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M Robles, E Nouveau, C Gautier, L Mendoza, C Dubois, M Dahirel, B Lagofun, M-C Aubrière, J-P Lejeune, I Caudron, I Guenon, C Viguié, L Wimel, H Bouraima-Lelong, D Serteyn, A Couturier-Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing concern in horses. The effects of maternal obesity on maternal metabolism and low-grade inflammation during pregnancy, as well as offspring growth, metabolism, low-grade inflammation, testicular maturation and osteochondrotic lesions until 18 months of age were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four mares were used and separated into two groups at insemination according to body condition score (BCS): Normal (N, n = 10, BCS ≤4) and Obese (O, n = 14, BCS ≥4...
2018: PloS One
M Lange, S Guénon, F Lever, R Kleiner, D Koelle
Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
M Robles, C Dubois, C Gautier, M Dahirel, I Guenon, H Bouraima-Lelong, C Viguié, L Wimel, A Couturier-Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
Primiparous mares are known to produce smaller foals than multiparous mares. This difference seems to be partly explained by the reduced exchange surface and volume of the placental villi in primiparous compared to multiparous placentas. The effect of maternal parity on foals' post-natal growth, metabolism and sexual maturation, however, has been given little consideration. The objectives of this work were to analyse placental biometry and structure at term, growth of foals and yearlings, their metabolism and testicular maturation at one year of age...
March 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Erin E Kane, W Scott McGraw
Establishing dietary central tendencies and extremes remains an important goal of primate research. While habitat differences and spatial discontinuity are well-documented contributors to dietary variation, other factors including polyspecific associations may significantly impact diet through changes in strata use and/or increased feeding competition. Here, we examine polyspecific association with closely related species as a source of dietary variation in a rain forest primate. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in Côte d'Ivoire's Taï Forest frequently participate in mixed-species groups...
2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Morgane Robles, Camille Gautier, Luis Mendoza, Pauline Peugnet, Cédric Dubois, Michèle Dahirel, Jean-Philippe Lejeune, Isabelle Caudron, Isabelle Guenon, Sylvaine Camous, Anne Tarrade, Laurence Wimel, Didier Serteyn, Hélène Bouraima-Lelong, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts...
2017: PloS One
Fabian Schmidt, Florian Liegeois, Edward J D Greenwood, Matthew LeBreton, James Lester, Luc Deleplancque, Martine Peeters, Avelin Aghokeng, Ubald Tamoufe, Joseph L D Diffo, Jean M Takuo, Nathan D Wolfe, Eric Leroy, François Rouet, Jonathan L Heeney
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the result of cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). SIVcpz is a chimeric virus which shares common ancestors with viruses infecting red-capped mangabeys and a subset of guenon species. The epidemiology of SIV infection in hominoids is characterized by low prevalences and an uneven geographic distribution. Surveys in Cameroon indicated that two closely related members of the guenon species subset, mustached guenons and greater spot-nosed guenons, infected with SIVmus and SIVgsn, respectively, also have low rates of SIV infections in their populations...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Ahuka-Mundeke Steve, Ayouba Ahidjo, Mbala-Kingebeni Placide, Foncelle Caroline, Mubonga Mukulumanya, Ndimbo-Kumugo Simon-Pierre, Lunguya-Metila Octavie, Mbenzo-Abokome Valentin, Muyembe-Tamfum Jean-Jacques, Delaporte Eric, Peeters Martine
Like the majority of emerging infectious diseases, HIV and HTLV are of zoonotic origin. Here we assess the risk of cross-species transmissions of their simian counterparts, SIV and STLV, from non-human primates (NHP) to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). A total of 331 samples, derived from NHP bushmeat, were collected as dried blood spots (DBS, n = 283) or as tissue samples (n = 36) at remote forest sites mainly in northern and eastern DRC. SIV antibody prevalences in DBS were estimated with a novel high throughput immunoassay with antigens representing the actual known diversity of HIV/SIV lineages...
March 2017: EcoHealth
William M Switzer, Shaohua Tang, HaoQiang Zheng, Anupama Shankar, Patrick S Sprinkle, Vickie Sullivan, Timothy C Granade, Walid Heneine
Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence...
2016: PloS One
Camille Gautier, Isabelle Barrier-Battut, Isabelle Guénon, Didier Goux, Christelle Delalande, Hélène Bouraïma-Lelong
Estrogen receptors ESR1, ESR2 and GPER are present on mature ejaculated horse spermatozoa, suggesting these cells as putative targets for estrogens. Indeed, spermatozoa are exposed to high level of estrogens during the transit in the male and female genital tracts but their roles are not investigated. So, we evaluated in vitro the role of 17β-estradiol during post-testicular maturations: regulation of motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Moreover according to the pseudo-seasonal breeder status of the stallion, we analyzed the putative seasonal variations in the presence of ESRs in spermatozoa...
July 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Vanessa Brouard, Isabelle Guénon, Hélène Bouraima-Lelong, Christelle Delalande
Several studies have highlighted the negative effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical compound with estrogenic activity, on reproductive health. To elucidate the impact of BPA on spermatogenesis' establishment and mechanisms of action of BPA and 17β-estradiol (E2), as both can be found in the environment, we exposed rats to BPA (50μg/kg bw/day of BPA), E2 (20μg/kg bw/day of E2) and BPA+E2 from 15 to 30days post-partum. Histological and gene expression studies revealed that BPA and BPA+E2 exposures promoted spermatogenesis establishment whereas E2 alone delayed it...
August 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Sarah Elton, Anna-Ulla Jansson, Carlo Meloro, Julien Louys, Thomas Plummer, Laura C Bishop
Nearly all primates are ecologically dependent on trees, but they are nonetheless found in an enormous range of habitats, from highly xeric environments to dense rainforest. Most primates have a relatively 'generalised' skeleton, enabling locomotor flexibility and facilitating other crucial functions, such as manual foraging and grooming. This paper explores the associations between habitat, locomotion and morphology in the forelimbs of cercopithecids (Old World monkeys), contextualising their skeletal ecomorphological patterns with those of other mammals, and complementing functional morphological analyses with phylogenetic comparative techniques...
April 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Gérald Umhang, Jennifer Lahoreau, Vanessa Hormaz, Jean-Marc Boucher, Amandine Guenon, Damien Montange, Frédéric Grenouillet, Franck Boue
The fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease that may be fatal if untreated. A broad spectrum of mammalian species may be accidentally infected even in captivity. In April 2011, liver lesions due to E. multilocularis were observed during the necropsy of a captive-born nutria (Myocastor coypus) in a French wildlife park, leading to initiation of a study to survey the parasite's presence in the park. A comparable environmental contamination with fox's feces infected by E...
June 2016: Parasitology International
Keren Klass, Marina Cords
Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years...
December 2015: American Journal of Primatology
Peggy Motsch, Guillaume Le Flohic, Carole Dilger, Alexia Delahaye, Carmela Chateau-Smith, Sebastien Couette
We carried out a multidisciplinary study linking behavioral and morphological data from a little-known guenon species, Cercopithecus solatus, endemic to Gabon. Over a period of 9 months, we documented the pattern of stratum use associated with postural and locomotor behavior by direct observation (650 hrs) of a semi-free-ranging breeding colony. We also conducted a morphometric analysis of the humerus and limb proportions of 90 adult specimens from 16 guenon species, including C. solatus. Field observations indicated that C...
October 2015: American Journal of Primatology
Steffen Foerster, Kiio Kithome, Marina Cords, Steven L Monfort
OBJECTIVE: When resource competition within primate social groups is effective, high-ranking individuals generally gain fitness benefits. Contrary to expectations, female Cercopithecus mitis form linear dominance hierarchies without evidence for rank-related variation in fitness-relevant measures, raising questions about the evolution of guenon social structure. Here, we test whether social status predicts gastrointestinal helminth infections, known to influence health and morbidity in other mammalian hosts...
September 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Yusuke Nakano, Kenta Matsuda, Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Eri Yamada, Naoko Misawa, Vanessa M Hirsch, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
It has been estimated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originated from the zoonotic transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of chimpanzees, SIVcpz, and that SIVcpz emerged by the recombination of two lineages of SIVs in Old World monkeys (SIVgsn/mon/mus in guenons and SIVrcm in red-capped mangabeys) and SIVcpz Nef is most closely related to SIVrcm Nef. These observations suggest that SIVrcm Nef had an advantage over SIVgsn/mon/mus during the evolution of SIVcpz in chimpanzees, although this advantage remains uncertain...
September 2015: Journal of General Virology
Desiré L Dalton, Birthe Linden, Kirsten Wimberger, Lisa Jane Nupen, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Peter John Taylor, M Thabang Madisha, Antoinette Kotze
The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C...
2015: PloS One
William L Allen, James P Higham
Careful investigation of the form of animal signals can offer novel insights into their function. Here, we deconstruct the face patterns of a tribe of primates, the guenons (Cercopithecini), and examine the information that is potentially available in the perceptual dimensions of their multicomponent displays. Using standardized colour-calibrated images of guenon faces, we measure variation in appearance both within and between species. Overall face pattern was quantified using the computer vision 'eigenface' technique, and eyebrow and nose-spot focal traits were described using computational image segmentation and shape analysis...
March 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ben T Coleman, Russell A Hill
Primate species are characterised by variation in foraging behaviour and dietary composition across their geographic range. Here we examine how ecological conditions account for variation in the behavioural ecology of a widespread arboreal guenon, Cercopithecus mitis. Although substantial variation existed in time budgets, group size, home range and day journey length, clear biogeographic patterns were not apparent. In contrast, dietary variation was correlated with underlying climatic conditions. Temperature seasonality, which tends to increase with latitude, was significantly positively related to the proportion of fruit in the diet and negatively related to the proportion of animal matter...
2014: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
S Guénon, J G Ramírez, Ali C Basaran, J Wampler, M Thiemens, S Taylor, Ivan K Schuller
We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10(-12) cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials...
2014: Scientific Reports
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