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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684118/spontaneous-endometriosis-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-as-a-clinically-relevant-experimental-model
#1
A Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, S Netsu, S Okabayashi, K Taniguchi, H Tanimura, A Kato, M Suzuki, T Sankai, R Konno
STUDY QUESTION: Does spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys have the characteristics required of a good experimental model? SUMMARY ANSWER: Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar clinicopathological characteristics to the human disease and was useful as an experimental model. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The prevalence of endometriosis in autopsied cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a breeding colony was reported to be 28...
April 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683765/modeling-cumulative-overall-prevention-efficacy-for-the-vrc01-phase-2b-efficacy-trials
#2
Yunda Huang, Shelly Karuna, Lindsay N Carpp, Daniel Reeves, Amarendra Pegu, Kelly Seaton, Kenneth Mayer, Joshua Schiffer, John Mascola, Peter B Gilbert
The Antibody Mediated Prevention trials are assessing whether intravenously-administered VRC01 (10 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg vs placebo) can prevent HIV infection. In a modeling exercise, we used two models to predict the overall prevention efficacy (PE) of each VRC01 dose in preventing HIV infection. For the first per-exposure PE model, parameters were estimated from studies where nonhuman primates (NHPs) were administered high-dose intra-rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge two days post-VRC01 infusion at various dosages ("NHP model")...
April 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683518/the-function-and-failure-of-sensory-predictions
#3
REVIEW
Sonia Bansal, Judith M Ford, Miriam Spering
Humans and other primates are equipped with neural mechanisms that allow them to automatically make predictions about future events, facilitating processing of expected sensations and actions. Prediction-driven control and monitoring of perceptual and motor acts are vital to normal cognitive functioning. This review provides an overview of corollary discharge mechanisms involved in predictions across sensory modalities and discusses consequences of predictive coding for cognition and behavior. Converging evidence now links impairments in corollary discharge mechanisms to neuropsychiatric symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682503/imaging-behavior-and-endocrine-analysis-of-jealousy-in-a-monogamous-primate
#4
Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, Donald R Williams, William A Mason, Simon R Cherry, Douglas J Rowland, Thomas Schaefer, Karen L Bales
Understanding the neurobiology of social bonding in non-human primates is a critical step in understanding the evolution of monogamy, as well as understanding the neural substrates for emotion and behavior. Coppery titi monkeys ( Callicebus cupreus ) form strong pair bonds, characterized by selective preference for their pair mate, mate-guarding, physiological and behavioral agitation upon separation, and social buffering. Mate-guarding, or the "maintenance" phase of pair bonding, is relatively under-studied in primates...
October 2017: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681889/role-of-kisspeptin-and-neurokinin-b-in-puberty-in-female-non-human-primates
#5
REVIEW
Ei Terasawa, James P Garcia, Stephanie B Seminara, Kim L Keen
In human patients, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding kisspeptin ( KISS1 ) and neurokinin B ( NKB) and their receptors ( KISS1R and NK3R , respectively) result in an abnormal timing of puberty or the absence of puberty. To understand the neuroendocrine mechanism of puberty, we investigated the contribution of kisspeptin and NKB signaling to the pubertal increase in GnRH release using rhesus monkeys as a model. Direct measurements of GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the hypothalamus with infusion of agonists and antagonists for kisspeptin and NKB reveal that kisspeptin and NKB signaling stimulate GnRH release independently or collaboratively by forming kisspeptin and NKB neuronal networks depending on the developmental age...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679734/cortical-networks-for-encoding-near-and-far-space-in-the-non-human-primate
#6
Justine Cléry, Olivier Guipponi, Soline Odouard, Claire Wardak, Suliann Ben Hamed
While extra-personal space is often erroneously considered as a unique entity, early neuropsychological studies report a dissociation between near and far space processing both in humans and in monkeys. Here, we use functional MRI in a naturalistic 3D environment to describe the non-human primate near and far space cortical networks. We describe the co-occurrence of two extended functional networks respectively dedicated to near and far space processing. Specifically, far space processing involves occipital, temporal, parietal, posterior cingulate as well as orbitofrontal regions not activated by near space, possibly subserving the processing of the shape and identity of objects...
April 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677702/is-the-pelvis-sexually-dimorphic-in-turtles
#7
Gerardo A Cordero
Variation in the pelvis is intrinsically linked to life history evolution. This is perhaps best exemplified by sexually dimorphic pelvic variation in bipedal primates. Yet, whether this trend is applicable to other taxa is unclear. Using turtle anatomy as a model, I tested the hypothesis that the pelvis is also sexually dimorphic in egg-laying tetrapods. I sampled a natural turtle population with female-biased sexual size dimorphism (i.e. larger females). I show that the area of the egg canal (pelvic aperture) is greater in females...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677353/humoral-immune-response-after-intravitreal-but-not-after-subretinal-aav8-in-primates-and-patients
#8
Felix F Reichel, Tobias Peters, Barbara Wilhelm, Martin Biel, Marius Ueffing, Bernd Wissinger, Karl U Bartz-Schmidt, Reinhild Klein, Stylianos Michalakis, M Dominik Fischer
Purpose: To study longitudinal changes of anti-drug antibody (ADA) titers to recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) capsid epitopes in nonhuman primates (NHP) and patients. Methods: Three groups of six NHP each received subretinal injections (high dose: 1 × 1012 vector genomes [vg], low dose: 1 × 1011 vg, or vehicle only). Four additional animals received intravitreal injections of the high dose (1 × 1012 vg). Three patients received 1 × 1010 vg as subretinal injections...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677324/endogenous-attention-improves-perception-in-amblyopic-macaques
#9
Amelie Pham, Marisa Carrasco, Lynne Kiorpes
Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision, affects many aspects of spatial vision as well as motion perception and some cognitive skills. Current models of amblyopic vision based on known neurophysiological deficiencies have yet to provide an understanding of the wide range of amblyopic perceptual losses. Visual spatial attention is known to enhance performance in a variety of detection and discrimination tasks in visually typical humans and nonhuman primates. We investigated whether and how voluntary spatial attention affected psychophysical performance in amblyopic macaques...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676996/involvement-of-spata31-copy-number-variable-genes-in-human-lifespan
#10
Cemalettin Bekpen, Chen Xie, Almut Nebel, Diethard Tautz
The SPATA31 ( alias FAM75A) gene family belongs to the core duplicon families that are thought to have contributed significantly to hominoid evolution. It is also among the gene families with the strongest signal of positive selection in hominoids. It has acquired new protein domains in the primate lineage and a previous study has suggested that the gene family has expanded its function into UV response and DNA repair. Here we show that over-expression of SPATA31A1 in fibroblast cells leads to premature senescence due to interference with aging-related transcription pathways...
April 19, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676776/gene-expression-analysis-of-neuropeptides-in-oral-mucosa-during-periodontal-disease-in-nonhuman-primates
#11
John Ferrin, Jeffrey L Ebersole, Sreenatha Kirakodu, David Jensen, Ahmad Al-Attar, Rebecca Peyyala, M John Novak, Dolph Dawson, Mohanad Al-Sabbagh, Arnold J Stromberg, Luis Orraca, Janis Gonzalez-Martinez, Armando Burgos, Octavio A Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides (NPs) are innate pivotal regulators of the immunoinflammatory response. Nevertheless, their role in the pathogenesis of the periodontal disease remains unknown. We determined changes in gene expression of 10 NPs and 16 NP receptors (NPRs) coincident with the initiation, progression and resolution of periodontitis. METHODS: The ligature-induced periodontitis model was used in rhesus monkeys (n = 18). Gingival tissue samples were taken at baseline pre-ligature, 2 weeks and 1 month (Initiation), and 3 months (Progression) post-ligation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673898/activation-of-liver-ampk-with-pf-06409577-corrects-nafld-and-lowers-cholesterol-in-rodent-and-primate-preclinical-models
#12
Ryan M Esquejo, Christopher T Salatto, Jake Delmore, Bina Albuquerque, Allan Reyes, Yuji Shi, Rob Moccia, Emily Cokorinos, Matthew Peloquin, Mara Monetti, Jason Barricklow, Eliza Bollinger, Brennan K Smith, Emily A Day, Chuong Nguyen, Kieran F Geoghegan, John M Kreeger, Alan Opsahl, Jessica Ward, Amit S Kalgutkar, David Tess, Lynne Butler, Norimitsu Shirai, Timothy F Osborne, Gregory R Steinberg, Morris J Birnbaum, Kimberly O Cameron, Russell A Miller
Dysregulation of hepatic lipid and cholesterol metabolism is a significant contributor to cardiometabolic health, resulting in excessive liver lipid accumulation and ultimately non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therapeutic activators of the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) have been proposed as a treatment for metabolic diseases; we show that the AMPK β1-biased activator PF-06409577 is capable of lowering hepatic and systemic lipid and cholesterol levels in both rodent and monkey preclinical models...
April 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673697/adrenocortical-development-lessons-from-mouse-models
#13
Typhanie Dumontet, Isabelle Sahut-Barnola, Amandine Septier, Nathanaëlle Montanier, Ingrid Plotton, Florence Roucher-Boulez, Véronique Ducros, Anne-Marie Lefrançois-Martinez, Jean-Christophe Pointud, Mohamad Zubair, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi, David T Breault, Pierre Val, Antoine Martinez
The adrenocortical gland undergoes structural and functional remodelling in the fetal and postnatal periods. After birth, the fetal zone of the gland undergoes rapid involution in favor of the definitive cortex, which reaches maturity with the emergence of the zona reticularis(zR) at the adrenarche. The mechanisms underlying the adrenarche, the process leading to pre-puberty elevation of plasma androgens in higher primates, remain unknown, largely due to lack of any experimental model. By following up fetal and definitive cortex cell lines in mice, we showed that activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling mainly impacts the adult cortex by stimulating centripetal regeneration, with differentiation and then conversion of the zona fasciculata into a functional zR...
April 16, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673475/high-acuity-information-is-retained-through-the-cortical-visual-hierarchy-of-primates
#14
Leonardo Chelazzi, Elisa Santandrea
Vision requires perception of both coarse layout and fine details of objects. In this issue of Neuron, Lu et al. (2018) describe a possible basis for the latter: neuronal clusters in area V4 coding high-acuity information, despite the tendency along the visual hierarchy to generate global representations of objects.
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672640/differential-impact-of-transplantation-on-peripheral-and-tissue-associated-viral-reservoirs-implications-for-hiv-gene-therapy
#15
Christopher W Peterson, Jianbin Wang, Claire Deleage, Sowmya Reddy, Jasbir Kaur, Patricia Polacino, Andreas Reik, Meei-Li Huang, Keith R Jerome, Shiu-Lok Hu, Michael C Holmes, Jacob D Estes, Hans-Peter Kiem
Autologous transplantation and engraftment of HIV-resistant cells in sufficient numbers should recapitulate the functional cure of the Berlin Patient, with applicability to a greater number of infected individuals and with a superior safety profile. A robust preclinical model of suppressed HIV infection is critical in order to test such gene therapy-based cure strategies, both alone and in combination with other cure strategies. Here, we present a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of latent infection using simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in pigtail macaques...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672586/selection-on-the-regulation-of-sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#16
Kang Seon Lee, Paramita Chatterjee, Eun-Young Choi, Min Kyung Sung, Jaeho Oh, Hyejung Won, Seong-Min Park, Youn-Jae Kim, Soojin V Yi, Jung Kyoon Choi
Adrenergic α2C receptor (ADRA2C) is an inhibitory modulator of the sympathetic nervous system. Knockout mice for this gene show physiological and behavioural alterations that are associated with the fight-or-flight response. There is evidence of positive selection on the regulation of this gene during chicken domestication. Here, we find that the neuronal expression of ADRA2C is lower in human and chimpanzee than in other primates. On the basis of three-dimensional chromatin structure, we identified a cis-regulatory region whose DNA sequences have been significantly accelerated in human and chimpanzee...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672272/rabbits-and-men-relating-their-ages
#17
REVIEW
Sulagna Dutta, Pallav Sengupta
Rabbit, a member of the Lagomorpha order, is the closest phylogenetic relative to humans, next to primates. It possesses greater acceptability as a laboratory mammal than primates in terms of husbandry, breeding ease, cost effectiveness, and legal ethical conveniences. Moreover, as a laboratory animal, the rabbit also owns its advantages over mice or rats, in terms of phylogenetic resemblance to human, size, blood volume, responsiveness, and other congruences enabling them to better imitate human physiological characteristics in biomedical research...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671883/reported-analgesic-and-anaesthetic-administration-to-non-human-primates-undergoing-experimental-surgical-procedure-2010-2015
#18
Henri Georges Michel Justin Bertrand, Charlotte Sandersen, Paul Andrew Flecknell
BACKGROUND: The use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research remains a major societal concern with public expectations that appropriate anaesthetics and analgesics are used to minimize any pain or distress caused to animals undergoing invasive procedures. A literature review was conducted to examine the reporting of anaesthesia and analgesia methods used in non-human primates undergoing surgical procedures, with recovery from anaesthesia. METHODS: A total of 397 papers from peer-review journals published between 2010 and 2015 were examined...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671786/hiv-vaccination-a-roadmap-among-advancements-and-concerns
#19
REVIEW
Maria Trovato, Luciana D'Apice, Antonella Prisco, Piergiuseppe De Berardinis
Since the identification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) as the etiologic agent of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), many efforts have been made to stop the AIDS pandemic. A major success of medical research has been the development of the highly active antiretroviral therapy and its availability to an increasing number of people worldwide, with a considerable effect on survival. However, a safe and effective vaccine able to prevent and eradicate the HIV pandemic is still lacking...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671363/mutation-analysis-of-the-tubb8-gene-in-primary-infertile-women-with-arrest-in-oocyte-maturation
#20
An-Cong Wang, Yu-Song Zhang, Bao-Song Wang, Xiang-Yu Zhao, Feng-Xia Wu, Xiang-Hong Zhai, Ju-Xiang Sun, Shi-Yue Mei
Tubulin beta eight class VIII (TUBB8) is a subtype of β-tubulin that only exists in primates. Mutations in the TUBB8 gene have been proven to cause oocyte maturation arrest. The aim of this study was to identify the new types of mutations in TUBB8. Six women (families) with oocyte maturation arrest and 100 healthy controls were recruited. The sequence of the TUBB8 gene was amplified and analyzed by Sanger sequencing, which revealed a de novo heterozygous variant c.292G > A (p.G98R) of TUBB8 in one affected individual...
April 19, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
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