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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231870/improving-the-care-and-treatment-of-monkeypox-patients-in-low-resource-settings-applying-evidence-from-contemporary-biomedical-and-smallpox-biodefense-research
#1
REVIEW
Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum, Beatrice Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima, Brett W Petersen
Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care necessitates developing a better understanding of the range of clinical manifestations-including complications and sequelae-as well as of features of illness that may be predictive of illness severity and poor outcomes...
December 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231157/plant-produced-subunit-vaccine-candidates-against-yellow-fever-induce-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-and-confer-protection-against-viral-challenge-in-animal-models
#2
Stephen Tottey, Yoko Shoji, R Mark Jones, Jessica A Chichester, Brian J Green, Konstantin Musiychuk, Huaxin Si, Slobodanka Manceva, Amy Rhee, Moneim Shamloul, Joey Norikane, Rosane C Guimarães, Elena Caride, Andrea N M R Silva, Marisol Simões, Patricia C C Neves, Renato Marchevsky, Marcos S Freire, Stephen J Streatfield, Vidadi Yusibov
Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes and endemic mostly in South America and Africa with 20-50% fatality. All current licensed YF vaccines, including YF-Vax® (Sanofi-Pasteur, France) and 17DD-YFV (Bio-Manguinhos, Brazil), are based on live attenuated virus produced in hens' eggs and have been widely used. The YF vaccines are considered safe and highly effective. However, a recent increase in demand for YF vaccines and reports of rare cases of YF vaccine-associated fatal adverse events have provoked interest in developing a safer YF vaccine that can be easily scaled up to meet this increased global demand...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230807/a-comparative-study-of-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-in-the-adult-hypothalamus-of-human-mouse-rat-and-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#3
Giuliana Pellegrino, Claire Trubert, Jérémy Terrien, Fabien Pifferi, Danièle Leroy, Anne Loyens, Martine Migaud, Marc Baroncini, Claude-Alain Maurage, Christian Fontaine, Vincent Prévot, Ariane Sharif
The adult brain contains niches of neural stem cells that continuously add new neurons to selected circuits throughout life. Two niches have been extensively studied in various mammalian species including humans, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Recently, studies conducted mainly in rodents have identified a third neurogenic niche in the adult hypothalamus. In order to evaluate whether a neural stem cell niche also exists in the adult hypothalamus in humans, we performed multiple immunofluorescence labeling to assess the expression of a panel of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers (Sox2, nestin, vimentin, GLAST, GFAP) in the human hypothalamus and compared them with the mouse, rat and a non-human primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230674/diet-and-activity-patterns-of-arsi-geladas-in-low-elevation-disturbed-habitat-south-of-the-rift-valley-at-indetu-ethiopia
#4
Kelil Abu, Addisu Mekonnen, Afework Bekele, Peter J Fashing
Understanding the basic natural history of threatened primate taxa is crucial to developing and implementing successful conservation strategies for them. Data on feeding ecology and activity patterns are particularly important for identifying the strategies through which primates invest time and foraging effort towards survival and reproduction at a given locale. Here, we report the results of the first study of the diet and activity budget of Arsi geladas, a population of < 1000 individuals endemic to a heavily disturbed region of the southern Ethiopian Highlands and believed to represent a new taxon of geladas...
December 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230601/deer-mates-a-quantitative-study-of-heterospecific-sexual-behaviors-performed-by-japanese-macaques-toward-sika-deer
#5
Noëlle Gunst, Paul L Vasey, Jean-Baptiste Leca
This is the first quantitative study of heterospecific sexual behavior between a non-human primate and a non-primate species. We observed multiple occurrences of free-ranging adolescent female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) performing mounts and sexual solicitations toward sika deer (Cervus nippon) at Minoo, central Japan. Our comparative description of monkey-deer versus monkey-monkey interactions supported the "heterospecific sexual behavior" hypothesis: the mounts and demonstrative solicitations performed by adolescent female Japanese macaques toward sika deer were sexual in nature...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229931/brain-gene-expression-signature-on-primate-genomic-sequence-evolution
#6
Shahar Barbash, Thomas P Sakmar
Considering the overwhelming changes that occurred during primate evolution in brain structure and function, one might expect corresponding changes at the molecular level. Surprisingly, a relatively constrained gene expression pattern is observed in brain compared with other tissues among primates, an observation that calls for reassessment of RNA expression influence on primate genome evolution. We built phylogenetic trees based on genomic sequences of functional genomic regions and tissue-specific RNA expression in eight tissue types for six primate species...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229063/an-overview-of-nonhuman-primates-communication-and-social-abilities-through-behavioral-and-neuroscientific-approaches
#7
EDITORIAL
Hélène Meunier, Jean-Christophe Cassel, James R Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229007/de-novo-synthesis-of-thiamine-vitamin-b1-is-the-ancestral-state-in-plasmodium-parasites-evidence-from-avian-haemosporidians
#8
Olof Hellgren, Staffan Bensch, Elin Videvall
Parasites often have reduced genomes as their own genes become redundant when utilizing their host as a source of metabolites, thus losing their own de novo production of metabolites. Primate malaria parasites can synthesize vitamin B1 (thiamine) de novo but rodent malaria and other genome-sequenced apicomplexans cannot, as the three essential genes responsible for this pathway are absent in their genomes. The unique presence of functional thiamine synthesis genes in primate malaria parasites and their sequence similarities to bacterial orthologues, have led to speculations that this pathway was horizontally acquired from bacteria...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228251/the-magnitude-and-time-course-of-iop-change-in-response-to-body-position-change-in-nonhuman-primates-measured-using-continuous-iop-telemetry
#9
Daniel C Turner, Brian C Samuels, Carrie Huisingh, Christopher A Girkin, J Crawford Downs
Purpose: To study the effect and time course of body position changes on IOP in nonhuman primates. Methods: We recorded continuous bilateral IOP measurements with a wireless telemetry implant in three rhesus macaques in seven different body positions. IOP measurements were acquired in the seated-upright, standing, prone, supine, right and left lateral decubitus positions (LDPs), and head-down inverted positions. Continuous IOP was recorded for 90 seconds in each position before returning to a supine reference position until IOP stabilized; measurements were averaged after IOP stabilized at each position...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#10
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228112/xenotransplantation-the-current-status-and-prospects
#11
D K C Cooper, R Gaston, D Eckhoff, J Ladowski, T Yamamoto, L Wang, H Iwase, H Hara, M Tector, A J Tector
Introduction: There is a continuing worldwide shortage of organs from deceased human donors for transplantation into patients with end-stage organ failure. Genetically engineered pigs could resolve this problem, and could also provide tissues and cells for the treatment of conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease and corneal blindness. Sources of data: The current literature has been reviewed. Areas of agreement: The pathobiologic barriers are now largely defined...
December 8, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227963/the-development-of-a-specific-pathogen-free-spf-barrier-colony-of-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus-for-aging-research
#12
Corinna N Ross, Steven Austad, Kathy Brasky, Celeste J Brown, Larry J Forney, Jonathan A Gelfond, Robert Lanford, Arlan Richardson, Suzette D Tardif
A specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier colony of breeding marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was established at the Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies. Rodent and other animal models maintained as SPF barrier colonies have demonstrated improved health and lengthened lifespans enhancing the quality and repeatability of aging research. The marmosets were screened for two viruses and several bacterial pathogens prior to establishing the new SPF colony. Twelve founding animals successfully established a breeding colony with increased reproductive success, improved health parameters, and increased median lifespan when compared to a conventionally housed, open colony...
December 7, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227912/annual-variations-in-sexual-hormones-and-births-frequency-in-female-stump-tailed-macaques-macaca-arctoides
#13
R Mondragón-Ceballos, M D García-Granados, G Matamoros-Trejo, L E Hernández-López
Although the breeding seasonality in Macaca arctoides have been studied over a long period of time, it is still controversial whether reproduction in this primate tend to increase during certain months of the year as it happens in most of the macaque species. Many authors have classified Macaca arctoides as not being seasonal species. Nonetheless, there were no reports, about seasonal variations of female sexual hormones to demonstrate that asseveration. Therefore, in the present study we collect 1611 fecal samples from June 2009 to November 2010 from 10 female stump-tailed macaques to measure 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations...
November 20, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227477/the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-tnfaip3-mediates-inactivation-of-hepatic-ask1-and-ameliorates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
Peng Zhang, Pi-Xiao Wang, Ling-Ping Zhao, Xin Zhang, Yan-Xiao Ji, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Chun Fang, Yue-Xin Lu, Xia Yang, Mao-Mao Gao, Yan Zhang, Song Tian, Xue-Yong Zhu, Jun Gong, Xin-Liang Ma, Feng Li, Zhihua Wang, Zan Huang, Zhi-Gang She, Hongliang Li
Activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in hepatocytes is a key process in the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and a promising target for treatment of the condition. However, the mechanism underlying ASK1 activation is still unclear, and thus the endogenous regulators of this kinase remain open to be exploited as potential therapeutic targets. In screening for proteins that interact with ASK1 in the context of NASH, we identified the deubiquitinase tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) as a key endogenous suppressor of ASK1 activation, and we found that TNFAIP3 directly interacts with and deubiquitinates ASK1 in hepatocytes...
December 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227475/an-alox12-12-hete-gpr31-signaling-axis-is-a-key-mediator-of-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Xiao-Jing Zhang, Xu Cheng, Zhen-Zhen Yan, Jing Fang, Xiaozhan Wang, Weijun Wang, Zhen-Yu Liu, Li-Jun Shen, Peng Zhang, Pi-Xiao Wang, Rufang Liao, Yan-Xiao Ji, Jun-Yong Wang, Song Tian, Xue-Yong Zhu, Yan Zhang, Rui-Feng Tian, Lin Wang, Xin-Liang Ma, Zan Huang, Zhi-Gang She, Hongliang Li
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common clinical issue lacking effective therapy and validated pharmacological targets. Here, using integrative 'omics' analysis, we identified an arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12)-12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE)-G-protein-coupled receptor 31 (GPR31) signaling axis as a key determinant of the hepatic IR process. We found that ALOX12 was markedly upregulated in hepatocytes during ischemia to promote 12-HETE accumulation and that 12-HETE then directly binds to GPR31, triggering an inflammatory response that exacerbates liver damage...
December 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227356/novel-advances-on-tissue-immune-dynamics-in-hiv-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-lessons-from-imaging-studies
#16
Eirini Moysi, Kartika Padhan, Giulia Fabozzi, Constantinos Petrovas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent findings on the effect of HIV/SIV infection on lymph node viral and T-cell dynamics using imaging-based methodologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic infection, particularly HIV/SIV, alters dramatically the microenvironment, immune cell frequency, distribution, function and tissue organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. These changes are not always reversible. Over the past few years, the implementation of advanced imaging protocols on human lymph node biopsies as well as on longitudinal lymphoid tissues samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) have provided a wealth of information on how local immune responses evolve over time in response to a persisting retroviral pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227193/ddx5-p68-associated-lncrna-loc284454-is-differentially-expressed-in-human-cancers-and-modulates-gene-expression
#17
Monalisa Das, Arun Renganathan, Shrinivas Nivrutti Dighe, Utsa Bhaduri, Abhijith Shettar, Geetashree Mukherjee, Paturu Kondaiah, Manchanahalli R Satyanarayana Rao
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important players in regulation of gene expression in higher eukaryotes. DDX5/p68 RNA helicase protein which is involved in splicing of precursor mRNAs also interacts with lncRNAs like, SRA and mrhl, to modulate gene expression. We performed RIP-seq analysis in HEK293T cells to identify the complete repertoire of DDX5/p68 interacting transcripts including 73 single exonic (SE) lncRNAs. The LOC284454 lncRNA is the second top hit of the list of SE lncRNAs which we have characterized in detail for its molecular features and cellular functions...
December 11, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226687/validation-of-a-new-scoring-scale-for-behavioral-assessment-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-the-rat-a-new-tool-for-early-decision-making-in-drug-development
#18
Simon Loiodice, Anne-Sophie Denibaud, Wendy Deffains, Magali Alix, Pierre Montagne, Marine Seffals, Christophe Drieu La Rochelle
The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated non-human primate (NHP) has been described as the most translatable model for experimental reproduction of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). However, from a drug discovery perspective, the risk associated with investment in this type of model is high due to the time and cost. The 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat dyskinesia model is recommended for testing compounds but relies on onerous, and non-standard behavioral rating scales. We sought to develop a simplified and sensitive method aiming at assessing LID in the rat...
December 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225778/zika-virus-reservoirs-implications-for-transmission-future-outbreaks-drug-and-vaccine-development
#19
REVIEW
Raj Kalkeri, Krishna K Murthy
Zika virus (ZIKV) was recently declared as a 'Global Health Emergency' by the World Health Organization. Various tissue reservoirs of ZIKV in infected humans and animals models have been observed, the implications of which are not known. Compared to other Flaviviruses, sexual transmission and persistence in the genitourinary tract seem to be unique to ZIKV. ZIKV persistence and shedding in bodily secretions (e.g. saliva, semen) is a concern for potential disease spread and could pose challenges in diagnosis, regulatory guidelines and drug/vaccine development...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225306/what-do-eye-movements-tell-us-about-patients-with-neurological-disorders-an-introduction-to-saccade-recording-in-the-clinical-setting
#20
Yasuo Terao, Hideki Fukuda, Okihide Hikosaka
Non-invasive and readily implemented in the clinical setting, eye movement studies have been conducted extensively not only in healthy human subjects but also in patients with neurological disorders. The purpose of saccade studies is to "read out" the pathophysiology underlying neurological disorders from the saccade records, referring to known primate physiology. In the current review, we provide an overview of studies in which we attempted to elucidate the patterns of saccade abnormalities in over 250 patients with neurological disorders, including cerebellar ataxia and brainstem pathology due to neurodegenerative disorders, and what they tell about the pathophysiology of patients with neurological disorders...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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