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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214131/social-decision-making-and-the-brain-a-comparative-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Sébastien Tremblay, K M Sharika, Michael L Platt
The capacity and motivation to be social is a key component of the human adaptive behavioral repertoire. Recent research has identified social behaviors remarkably similar to our own in other animals, including empathy, consolation, cooperation, and strategic deception. Moreover, neurobiological studies in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents have identified shared brain structures (the so-called 'social brain') apparently specialized to mediate such functions. Neuromodulators may regulate social interactions by 'tuning' the social brain, with important implications for treating social impairments...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214130/stability-of-sensory-topographies-in-adult-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Tamar R Makin, Sliman J Bensmaia
Textbooks teach us that the removal of sensory input to sensory cortex, for example, following arm amputation, results in massive reorganisation in the adult brain. In this opinion article, we critically examine evidence for functional reorganisation of sensory cortical representations, focusing on the sequelae of arm amputation on somatosensory topographies. Based on literature from human and non-human primates, we conclude that the cortical representation of the limb remains remarkably stable despite the loss of its main peripheral input...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213784/microglia-in-the-primate-macula-specializations-in-microglial-distribution-and-morphology-with-retinal-position-and-with-aging
#3
Janani Singaravelu, Lian Zhao, Robert N Fariss, T Michael Nork, Wai T Wong
Microglia, the principal resident immune cell in the retina, play constitutive roles in immune surveillance and synapse maintenance, and are also associated with retinal disease, including those occurring in the macula. Perspectives on retinal microglia function have derived largely from rodent models and how these relate to the macula-bearing primate retina is unclear. In this study, we examined microglial distribution and cellular morphology in the adult rhesus macaque retina, and performed comparative characterizations in three retinal locations along the center-to-periphery axis (parafoveal, macular, and the peripheral retina)...
February 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213445/ultra-high-field-fmri-reveals-a-role-for-the-subiculum-in-scene-perceptual-discrimination
#4
Carl J Hodgetts, Natalie L Voets, Adam G Thomas, Stuart Clare, Andrew D Lawrence, Kim S Graham
Recent 'representational' accounts suggest a key role for the hippocampus in complex scene perception. Due to limitations in scanner field strength, however, the functional neuroanatomy of hippocampal-dependent scene perception is unknown. Here, we applied 7-Tesla high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) alongside a perceptual oddity task, modified from non-human primate studies. This task requires subjects to discriminate highly similar scenes, faces or objects from multiple viewpoints, and has revealed selective impairments during scene discrimination following hippocampal lesions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213436/host-cell-tropism-and-adaptation-of-blood-stage-malaria-parasites-challenges-for-malaria-elimination
#5
Caeul Lim, Selasi Dankwa, Aditya S Paul, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax account for most of the mortality and morbidity associated with malaria in humans. Research and control efforts have focused on infections caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax, but have neglected other malaria parasite species that infect humans. Additionally, many related malaria parasite species infect nonhuman primates (NHPs), and have the potential for transmission to humans. For malaria elimination, the varied and specific challenges of all of these Plasmodium species will need to be considered...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213112/laminar-imaging-of-positive-and-negative-bold-in-human-visual-cortex-at-7t
#6
Alessio Fracasso, Peter R Luijten, Serge O Dumoulin, Natalia Petridou
Deciphering the direction of information flow is critical to understand the brain. Data from non-human primate histology shows that connections between lower to higher areas (e.g. retina→V1), and between higher to lower areas (e.g. V1←V2) can be dissociated based upon the distribution of afferent synapses at the laminar level. Ultra-high field scanners opened up the possibility to image brain structure and function at an unprecedented level of detail. Taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution available, it could theoretically be possible to disentangle activity from different cortical depths from human cerebral cortex, separately studying different compartments across depth...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212814/human-striatal-dopaminergic-and-regional-serotonergic-synaptic-degeneration-with-lewy-body-disease-and-inheritance-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54
#7
Nadia Postupna, Caitlin S Latimer, Eric B Larson, Emily Sherfield, Julie Paladin, Carol A Shively, Matthew J Jorgensen, Rachel N Andrews, Jay R Kaplan, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Suzanne Craft, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
Cognitive impairment in older individuals is a complex trait that in population-based studies most commonly derives from an individually varying mixture of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular brain injury. We investigated the molecular composition of synaptic particles from three sources: consecutive rapid autopsy brains from the adult changes in thought study, a population-based cohort; four aged nonhuman primate brains optimally processed for molecular investigation; and targeted replacement transgenic mice homozygous for APOE ε4...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#8
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211530/factors-affecting-leaf-selection-by-foregut-fermenting-proboscis-monkeys-new-insight-from-in-vitro-digestibility-and-toughness-of-leaves
#9
Ikki Matsuda, Marcus Clauss, Augustine Tuuga, John Sugau, Goro Hanya, Takakazu Yumoto, Henry Bernard, Jürgen Hummel
Free-living animals must make dietary choices in terms of chemical and physical properties, depending on their digestive physiology and availability of food resources. Here we comprehensively evaluated the dietary choices of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) consuming young leaves. We analysed the data for leaf toughness and digestibility measured by an in vitro gas production method, in addition to previously reported data on nutrient composition. Leaf toughness, in general, negatively correlated with the crude protein content, one of the most important nutritional factors affecting food selection by leaf-eating primates...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210850/the-laminar-organization-of-the-motor-cortex-in-monodactylous-mammals-a-comparative-assessment-based-on-horse-chimpanzee-and-macaque
#10
Bruno Cozzi, Alberto De Giorgio, A Peruffo, S Montelli, M Panin, C Bombardi, A Grandis, A Pirone, P Zambenedetti, L Corain, Alberto Granato
The architecture of the neocortex classically consists of six layers, based on cytological criteria and on the layout of intra/interlaminar connections. Yet, the comparison of cortical cytoarchitectonic features across different species proves overwhelmingly difficult, due to the lack of a reliable model to analyze the connection patterns of neuronal ensembles forming the different layers. We first defined a set of suitable morphometric cell features, obtained in digitized Nissl-stained sections of the motor cortex of the horse, chimpanzee, and crab-eating macaque...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209295/aluternative-regulation-for-gene-expression
#11
REVIEW
Ling-Ling Chen, Li Yang
Alu elements belong to the primate-specific SINE family of retrotransposons and constitute almost 11% of the human genome. Alus are transcribed by RNA polymerase (Pol) III and are inserted back into the genome with the help of autonomous LINE retroelements. Since Alu elements are preferentially located near to or within gene-rich regions, they can affect gene expression by distinct mechanisms of action at both DNA and RNA levels. In this review we focus on recent advances of how Alu elements are pervasively involved in gene regulation...
February 10, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208702/the-glutamate-dehydrogenase-pathway-and-its-roles-in-cell-and-tissue-biology-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Andreas Plaitakis, Ester Kalef-Ezra, Dimitra Kotzamani, Ioannis Zaganas, Cleanthe Spanaki
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)⁺ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208025/aeol-10150-mitigates-radiation-induced-lung-injury-in-the-nonhuman-primate-morbidity-and-mortality-are-administration-schedule-dependent
#13
Thomas J MacVittie, Allison Gibbs, Ann M Farese, Kory Barrow, Alexander Bennett, Cheryl Taylor-Howell, Abdul Kazi, Karl Prado, George Parker, William Jackson Iii
Pneumonitis and fibrosis are potentially lethal, delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. In this study, male rhesus macaques received whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI) with a target dose of 10.74 Gy prescribed to midplane at a dose rate of 0.80 ± 0.05 Gy/min using 6 MV linear accelerator-derived photons. The study design was comprised of four animal cohorts: one control and three treated with AEOL 10150 (n = 20 animals per cohort). AEOL 10150, a metalloporphyrin antioxidant, superoxide dismutase mimetic was administered by daily subcutaneous injection at 5 mg/kg in each of three schedules, beginning 24 ± 2 h postirradiation: from day 1 to day 28, day 1 to day 60 or a divided regimen from day 1 to day 28 plus day 60 to day 88...
February 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207941/mfg-e8-inhibits-periodontitis-in-non-human-primates-and-its-gingival-crevicular-fluid-levels-can-differentiate-periodontal-health-from-disease-in-humans
#14
Tetsuhiro Kajikawa, Fatimah Meshikhes, Tomoki Maekawa, Evlambia Hajishengallis, Kavita B Hosur, Toshiharu Abe, Kevin Moss, Triantafyllos Chavakis, George Hajishengallis
AIM: We have previously shown that the secreted glycoprotein MFG-E8 has anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic properties. Our objective was to investigate the potential of MFG-E8 as a diagnostic or therapeutic agent in periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Periodontitis was induced in non-human primates (NHPs) by placing ligatures around posterior teeth on both halves of the mandible for a split-mouth design: one side was treated with MFG-E8-Fc and the other with Fc control...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207896/rna-seq-analysis-of-chikungunya-virus-infection-and-identification-of-granzyme-a-as-a-major-promoter-of-arthritic-inflammation
#15
Jane A C Wilson, Natalie A Prow, Wayne A Schroder, Jonathan J Ellis, Helen E Cumming, Linden J Gearing, Yee Suan Poo, Adam Taylor, Paul J Hertzog, Francesca Di Giallonardo, Linda Hueston, Roger Le Grand, Bing Tang, Thuy T Le, Joy Gardner, Suresh Mahalingam, Pierre Roques, Phillip I Bird, Andreas Suhrbier
: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus causing epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease. Herein we describe a comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of feet and lymph nodes at peak viraemia (day 2 post infection), acute arthritis (day 7) and chronic disease (day 30) in the CHIKV adult wild-type mouse model. Genes previously shown to be up-regulated in CHIKV patients were also up-regulated in the mouse model. CHIKV sequence information was also obtained with up to ≈8% of the reads mapping to the viral genome; however, no adaptive viral genome changes were apparent...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207489/b-cell-abnormalities-and-impact-on-antibody-response-in-hiv-infection
#16
Alessandra Noto, Giuseppe Pantaleo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to provide an update on the current development in the field of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) and their potential use in the prevention and therapeutic settings, and an evaluation of the B-cell abnormalities that may impair antibody responses in HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of bNabs directed against different vulnerable regions of HIV Envelope (Env)...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206862/haemagogus-leucocelaenus-and-other-mosquitoes-potentially-associated-with-sylvatic-yellow-fever-in-cantareira-state-park-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-metropolitan-area-brazil
#17
Luis Filipe Mucci, Antônio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Walter Ceretti-Júnior, Aristides Fernandes, Amanda Alves Camargo, Eduardo Evangelista, Rafael de Oliveira Christe, Joyce Montes, Renildo Souza Teixeira, Mauro Toledo Marrelli
The aim of this work was to investigate whether Haemagogus leucocelaenus and other mosquito species associated with sylvatic transmission of yellow fever virus are present in Cantareira State Park (CSP) in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). From October 2015 to March 2016, adult mosquitoes were captured with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps, manual battery-powered aspirators, and Shannon traps; larvae and pupae were collected in natural and artificial breeding sites. A total of 109 adult mosquito specimens and 30 immature forms belonging to 11 taxonomic categories in 4 genera (Aedes, Psorophora, Sabethes, and Haemagogus) were collected, including Hg...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205593/imaging-cardiac-scn5a-using-the-novel-f-18-radiotracer-radiocaine
#18
Jacob M Hooker, Martin G Strebl, Frederick A Schroeder, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Amrut V Ambardekar, Timothy A McKinsey, Matthias Schoenberger
The key function of the heart, a well-orchestrated series of contractions, is controlled by cardiac action potentials. These action potentials are initiated and propagated by a single isoform of voltage gated sodium channels - SCN5A. However, linking changes in SCN5A expression levels to human disease in vivo has not yet been possible. Radiocaine, an F-18 radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET), is the first SCN5A imaging agent in the heart. Explants from healthy and failing human hearts were compared using radiocaine autoradiography to determine that the failing heart has ~30% lower SCN5A levels - the first evidence of changes in SCN5A expression in humans as a function of disease...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205407/collagen-fiber-orientation-in-primate-long-bones
#19
Johanna Warshaw, Timothy G Bromage, Carl J Terranova, Donald H Enlow
Studies of variation in orientation of collagen fibers within bone have lead to the proposition that these are preferentially aligned to accommodate different kinds of load, with tension best resisted by fibers aligned longitudinally relative to the load, and compression best resisted by transversely aligned fibers. However, previous studies have often neglected to consider the effect of developmental processes, including constraints on collagen fiber orientation (CFO), particularly in primary bone. Here we use circularly polarized light microscopy to examine patterns of CFO in cross-sections from the midshaft femur, humerus, tibia, radius and ulna in a range of living primate taxa with varied body sizes, phylogenetic relationships and positional behaviors...
February 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203718/vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-c-and-d-may-promote-angiogenesis-in-the-primate-ovulatory-follicle%C3%A2
#20
Soon Ok Kim, Heidi A Trau, Diane M Duffy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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