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Sofia Mazzoleni, Odessa Schillaci, Luca Sineo, Francesca Dumas
It has been hypothesized that interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), i.e., repeated telomeric DNA sequences found at intrachromosomal sites in many vertebrates, could be correlated to chromosomal rearrangements and plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we hybridized a telomeric PNA probe through FISH on representative species of 2 primate infraorders, Strepsirrhini (Lemur catta, Otolemur garnettii, Nycticebus coucang) and Catarrhini (Erythrocebus patas, Cercopithecus petaurista, Chlorocebus aethiops, Colobus guereza), as well as on 1 species of the order Scandentia, Tupaia minor, used as an outgroup for primates in phylogenetic reconstructions...
April 20, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Placide Mbala-Kingebeni, Simon-Pierre Ndimbo-Kumogo, Caroline Foncelle, Octavie Lunguya-Metila, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Eric Delaporte, Martine Peeters, Ahidjo Ayouba
Our knowledge on simian immune deficiency virus (SIV) diversity and evolution in the different nonhuman primate species is still incomplete. In this study, we report the full genome characterization of a new SIV from a red-tailed monkey (2013DRC-I8), from the Cercopithecus ascanius whitesidei subspecies, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The new full-length genome is 9,926 bp long, and the genomic structure is similar to that of other SIVs with the absence of vpx and vpu genes. The new SIVasc-13DRC-I8 strain fell within the Cercopithecus specific SIV lineage...
April 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ahuka-Mundeke Steve, Ayouba Ahidjo, Mbala-Kingebeni Placide, Foncelle Caroline, Mubonga Mukulumanya, Ndimbo-Kumugo Simon-Pierre, Lunguya-Metila Octavie, Mbenzo-Abokome Valentin, Muyembe-Tamfum Jean-Jacques, Delaporte Eric, Peeters Martine
Like the majority of emerging infectious diseases, HIV and HTLV are of zoonotic origin. Here we assess the risk of cross-species transmissions of their simian counterparts, SIV and STLV, from non-human primates (NHP) to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). A total of 331 samples, derived from NHP bushmeat, were collected as dried blood spots (DBS, n = 283) or as tissue samples (n = 36) at remote forest sites mainly in northern and eastern DRC. SIV antibody prevalences in DBS were estimated with a novel high throughput immunoassay with antigens representing the actual known diversity of HIV/SIV lineages...
March 2017: EcoHealth
Kim N Le, Matthew Marsik, David J Daegling, Ana Duque, William Scott McGraw
OBJECTIVES: We investigated how heterogeneity in material stiffness affects structural stiffness in the cercopithecid mandibular cortical bone. We assessed (1) whether this effect changes the interpretation of interspecific structural stiffness variation across four primate species, (2) whether the heterogeneity is random, and (3) whether heterogeneity mitigates bending stress in the jaw associated with food processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of Taï Forest, Cote d'Ivoire, monkeys: Cercocebus atys, Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, and Cercopithecus diana...
March 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lauriane Cacheux, Loïc Ponger, Michèle Gerbault-Seureau, Florence Anne Richard, Christophe Escudé
BACKGROUND: Alpha satellite is the major repeated DNA element of primate centromeres. Evolution of these tandemly repeated sequences has led to the existence of numerous families of monomers exhibiting specific organizational patterns. The limited amount of information available in non-human primates is a restriction to the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of alpha satellite DNA. RESULTS: We carried out the targeted high-throughput sequencing of alpha satellite monomers and dimers from the Cercopithecus solatus genome, an Old World monkey from the Cercopithecini tribe...
November 14, 2016: BMC Genomics
Noah T Dunham, Erin E Kane, W Scott McGraw
OBJECTIVES: We previously found that differing degrees of forelimb flexion, elevation, and abduction during nonlocomotor foraging activities covaried with scapular morphology among four sympatric cercopithecids. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether features of the proximal humerus are similarly related to forelimb elevation during foraging. METHODS: Our sample consists of humeri (n = 42) of adult Cercocebus atys, Cercopithecus diana, Colobus polykomos, and Piliocolobus badius collected from Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Susan E Lad, David J Daegling, W Scott McGraw
OBJECTIVES: Independent lines of evidence suggest that osteonal bone remodeling is a function of both mechanical (i.e., changes in stress) and non-mechanical (i.e., metabolic needs related to calcium liberation) factors. The degree to which secondary bone reflects mechanical factors, however, is incompletely understood despite the common assumption that the stress environment mediates remodeling activity. Here, we investigate whether there are remodeling differences between regions of primate mandibular bone known to have distinct stress environments...
June 27, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tierra Smiley Evans, Kirsten V K Gilardi, Peter A Barry, Benard Jasper Ssebide, Jean Felix Kinani, Fred Nizeyimana, Jean Bosco Noheri, Denis K Byarugaba, Antoine Mudakikwa, Michael R Cranfield, Jonna A K Mazet, Christine K Johnson
Infectious diseases pose one of the most significant threats to the survival of great apes in the wild. The critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is at high risk for contracting human pathogens because approximately 60% of the population is habituated to humans to support a thriving ecotourism program. Disease surveillance for human and non-human primate pathogens is important for population health and management of protected primate species. Here, we evaluate discarded plants from mountain gorillas and sympatric golden monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis kandti), as a novel biological sample to detect viruses that are shed orally...
June 22, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Meifang Song, Yanan Xue, Lidi Chen, Xiaoyang Xia, Yang Zhou, Lei Liu, Bo Yu, Sihui Long, Shiwen Huang, Faquan Yu
A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release...
August 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Elizabeth Tapanes, Kate M Detwiler, Marina Cords
The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus...
June 2016: EcoHealth
Claudia Stephan, Klaus Zuberbühler
Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other's calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other's alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone)...
February 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Tetsuya Sakamaki, Ulrich Maloueki, Batuafe Bakaa, Lingomo Bongoli, Phila Kasalevo, Saeko Terada, Takeshi Furuichi
Findings of regional variations in the behavioral patterns of non-human primates have led to the vigorous study of animal traditions (or culture), which contribute to a biological understanding of diversity in human cultures. Although our knowledge of behavioral variations of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) is limited compared with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), variations in the prey of this species have been reported across study sites. This study describes evidence of mammals consumed by bonobos in the Iyondji site, which was established in 2010...
July 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Anne M Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K Brockman, Linda M Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B Strier, William F Morris
We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes...
March 1, 2016: Scientific Data
Anthony J Tosi, Kate M Detwiler
We demonstrate the utility of previously described molecular methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. Using phylogenetic analyses and DNA sequence comparisons at X-chromosomal and Y-chromosomal loci, we have identified a hybrid animal in the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo (USA)--an identification that was not known a priori but was later confirmed by review of zoo records. The molecular techniques employed here are of great use to studies of the genus Cercopithecus because, unlike most mammals, these monkeys frequently form polyspecific associations, and recent deforestation is likely to have driven otherwise low-level hybridization to higher frequencies which may reduce the fitness of threatened populations...
January 2016: Zoo Biology
Sarah Elton, Anna-Ulla Jansson, Carlo Meloro, Julien Louys, Thomas Plummer, Laura C Bishop
Nearly all primates are ecologically dependent on trees, but they are nonetheless found in an enormous range of habitats, from highly xeric environments to dense rainforest. Most primates have a relatively 'generalised' skeleton, enabling locomotor flexibility and facilitating other crucial functions, such as manual foraging and grooming. This paper explores the associations between habitat, locomotion and morphology in the forelimbs of cercopithecids (Old World monkeys), contextualising their skeletal ecomorphological patterns with those of other mammals, and complementing functional morphological analyses with phylogenetic comparative techniques...
April 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Keren Klass, Marina Cords
Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years...
December 2015: American Journal of Primatology
Shuai-Zhi Du, Guang-Hui Zhao, Jun-Feng Shao, Yan-Qin Fang, Ge-Ru Tian, Long-Xian Zhang, Rong-Jun Wang, Hai-Yan Wang, Meng Qi, San-Ke Yu
Non-human primates (NHPs) are confirmed as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. In this study, 197 fresh fecal samples from 8 NHP species in Qinling Mountains, northwestern China, were collected and examined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. The results showed that 35 (17.8%) samples were positive for tested parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. (3.0%), G. intestinalis (2.0%), and E. bieneusi (12.7%). Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 6 fecal samples of Macaca mulatta, and were identified as C...
August 2015: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Boris A Lapin, Lelita A Yakovleva, Eteri K Dzhikidze, Tatiana E Gvozdik, Aslan A Agumava, Zinaida K Stasilevich, Irina G Danilova
BACKGROUND: In spring 2009 in Adler colony of the Institute of Medical Primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic E. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals). METHODS: The epidemiological analysis, bacteriological investigation, postmortem examination, histological analysis, and PCR were used to identify the infectious agent. RESULTS: Marked hemorrhagic diathesis, lethargy, dehydration, diarrhea with blood, wasting, and sometimes dystrophic changes in articular cartilages were noted...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Primatology
Peggy Motsch, Guillaume Le Flohic, Carole Dilger, Alexia Delahaye, Carmela Chateau-Smith, Sebastien Couette
We carried out a multidisciplinary study linking behavioral and morphological data from a little-known guenon species, Cercopithecus solatus, endemic to Gabon. Over a period of 9 months, we documented the pattern of stratum use associated with postural and locomotor behavior by direct observation (650 hrs) of a semi-free-ranging breeding colony. We also conducted a morphometric analysis of the humerus and limb proportions of 90 adult specimens from 16 guenon species, including C. solatus. Field observations indicated that C...
October 2015: American Journal of Primatology
Steffen Foerster, Kiio Kithome, Marina Cords, Steven L Monfort
OBJECTIVE: When resource competition within primate social groups is effective, high-ranking individuals generally gain fitness benefits. Contrary to expectations, female Cercopithecus mitis form linear dominance hierarchies without evidence for rank-related variation in fitness-relevant measures, raising questions about the evolution of guenon social structure. Here, we test whether social status predicts gastrointestinal helminth infections, known to influence health and morbidity in other mammalian hosts...
September 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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