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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471215/genetic-approaches-to-access-cell-types-in-mammalian-nervous-systems
#1
REVIEW
Miao He, Z Josh Huang
Understanding brain circuit organization and function requires systematic dissection of its cellular components. With vast cell number and diversity, mammalian nervous systems present a daunting challenge for achieving specific and comprehensive cell type access-prerequisite to circuit analysis. Genetic approaches in the mouse have relied on germline engineering to access marker-defined cell populations. Combinatorial strategies that engage marker intersection, anatomy and projection pattern (e.g. antero-grade and retro-grade viral vectors), and developmental lineage substantially increase the specificity of cell type targeting...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470965/causal-evidence-for-a-neural-component-of-spatially-global-hemodynamic-signals
#2
Kathrin Müsch, Christopher J Honey
In this issue of Neuron, Turchi et al. (2018) reversibly inactivate the basal forebrain to show that this region magnifies global neocortical signal fluctuations without altering the topography of canonical resting-state networks. Thus, spatially diffuse signals measurable via functional neuroimaging may track large-scale neuromodulatory state changes in the primate brain.
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469689/genomic-and-structural-features-of-the-yellow-fever-virus-from-the-2016-2017-brazilian-outbreak
#3
Mariela Martínez Gómez, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Alexandre Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Iasmim Silva de Mello, Marta Pereira Santos, Ieda Pereira Ribeiro, Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Mario Sergio Ribeiro, Roberto da Costa Laterrière Junior, Shirlei Ferreira Aguiar, Guilherme Louzada Silva Meira, Deborah Antunes, Pedro Henrique Monteiro Torres, Daiana Mir, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina Ramos Guimarães, Ernesto Raul Caffarena, Gonzalo Bello, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Myrna Cristina Bonaldo
Southeastern Brazil has been suffering a rapid expansion of a severe sylvatic yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak since late 2016, which has reached one of the most populated zones in Brazil and South America, heretofore a yellow fever-free zone for more than 70 years. In the current study, we describe the complete genome of 12 YFV samples from mosquitoes, humans and non-human primates from the Brazilian 2017 epidemic. All of the YFV sequences belong to the modern lineage (sub-lineage 1E) of South American genotype I, having been circulating for several months prior to the December 2016 detection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468285/thirty-years-of-great-ape-gestures
#4
Michael Tomasello, Josep Call
We and our colleagues have been doing studies of great ape gestural communication for more than 30 years. Here we attempt to spell out what we have learned. Some aspects of the process have been reliably established by multiple researchers, for example, its intentional structure and its sensitivity to the attentional state of the recipient. Other aspects are more controversial. We argue here that it is a mistake to assimilate great ape gestures to the species-typical displays of other mammals by claiming that they are fixed action patterns, as there are many differences, including the use of attention-getters...
February 21, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467602/feature-selection-methods-for-robust-decoding-of-finger-movements-in-a-non-human-primate
#5
Subash Padmanaban, Justin Baker, Bradley Greger
Objective: The performance of machine learning algorithms used for neural decoding of dexterous tasks may be impeded due to problems arising when dealing with high-dimensional data. The objective of feature selection algorithms is to choose a near-optimal subset of features from the original feature space to improve the performance of the decoding algorithm. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of four feature selection techniques, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Relative Importance, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Mutual Information Maximization on SVM classification performance for a dexterous decoding task...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467430/evaluation-of-macaca-radiata-as-a-non-human-primate-model-of-dengue-virus-infection
#6
Fumihiro Kato, Yuki Ishida, Akihiko Kawakami, Tomohiko Takasaki, Masayuki Saijo, Tomoyuki Miura, Takayuki Hishiki
Dengue virus (DENV) causes a wide range of illnesses in humans, including dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Current animal models of DENV infection are limited for understanding infectious diseases in humans. Bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata), a type of Old World monkey, have been used to study experimental and natural infections by flaviviruses, but Old World monkeys have not yet been used as DENV infection models. In this study, the replication levels of several DENV strains were evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467352/thioacetamide-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-the-common-marmoset
#7
Takashi Inoue, Yukihito Ishizaka, Emi Sasaki, Jun Lu, Takayuki Mineshige, Mikio Yanase, Erika Sasaki, Masayuki Shimoda
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a nonhuman primate that is used for preclinical research on stem cell transplantation therapies due to its similarity to human beings as well as its small size, enabling researchers to perform experiments without preparing a large number of cells. In this study, we developed a marmoset hepatic fibrosis model for regenerative medicine research. Six female marmosets aged 4-6 years were administered thioacetamide (TAA) at a dose of 2.5-40 mg/kg two or three times a week...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467316/the-formation-of-rna-granule-derived-capsid-assembly-intermediates-appears-to-be-conserved-between-hiv-1-and-the-non-primate-lentivirus-fiv
#8
Jonathan C Reed, Nick Westergreen, Brook C Barajas, Dylan T B Ressler, Daryl J Phuong, John V Swain, Vishwanath R Lingappa, Jaisri R Lingappa
During immature capsid assembly in cells, HIV-1 Gag co-opts a host RNA granule, forming a pathway of intracellular assembly intermediates containing host components, including two cellular facilitators of assembly, ABCE1 and DDX6. A similar assembly pathway has been observed for other primate lentiviruses. Here we asked whether feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a non-primate lentivirus, also forms RNA-granule-derived capsid assembly intermediates. First, we showed that the released FIV immature capsid and a large FIV-Gag-containing intracellular complex are unstable during analysis, unlike for HIV-1...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467313/reduced-chronic-lymphocyte-activation-following-interferon-%C3%AE-blockade-in-the-acute-phase-of-siv-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#9
Diane Carnathan, Benton Lawson, Joana Yu, Kalpana Patel, James M Billingsley, Gregory K Tharp, Olivia M Delmas, Reem Dawoud, Peter Wilkinson, Charles Nicolette, Mark J Cameron, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Steven E Bosinger, Guido Silvestri, Thomas H Vanderford
Pathogenic HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques (RMs) induces persistently high production of type-I interferon (IFN-I) which is thought to contribute to disease progression. To elucidate the specific role of IFNα in SIV pathogenesis, 12 RMs were treated prior to i.v. SIVmac239 infection with a high or a low dose of an antibody (AGS-009) that neutralizes most IFNα subtypes, and compared with six mock-infused, SIV-infected controls. Plasma viremia was measured post infection to assess the effect of IFNα blockade on virus replication, and peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue samples were analyzed by immunophenotypical staining...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467280/monkey-see-humans-won-t-do-the-misguided-reaction-to-the-first-cloning-of-primates
#10
Arthur L Caplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466356/emergence-of-resistance-mutations-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques-receiving-non-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy-art
#11
Benjamin Bruno Policicchio, Paola Sette, Cuiling Xu, George Haret-Richter, Tammy Dunsmore, Ivona Pandrea, Ruy M Ribeiro, Cristian Apetrei
Two SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques received tenofovir/emtricitabine with raltegravir intensification. Viral rebound occurred during treatment and sequencing of reverse transcriptase and integrase genes identified multiple resistance mutations. Similar to HIV infection, antiretroviral-resistance mutations may occur in SIV-infected nonhuman primates receiving nonsuppressive ART. As ART administration to nonhuman primates is currently dramatically expanding, fueled by both cure research and the study of HIV-related comorbidities, viral resistance should be factored in the study design and data interpretation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465302/merits-and-complexities-of-modeling-multiple-sclerosis-in-non-human-primates-implications-for-drug-discovery
#12
Bert A 't Hart, Jon D Laman, Yolanda S Kap
The translation of scientific discoveries made in animal models into effective treatments for patients often fails, indicating that currently used disease models in preclinical research are insufficiently predictive for clinical success. An often-used model in the preclinical research of autoimmune neurological diseases, multiple sclerosis in particular, is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Most EAE models are based on genetically susceptible inbred/SPF mouse strains used at adolescent age (10-12 weeks), which lack exposure to genetic and microbial factors which shape the human immune system...
February 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464205/pilot-study-of-delayed-icos-icos-l-blockade-with-%C3%AE-cd40-to-modulate-pathogenic-alloimmunity-in-a-primate-cardiac-allograft-model
#13
Natalie A O'Neill, Tianshu Zhang, Gheorghe Braileanu, Xiangfei Cheng, Alena Hershfeld, Wenji Sun, Keith A Reimann, Sia Dahi, Natalia Kubicki, Wessam Hassanein, Christopher Laird, Arielle Cimeno, Agnes M Azimzadeh, Richard N Pierson
Background: Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is rapidly upregulated with T-cell stimulation and may represent an escape pathway for T-cell costimulation in the setting of CD40/CD154 costimulation blockade. Induction treatment exhibited no efficacy in a primate renal allograft model, but rodent transplant models suggest that the addition of delayed ICOS/ICOS-L blockade may prolong allograft survival and prevent chronic rejection. Here, we ask whether ICOS-Ig treatment, timed to anticipate ICOS upregulation, prolongs NHP cardiac allograft survival or attenuates pathogenic alloimmunity...
February 2018: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463919/sex-dimorphic-acceleration-of-pericardial-subcutaneous-and-plasma-lipid-increase-in-offspring-of-poorly-nourished-baboons
#14
Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Vicki Mattern, Hillary F Huber, Anthony Comuzzie, Laura Cox, Matthias Schwab, Peter W Nathanielsz, Geoffrey D Clarke
Developmental programming by reduced maternal nutrition alters function in multiple offspring physiological systems, including lipid metabolism. We have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to offspring cardiovascular dysfunction with an accelerated aging phenotype in our nonhuman primate, baboon model. We hypothesized age-advanced pericardial fat and blood lipid changes. In pregnancy and lactation, pregnant baboons ate ad lib (control) or 70% ad lib diet (IUGR). We studied baboon offspring pericardial lipid deposition with magnetic resonance imaging at 5-6 years (human equivalent 20-24 years), skinfold thickness, and serum lipid profile at 8-9 years (human equivalent 32-36 years), comparing values with a normative life-course baboon cohort, 4-23 years...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463867/optogenetic-tractography-for-anatomo-functional-characterization-of-cortico-subcortical-neural-circuits-in-non-human-primates
#15
S Senova, C Poupon, J Dauguet, H J Stewart, G P Dugué, C Jan, K Hosomi, G S Ralph, L Barnes, X Drouot, C Pouzat, J F Mangin, F Pain, I Doignon, R Aron-Badin, E Brouillet, E S Boyden, K A Mitrophanous, P Hantraye, S Palfi
Dissecting neural circuitry in non-human primates (NHP) is crucial to identify potential neuromodulation anatomical targets for the treatment of pharmacoresistant neuropsychiatric diseases by electrical neuromodulation. How targets of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and cortical targets of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) compare and might complement one another is an important question. Combining optogenetics and tractography may enable anatomo-functional characterization of large brain cortico-subcortical neural pathways...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463617/the-chlamydia-trachomatis-plasmid-and-ct135-virulence-factors-are-not-essential-for-genital-tract-infection-or-pathology-in-female-pig-tail-macaques
#16
Dorothy L Patton, Yvonne C Sweeney, Audrey E Baldessari, Linda Cles, Laszlo Kari, Gail L Sturdevant, Chunfu Yang, Harlan D Caldwell
The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid and inclusion membrane protein CT135 are virulence factors in the pathogenesis of murine female genital tract infection. To determine if these virulence factors play a similar role in female non-human primates, we infected pig-tailed macaques with the same C. trachomatis strains shown to be important in the murine model. Wild type C. trachomatis and its isogenic mutant strain deficient in both plasmid and CT135 were used to infect macaques. Macaques were given primary and repeated cervicovaginal challenges with the wild type and mutant strains...
February 20, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463552/integrated-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-of-a-bispecific-cd3xcd123-dart%C3%A2-molecule-in-nonhuman-primates-evaluation-of-activity-and-impact-of-immunogenicity
#17
Olivia Campagne, Audrey Delmas, Sylvain Fouliard, Marylore Chenel, Gurunadh R Chichili, Hua Li, Ralph Alderson, Jean-Michel Scherrmann, Donald E Mager
PURPOSE: Flotetuzumab (MGD006 or S80880) is a bispecific molecule that recognizes CD3 and CD123 membrane proteins, redirecting T-cells to kill CD123-expressing cells for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to characterize MGD006 exposure-response relationships and to assess the impact of its immunogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 32 animals received multiple escalating doses (100-300-600-1000 ng/kg/day) via intravenous infusion continuously 4-days a week...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463304/schistosoma-mansoni-and-other-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-schoolchildren-and-vervet-monkeys-in-lake-ziway-area-ethiopia
#18
Dejene Teklemariam, Mengistu Legesse, Abraham Degarege, Song Liang, Berhanu Erko
OBJECTIVE: To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. RESULTS: Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35...
February 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462970/approaches-for-reducing-the-risk-of-early-life-iron-deficiency-induced-brain-dysfunction-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Sarah E Cusick, Michael K Georgieff, Raghavendra Rao
Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Women of reproductive age and young children are particularly vulnerable. Iron deficiency in late prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to long-term neurobehavioral deficits, despite iron treatment. This may occur because screening and treatment of iron deficiency in children is currently focused on detection of anemia and not neurodevelopment. Anemia is the end-stage state of iron deficiency. The brain becomes iron deficient before the onset of anemia due to prioritization of the available iron to the red blood cells (RBCs) over other organs...
February 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462643/pirouetting-pigs-a-large-non-primate-animal-model-based-on-unilateral-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioning-of-the-nigrostriatal-pathway
#20
Anette Bro Christensen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Kåre Schmidt Ettrup, Dariusz Orlowski, Carsten Reidies Bjarkam
INTRODUCTION: The rotating 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model has long been important when developing new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD). Similar non-human primate models have been developed for translational research purposes as large animal models are required by regulatory bodies as an intermediate "phase 0" trial step. However, experimental research in non-human primates encounters several economical and regulatory issues, which may be avoided by the alternative use of pigs as a large animal model for experimental brain research...
February 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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