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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045563/generation-of-transgenic-marmosets-using-a-tetracyclin-inducible-transgene-expression-system-as-a-neurodegenerative-disease-model
#1
Ikuo Tomioka, Naotake Nogami, Terumi Nakatani, Kensuke Owari, Naoko Fujita, Hideyuki Motohashi, Osamu Takayama, Kentaro Takae, Yoshitaka Nagai, Kazuhiko Seki
Controllable transgene expression systems are indispensable tools for the production of animal models of disease to investigate protein functions at defined periods. However, in non-human primates that share genetic, physiological, and morphological similarities with humans, genetic modification techniques have not been well established; therefore, the establishment of novel transgenic models with controllable transgene expression systems will be valuable tools to understand pathological mechanism of human disease...
October 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045561/structural-variability-across-the-primate-brain-a-cross-species-comparison
#2
Paula L Croxson, Stephanie J Forkel, Leonardo Cerliani, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
A large amount of variability exists across human brains; revealed initially on a small scale by postmortem studies and, more recently, on a larger scale with the advent of neuroimaging. Here we compared structural variability between human and macaque monkey brains using grey and white matter magnetic resonance imaging measures. The monkey brain was overall structurally as variable as the human brain, but variability had a distinct distribution pattern, with some key areas showing high variability. We also report the first evidence of a relationship between anatomical variability and evolutionary expansion in the primate brain...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045192/a-dna-vaccine-delivered-by-dermal-electroporation-fully-protects-cynomolgus-macaques-against-lassa-fever
#3
Kathleen A Cashman, Eric R Wilkinson, Carl I Shaia, Paul R Facemire, Todd M Bell, Jeremy J Bearss, Joshua D Shamblin, Suzanne E Wollen, Kate E Broderick, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Connie S Schmaljohn
Lassa virus (LASV) is an ambisense RNA virus in the Arenaviridae family and is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic disease endemic to West and Central Africa (1,2) . There are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed vaccines available to prevent Lassa fever (1,2) . in our previous studies, we developed a gene-optimized DNA vaccine that encodes the glycoprotein precursor gene of LASV (Josiah strain) and demonstrated that three vaccinations accompanied by dermal electroporation protected guinea pigs from LASV-associated illness and death...
October 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044804/comparison-of-visual-receptive-fields-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-dlpfc-and-ventral-intraparietal-area-vip-in-macaques
#4
Pooja Viswanathan, Andreas Nieder
The concept of receptive field (RF) describes the responsiveness of neurons to sensory space. Neurons in the primate association cortices have long been known to be spatially selective but a detailed characterization and direct comparison of RFs between frontal and parietal association cortices is missing. We sampled the RFs of a large number of neurons from two interconnected areas of the frontal and parietal lobes, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventral intraparietal area (VIP), of rhesus monkeys by systematically presenting a moving bar during passive fixation...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044109/apobec3h-structure-reveals-an-unusual-mechanism-of-interaction-with-duplex-rna
#5
Jennifer A Bohn, Keyur Thummar, Ashley York, Alice Raymond, W Clay Brown, Paul D Bieniasz, Theodora Hatziioannou, Janet L Smith
The APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases cause lethal hypermutation of retroviruses via deamination of newly reverse-transcribed viral DNA. Their ability to bind RNA is essential for virion infiltration and antiviral activity, yet the mechanisms of viral RNA recognition are unknown. By screening naturally occurring, polymorphic, non-human primate APOBEC3H variants for biological and crystallization properties, we obtained a 2.24-Å crystal structure of pig-tailed macaque APOBEC3H with bound RNA. Here, we report that APOBEC3H forms a dimer around a short RNA duplex and, despite the bound RNA, has potent cytidine deaminase activity...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042259/widespread-optogenetic-expression-in-macaque-cortex-obtained-with-mr-guided-convection-enhanced-delivery-ced-of-aav-vector-to-the-thalamus
#6
Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad, Nan Tian, Viktor Kharazia, Lluis Samaranch, Adrian Kells, John Bringas, Jiwei He, Krystof Bankiewicz, Philip N Sabes
BACKGROUND: In non-human primate (NHP) optogenetics, infecting large cortical areas with viral vectors is often a difficult and time-consuming task. Previous work has shown that parenchymal delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the thalamus by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can lead to large-scale transduction via axonal transport in distal areas including cortex. We used this approach to obtain widespread cortical expression of light-sensitive ion channels. NEW METHOD: AAV vectors co-expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) genes were infused into thalamus of three rhesus macaques under MR-guided CED...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040907/what-do-monkeys-know-about-others-knowledge
#7
Lindsey A Drayton, Laurie R Santos
Recently, comparative psychologists have suggested that primates represent others' knowledge states. Evidence for this claim comes from studies demonstrating that primates expect others to maintain representations of objects when those objects are not currently visible. However, little work has explored whether nonhuman primates expect others to share the more sophisticated kinds of object knowledge that they themselves possess. We therefore investigated whether primates attribute to others knowledge that is acquired through the mental transformation of a static object representation...
October 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040827/effects-of-lorcaserin-belviq-%C3%A2-on-nicotine-and-food-maintained-responding-in-non-human-primates
#8
David S Jacobs, Claire E Barkin, Michelle R Kohut, Jack Bergman, Stephen J Kohut
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that the FDA-approved serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist, lorcaserin (Belviq(®)), may be a promising candidate for the management of substance use disorders, including nicotine addiction. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy and selectivity of acute or continuous lorcaserin treatment for decreasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine in a primate species. METHODS: Adult rhesus monkeys (n=4) with a history of nicotine self-administration (>2years) responded for injections of nicotine (0...
October 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040403/age-related-changes-in-temporal-processing-of-rapidly-presented-sound-sequences-in-the-macaque-auditory-cortex
#9
Ng Chi-Wing, Gregg H Recanzone
The mammalian auditory cortex is necessary to resolve temporal features in rapidly-changing sound streams. This capability is crucial for speech comprehension in humans and declines with normal aging. Nonhuman primate studies have revealed detrimental effects of normal aging on the auditory nervous system, and yet the underlying influence on temporal processing remains less well-defined. Therefore, we recorded from the core and lateral belt areas of auditory cortex when awake young and old monkeys listened to tone-pip and noise-burst sound sequences...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039460/characterization-of-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-interleukin-6-and-its-expression-pattern-in-response-to-exogenous-challenge
#10
Yuanyuan Han, Xiaomei Sun, Dexuan Kuang, Pinfen Tong, Caixia Lu, Wenguang Wang, Na Li, Yang Chen, Xiaoping Wang, Jiejie Dai, Huatang Zhang
Tree shrews, one of the closest relatives of primates, have attracted increasing attention as a model of human diseases, particularly for viral infections. As the first line of defense against microbial pathogens, the innate immune system is crucial in tree shrews. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is important in the pathophysiology of infection, inflammation and cancer, where it promotes disease development or sustains immune reactions. The present study aimed to obtain further insight into the tree shrew IL-6 (tsIL-6) system, and the function of tsIL-6 in the antiviral and antibacterial response...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039327/formulation-of-lyophilized-single-vial-kit-of-n-n-ethylene-l-dicysteine-ec-for-labeling-with-99m-tc-ii-radiochemical-and-clinical-evaluation-as-a-renal-tubular-agent-in-comparison-with-99m-tc-mag3
#11
Anjum Afshan, Mohammad Sohaib, Mohammad Jehangir
A Technetium (99m)Tc labeled lyophilized single component kit of N-N-ethylene-I-dicysteine (EC) is developed to replace multiple step kit developed by others. The aim of study is to formulate a radionuclide that is easy to prepare, has rapid plasma clearance, produce high quality images and is an affective alternative to radioiodine labeled orthoiodohippurate, which has been remained the physiological 'gold standard' since long time. To achieve this goal, the systematically varied key parameters such as pH, the use of reducing agents, stabilizers and additives are optimized to obtain maximum radiochemical purity and optimum biodistribution in non human and human primates...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038571/highly-sensitive-and-specific-alu-based-quantification-of-human-cells-among-rodent-cells
#12
Kodai Funakoshi, Mozhdeh Bagheri, Ming Zhou, Ryoji Suzuki, Hiroshi Abe, Hideo Akashi
Alu elements are primate-specific short interspersed elements (SINEs), over 1 million copies of which are present in the human genome; thus, Alu elements are useful targets for detecting human cells. However, previous Alu-based techniques for detecting human genomic DNA do not reach the theoretical limits of sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive and specific Alu-based real-time PCR method for discriminating human cells from rodent cells, using a primer and probe set carefully designed to avoid possible cross-reactions with rodent genomes...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038481/the-social-and-cultural-roots-of-whale-and-dolphin-brains
#13
Kieran C R Fox, Michael Muthukrishna, Susanne Shultz
Encephalization, or brain expansion, underpins humans' sophisticated social cognition, including language, joint attention, shared goals, teaching, consensus decision-making and empathy. These abilities promote and stabilize cooperative social interactions, and have allowed us to create a 'cognitive' or 'cultural' niche and colonize almost every terrestrial ecosystem. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) also have exceptionally large and anatomically sophisticated brains. Here, by evaluating a comprehensive database of brain size, social structures and cultural behaviours across cetacean species, we ask whether cetacean brains are similarly associated with a marine cultural niche...
October 16, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037791/effect-of-optogenetic-modulation-on-entopeduncular-input-affects-thalamic-discharge-and-behavior-in-an-aav2-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-hemiparkinson-rat-model
#14
Hyeong Cheol Moon, So Yoon Won, Eung Gook Kim, Hyong Kyu Kim, Chul Bum Cho, Young Seok Park
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the globus pallidus internus(GPi) alleviates Parkinson's disease symptoms. The primate GPi is homologous to the rat entopeduncular nucleus (EP). The aim of the present study was to determine if optogenetic modulation of the EP could alter parkinsonian behavior or thalamic discharge in a hemiparkinson rat model. METHODS: We injected an adeno-associated virus type-2 expressing α-synuclein (AAV2-α-syn) into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the right hemisphere and confirmed parkinsonian behavior using an amphetamine-induced rotation test...
October 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037418/was-mesopithecus-a-seed-eating-colobine-assessment-of-cracking-grinding-and-shearing-ability-using-dental-topography
#15
Ghislain Thiery, Geoffrey Gillet, Vincent Lazzari, Gildas Merceron, Franck Guy
Extant colobine monkeys have been historically described as specialized folivores. However, reports on both their behavior and dental metrics tend to ascribe a more varied diet to them. In particular, several species, such as Pygathrix nemaeus and Rhinopithecus roxellana, are dedicated seasonal seed eaters. They use the lophs on their postcanine teeth to crack open the hard endocarp that protects some seeds. This raises the question of whether the bilophodont occlusal pattern of colobine monkeys first evolved as an adaptation to folivory or sclerocarpic foraging...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037416/the-diet-of-open-habitat-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-in-the-issa-valley-western-tanzania
#16
Alex K Piel, Paolo Strampelli, Emily Greathead, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Jim Moore, Fiona A Stewart
Comparative data on the diets of extant primates inform hypotheses about hominin resource use. Historically, data describing chimpanzee diets stem primarily from forest-dwelling communities, and we lack comparative data from chimpanzees that live in mosaic habitats that more closely resemble those reconstructed for Plio-Pleistocene hominins. We present data on the diet of a partially-habituated community of open habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from the Issa valley, western Tanzania, collected over a four-year period...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035509/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-the-intranasal-delivery-route-for-orexin-a
#17
Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Kyle C Van de Bittner, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Wayne Rowe, Ramalinga Dharanipragada, Xiaoyou Ying, William Hurst, Andrew Giovanni, Kim Alving, Anurag Gupta, John Hoekman, Jacob M Hooker
Intranasal drug delivery is a non-invasive drug delivery route that can enhance systemic delivery of therapeutics with poor oral bioavailability by exploiting the rich microvasculature within the nasal cavity. The intranasal delivery route has also been targeted as a method for improved brain uptake of neurotherapeutics, with a goal of harnessing putative, direct nose-to-brain pathways. Studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans have pointed to the efficacy of intranasally delivered neurotherapeutics, while radiolabeling studies have analyzed brain uptake following intranasal administration...
October 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035153/acute-and-chronic-kidney-injury-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-partial-body-irradiation-with-bone-marrow-sparing
#18
Eric P Cohen, Kim G Hankey, Alexander W Bennett, Ann M Farese, George A Parker, Thomas J MacVittie
The development of medical countermeasures against acute and delayed multi-organ injury requires animal models predictive of the human response to radiation and its treatment. Late chronic injury is a well-known feature of radiation nephropathy, but acute kidney injury has not been reported in an appropriate animal model. We have established a single-fraction partial-body irradiation model with minimal marrow sparing in non-human primates. Subject-based medical management was used including parenteral fluids according to prospective morbidity criteria...
October 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035006/applying-systems-thinking-to-inform-studies-of-wildlife-trade-in-primates
#19
Mary E Blair, Minh D Le, Hoàng M Thạch, Anna Panariello, Ngọc B Vũ, Mark G Birchette, Gautam Sethi, Eleanor J Sterling
Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034606/do-mid-crown-enamel-formation-front-angles-reflect-factors-linked-to-the-pace-of-primate-growth-and-development
#20
Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, James D Pampush, Mackie C O'Hara, Song Xing, W Scott McGraw, Rebecca J Ferrell
Enamel formation front (EFF) angles represent the leading edge of enamel matrix secretion at particular points in time. These angles are influenced by rates of enamel extension (the rates at which tooth crowns grow in height), rates of enamel matrix secretion and the angles that prisms make with the enamel-dentine junction. Previous research suggests, but has not yet established, that these angles reflect aspects of primate biology related to their pace of growth and development, most notably brain and body size...
October 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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