developed by Panksepp, strongly underpinned this view. Panksepp evaluated seven so-called command systems and the SEEKING system is therein of central importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773951/the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-major-depressive-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Sang Won Jeon, Yong-Ku Kim
Although depression has generally been explained with monoamine theory, it is far more multifactorial, and therapies that address the disease's pathway have not been developed. In this context, an understanding of neuroinflammation and neurovascular dysfunction would enable a more comprehensive approach to depression. Inflammation is in a sense a type of allostatic load involving the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing glucocorticoid resistance, and affecting serotonin synthesis and metabolism, neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773754/a-critical-neurodevelopmental-role-for-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-neurite-extension-and-radial-migration
#9
Satoshi Kamijo, Yuichiro Ishii, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Kanzo Suzuki, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Hajime Fujii, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Haruhiko Bito
In spite of many association studies linking gene polymorphisms and mutations of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels (VGCC) in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, specific L-type VGCC roles during brain development remain unclear. Yet, calcium signaling has been shown to be essential for neurodevelopmental processes such as sculpting of neurites, functional wiring and fine tuning of growing networks. To bridge this gap, we performed submembraneous calcium imaging using a membrane-tethered genetically-encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Lck-G-CaMP7...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773673/lysosomal-proteome-and-secretome-analysis-identifies-missorted-enzymes-and-their-non-degraded-substrates-in-mucolipidosis-iii-mouse-cells
#10
Giorgia Di Lorenzo, Renata Voltolini Velho, Dominic Winter, Melanie Thelen, Shiva Ahmadi, Michaela Schweizer, Raffaella De Pace, Kerstin Cornils, Timur Alexander Yorgan, Saskia Grüb, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Thorsten Schinke, Sven Müller-Loennies, Thomas Braulke, Sandra Pohl
Targeting of soluble lysosomal enzymes requires mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) signals whose formation is initiated by the hexameric N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-1-phosphotransferase complex (α2β2γ2). Upon proteolytic cleavage by site-1 protease, the α/β-subunit precursor is catalytically activated but the functions of γ-subunits (Gnptg) in M6P modification of lysosomal enzymes are unknown. To investigate this, we analyzed the Gnptg expression in mouse tissues, primary cultured cells, and in Gnptg reporter mice in vivo, and found high amounts in the brain, eye, kidney, femur, vertebra and fibroblasts...
May 17, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773529/development-of-a-just-in-time-adaptive-mhealth-intervention-for-insomnia-usability-study
#11
I Wayan Pulantara, Bambang Parmanto, Anne Germain
BACKGROUND: Healthy sleep is a fundamental component of physical and brain health. Insomnia, however, is a prevalent sleep disorder that compromises functioning, productivity, and health. Therefore, developing efficient treatment delivery methods for insomnia can have significant societal and personal health impacts. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is the recommended first-line treatment of insomnia but access is currently limited for patients, since treatment must occur in specialty sleep clinics, which suffer from an insufficient number of trained clinicians...
May 17, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773518/developmental-trajectories-of-brain-maturation-and-behavior-relevance-to-major-mental-illnesses
#12
REVIEW
Sedona Lockhart, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the 'critical period'...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773204/intracerebral-hemorrhage-and-sleep-disordered-breathing
#13
Lynda D Lisabeth, Richard V Scheer, Chengwei Li, Erin Case, Ronald D Chervin, Darin B Zahuranec, Lewis B Morgenstern, Nelda M Garcia, Susan Tower, Devin L Brown
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our aim was to characterize the objective measures of post-ICH SDB and questionnaire-reported pre-ICH sleep characteristics, overall and by ethnicity. PATIENTS/METHODS: Participants with ICH who were enrolled in the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (2010-2016) reported their pre-ICH sleep duration and completed the Berlin Questionnaire to characterize pre-ICH risk of SDB...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773153/differential-electrophysiological-correlates-of-panic-disorder-in-non-pulsatile-tinnitus
#14
T Pattyn, S Vanneste, D De Ridder, V Van Rompaey, D J Veltman, P Van de Heyning, Bcg Sabbe, F Van Den Eede
AIMS: The prevalence of panic disorder (PD) reportedly is up to fivefold higher in people with tinnitus than it is in the general population. The brain networks in the two conditions overlap but the pathophysiological link remains unclear. In this study the electrophysiological brain activity is investigated in adults with non-pulsatile tinnitus with and without concurrent PD. METHODS: Resting-state EEGs of 16 participants with non-pulsatile tinnitus and PD were compared with those of 16 peers with non-pulsatile tinnitus without PD and as many healthy controls...
June 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772526/marine-derived-bioactive-compounds-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Sreeja Lakshmi, Parvathi Prakash, Musthafa M Essa, Walid M Qoronfleh, Mohammed Akbar, Byoung-Joon Song, Suresh Kumar, Preetham Elumalai
Alzheimer's disease (AD ) is mounting as social and economic encumbrance which are accompanied by deficits in cognition and memory. Over the past decades, Alzheimer's disease (AD) holds the frontline as one of the biggest healthcare issues in the world. AD is an age related neurodegenerative disorder marked by a decline in memory and an impairment of cognition. Inspite of tedious scientific effort, AD is still devoid of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment as well as prevention. Current treatment strategies using drugs are symbolic in nature as they treat disease manifestation though are found effective in treating cognition...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772390/pathobiology-of-christianson-syndrome-linking-disrupted-endosomal-lysosomal-function-with-intellectual-disability-and-sensory-impairments
#16
Mallory Kerner-Rossi, Maria Gulinello, Steven Walkley, Kostantin Dobrenis
Christianson syndrome (CS) is a recently described rare neurogenetic disorder presenting early in life with a broad range of neurological symptoms, including severe intellectual disability with nonverbal status, hyperactivity, epilepsy, and progressive ataxia due to cerebellar atrophy. CS is due to loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, encoding NHE6, a sodium-hydrogen exchanger involved in the regulation of early endosomal pH. Here we review what is currently known about the neuropathogenesis of CS, based on insights from experimental models, which to date have focused on mechanisms that affect the CNS, specifically the brain...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772343/brain-stimulation-differentially-modulates-nociception-and-inflammation-in-aversive-and-non-aversive-behavioural-conditions
#17
G S Bassi, A Kanashiro, G J Rodrigues, F Q Cunha, N C Coimbra, L Ulloa
Inflammation and pain are major clinical burdens contributing to multiple disorders and limiting the quality of life of patients. We previously reported that brain electrical stimulation can attenuate joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. Here, we report that non-aversive electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC), the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) or the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG) decreases thermal pain sensitivity, knee inflammation and synovial neutrophilic infiltration in ratswith intra-articular zymosan...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772289/nose-to-brain-drug-delivery-an-update-on-clinical-challenges-and-progress-towards-approval-of-anti-alzheimer-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Mukta Agrawal, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Sophia G Antimisiaris, Mahavir Chougule, Sunday A Shoyele, Amit Alexander
According to the Alzheimer Association Report (2017), Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th primary cause of death in the USA, which affects nearly 5.5 million people. In the year 2017 itself, the cost of AD treatment in the USA has been reported to rise to $259 billion. This statistic shows the severity of the disease in the USA which is very much similar across the globe. On the other hand, the treatment remains limited to a few conventional oral medications (approved by FDA). These are mainly acting superficially from mild to the moderate AD...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772217/altered-activity-and-information-flow-in-the-default-mode-network-of-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-rats
#19
Yan Cui, Shuang Yu, Tianjiao Zhang, Yangsong Zhang, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao, Daqing Guo
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is considered a brain activity disorder that is likely related to allomnesia and conscious disturbance. In rodents, TLE epileptiform discharges can be triggered by systemic administration of a dose of pilocarpine. However, how these pilocarpine-induced epileptiform discharges generate and propagate through the whole brain has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to assess alterations of activity and information flow in the default mode network (DMN) during TLE epileptiform discharges in pilocarpine-induced TLE rats...
May 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771818/suppressed-acoustic-startle-response-in-traumatic-brain-injury-masks-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-hyper-responsivity
#20
Grant M Liska, Jea-Young Lee, Kaya Xu, Paul R Sanberg, Cesario V Borlongan
An exaggerated acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a clinical indicator of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the prevalence of PTSD following traumatic brain injury (TBI), we studied the effects of TBI on ASR. Adult Sprague Dawley rats exposed to moderate controlled cortical impact injury model of TBI displayed suppression of ASR intensity and sensitivity. As patients with PTSD have been shown to display hyperactive startle responses, the present discrepant observation of TBI-induced suppression of ASR has clinical implications, in that the reduced, instead of elevated, startle response in patients with comorbid TBI/PTSD could be owing to a masking effect of TBI...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
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