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R Costa, C Sousa, M Llorente
The 2011 European Union Zoo Inquiry presented evidence that most zoos fail to achieve adequate levels of nonhuman animal welfare. Appropriate environmental enrichment (EE) can play a role in the promotion of welfare. However, financial and staff constraints frequently make it challenging to implement EE on a daily basis. The aim of this study was to test how individuals of three different nonhuman primate species at the Maia Zoo in Portugal (white-handed gibbons, Hylobates lar; Mona monkeys, Cercopithecus mona; and brown lemurs, Eulemur fulvus) reacted to EE devices...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Erin E Kane, W Scott McGraw
Establishing dietary central tendencies and extremes remains an important goal of primate research. While habitat differences and spatial discontinuity are well-documented contributors to dietary variation, other factors including polyspecific associations may significantly impact diet through changes in strata use and/or increased feeding competition. Here, we examine polyspecific association with closely related species as a source of dietary variation in a rain forest primate. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in Côte d'Ivoire's Taï Forest frequently participate in mixed-species groups...
December 23, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
M Thabang Madisha, Desire L Dalton, Raymond Jansen, Antoinette Kotze
The endemic Samango monkey subspecies (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) inhabits small discontinuous Afromontane forest patches in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal midlands and southern Mpumalanga Provinces in South Africa. The subspecies is affected by restricted migration between forest patches which may impact on gene flow resulting in inbreeding and possible localized extinction. Current consensus, based on habitat quality, is that C. a. labiatus can be considered as endangered as the small forest patches they inhabit may not be large enough to sustain them...
October 27, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Anthony J Tosi, Hirohisa Hirai
A representative of Cercopithecus erythrotis was surveyed at a 9.3-kb region of the X chromosome. The data were compared against homologous sequences of closely related Cercopithecus monkeys including C. cephus, a species recently shown to have 2 polymorphic X-chromosomal lineages. Direct sequence comparisons and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that synapomorphies in the first 4.3 kb cluster C. erythrotis with one C. cephus lineage, while synapomorphies in the latter 5.0 kb join it with the second C...
October 5, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Janeth Del Carmen Arias Palacios, Carlos Alberto Barrero Barreto, José Salvador Montaña Lara, Ángela María Londoño Navas
OBJECTIVES: Normalize the quantification of residual DNA from Vero cells in the rabies vaccine for use in human VAHV I, by quantitative PCR in real time and the design of primers that amplified, highly repetitive sequences of Cercopithecus aethiops and a constitutive gene according to sequences reported in the GenBank and quantifying the residual DNA in the vaccine VAHV I in three consecutive batches according to the standard set by the World Health Organization. METHODS: A real time quantitative method based on SYBR Green chemistry has been applied for the quantification of residual DNA (resDNA) using highly repetitive DNA (Alu) and a housekeeping gene (B-actin) as target sequences...
2017: Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal
Katarzyna Nowak, Kirsten Wimberger, Shane A Richards, Russell A Hill, Aliza le Roux
Wild species use habitats that vary in risk across space and time. This risk can derive from natural predators and also from direct and indirect human pressures. A starving forager will often take risks that a less hungry forager would not. At a highly seasonal and human-modified site, we predicted that arboreal samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) would show highly flexible, responsive, risk-sensitive foraging. We first determined how monkeys use horizontal and vertical space across seasons to evaluate if high-risk decisions (use of gardens and ground) changed with season, a proxy for starvation risk...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Sofia Mazzoleni, Odessa Schillaci, Luca Sineo, Francesca Dumas
It has been hypothesized that interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), i.e., repeated telomeric DNA sequences found at intrachromosomal sites in many vertebrates, could be correlated to chromosomal rearrangements and plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we hybridized a telomeric PNA probe through FISH on representative species of 2 primate infraorders, Strepsirrhini (Lemur catta, Otolemur garnettii, Nycticebus coucang) and Catarrhini (Erythrocebus patas, Cercopithecus petaurista, Chlorocebus aethiops, Colobus guereza), as well as on 1 species of the order Scandentia, Tupaia minor, used as an outgroup for primates in phylogenetic reconstructions...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Placide Mbala-Kingebeni, Simon-Pierre Ndimbo-Kumogo, Caroline Foncelle, Octavie Lunguya-Metila, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Eric Delaporte, Martine Peeters, Ahidjo Ayouba
Our knowledge on simian immune deficiency virus (SIV) diversity and evolution in the different nonhuman primate species is still incomplete. In this study, we report the full genome characterization of a new SIV from a red-tailed monkey (2013DRC-I8), from the Cercopithecus ascanius whitesidei subspecies, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The new full-length genome is 9,926 bp long, and the genomic structure is similar to that of other SIVs with the absence of vpx and vpu genes. The new SIVasc-13DRC-I8 strain fell within the Cercopithecus specific SIV lineage...
July 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ahuka-Mundeke Steve, Ayouba Ahidjo, Mbala-Kingebeni Placide, Foncelle Caroline, Mubonga Mukulumanya, Ndimbo-Kumugo Simon-Pierre, Lunguya-Metila Octavie, Mbenzo-Abokome Valentin, Muyembe-Tamfum Jean-Jacques, Delaporte Eric, Peeters Martine
Like the majority of emerging infectious diseases, HIV and HTLV are of zoonotic origin. Here we assess the risk of cross-species transmissions of their simian counterparts, SIV and STLV, from non-human primates (NHP) to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). A total of 331 samples, derived from NHP bushmeat, were collected as dried blood spots (DBS, n = 283) or as tissue samples (n = 36) at remote forest sites mainly in northern and eastern DRC. SIV antibody prevalences in DBS were estimated with a novel high throughput immunoassay with antigens representing the actual known diversity of HIV/SIV lineages...
March 2017: EcoHealth
Kim N Le, Matthew Marsik, David J Daegling, Ana Duque, William Scott McGraw
OBJECTIVES: We investigated how heterogeneity in material stiffness affects structural stiffness in the cercopithecid mandibular cortical bone. We assessed (1) whether this effect changes the interpretation of interspecific structural stiffness variation across four primate species, (2) whether the heterogeneity is random, and (3) whether heterogeneity mitigates bending stress in the jaw associated with food processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of Taï Forest, Cote d'Ivoire, monkeys: Cercocebus atys, Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, and Cercopithecus diana...
March 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lauriane Cacheux, Loïc Ponger, Michèle Gerbault-Seureau, Florence Anne Richard, Christophe Escudé
BACKGROUND: Alpha satellite is the major repeated DNA element of primate centromeres. Evolution of these tandemly repeated sequences has led to the existence of numerous families of monomers exhibiting specific organizational patterns. The limited amount of information available in non-human primates is a restriction to the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of alpha satellite DNA. RESULTS: We carried out the targeted high-throughput sequencing of alpha satellite monomers and dimers from the Cercopithecus solatus genome, an Old World monkey from the Cercopithecini tribe...
November 14, 2016: BMC Genomics
Noah T Dunham, Erin E Kane, W Scott McGraw
OBJECTIVES: We previously found that differing degrees of forelimb flexion, elevation, and abduction during nonlocomotor foraging activities covaried with scapular morphology among four sympatric cercopithecids. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether features of the proximal humerus are similarly related to forelimb elevation during foraging. METHODS: Our sample consists of humeri (n = 42) of adult Cercocebus atys, Cercopithecus diana, Colobus polykomos, and Piliocolobus badius collected from Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park...
February 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Susan E Lad, David J Daegling, W Scott McGraw
OBJECTIVES: Independent lines of evidence suggest that osteonal bone remodeling is a function of both mechanical (i.e., changes in stress) and non-mechanical (i.e., metabolic needs related to calcium liberation) factors. The degree to which secondary bone reflects mechanical factors, however, is incompletely understood despite the common assumption that the stress environment mediates remodeling activity. Here, we investigate whether there are remodeling differences between regions of primate mandibular bone known to have distinct stress environments...
November 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tierra Smiley Evans, Kirsten V K Gilardi, Peter A Barry, Benard Jasper Ssebide, Jean Felix Kinani, Fred Nizeyimana, Jean Bosco Noheri, Denis K Byarugaba, Antoine Mudakikwa, Michael R Cranfield, Jonna A K Mazet, Christine K Johnson
Infectious diseases pose one of the most significant threats to the survival of great apes in the wild. The critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is at high risk for contracting human pathogens because approximately 60% of the population is habituated to humans to support a thriving ecotourism program. Disease surveillance for human and non-human primate pathogens is important for population health and management of protected primate species. Here, we evaluate discarded plants from mountain gorillas and sympatric golden monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis kandti), as a novel biological sample to detect viruses that are shed orally...
June 22, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Meifang Song, Yanan Xue, Lidi Chen, Xiaoyang Xia, Yang Zhou, Lei Liu, Bo Yu, Sihui Long, Shiwen Huang, Faquan Yu
A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release...
August 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Elizabeth Tapanes, Kate M Detwiler, Marina Cords
The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus...
June 2016: EcoHealth
Claudia Stephan, Klaus Zuberbühler
Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other's calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other's alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone)...
February 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Tetsuya Sakamaki, Ulrich Maloueki, Batuafe Bakaa, Lingomo Bongoli, Phila Kasalevo, Saeko Terada, Takeshi Furuichi
Findings of regional variations in the behavioral patterns of non-human primates have led to the vigorous study of animal traditions (or culture), which contribute to a biological understanding of diversity in human cultures. Although our knowledge of behavioral variations of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) is limited compared with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), variations in the prey of this species have been reported across study sites. This study describes evidence of mammals consumed by bonobos in the Iyondji site, which was established in 2010...
July 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Anne M Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K Brockman, Linda M Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B Strier, William F Morris
We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes...
March 1, 2016: Scientific Data
Anthony J Tosi, Kate M Detwiler
We demonstrate the utility of previously described molecular methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. Using phylogenetic analyses and DNA sequence comparisons at X-chromosomal and Y-chromosomal loci, we have identified a hybrid animal in the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo (USA)--an identification that was not known a priori but was later confirmed by review of zoo records. The molecular techniques employed here are of great use to studies of the genus Cercopithecus because, unlike most mammals, these monkeys frequently form polyspecific associations, and recent deforestation is likely to have driven otherwise low-level hybridization to higher frequencies which may reduce the fitness of threatened populations...
January 2016: Zoo Biology
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