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William M Switzer, Shaohua Tang, HaoQiang Zheng, Anupama Shankar, Patrick S Sprinkle, Vickie Sullivan, Timothy C Granade, Walid Heneine
Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence...
2016: PloS One
Camille Gautier, Isabelle Barrier-Battut, Isabelle Guénon, Didier Goux, Christelle Delalande, Hélène Bouraïma-Lelong
Estrogen receptors ESR1, ESR2 and GPER are present on mature ejaculated horse spermatozoa, suggesting these cells as putative targets for estrogens. Indeed, spermatozoa are exposed to high level of estrogens during the transit in the male and female genital tracts but their roles are not investigated. So, we evaluated in vitro the role of 17β-estradiol during post-testicular maturations: regulation of motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Moreover according to the pseudo-seasonal breeder status of the stallion, we analyzed the putative seasonal variations in the presence of ESRs in spermatozoa...
July 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Vanessa Brouard, Isabelle Guénon, Hélène Bouraima-Lelong, Christelle Delalande
Several studies have highlighted the negative effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical compound with estrogenic activity, on reproductive health. To elucidate the impact of BPA on spermatogenesis' establishment and mechanisms of action of BPA and 17β-estradiol (E2), as both can be found in the environment, we exposed rats to BPA (50μg/kg bw/day of BPA), E2 (20μg/kg bw/day of E2) and BPA+E2 from 15 to 30days post-partum. Histological and gene expression studies revealed that BPA and BPA+E2 exposures promoted spermatogenesis establishment whereas E2 alone delayed it...
August 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Sarah Elton, Anna-Ulla Jansson, Carlo Meloro, Julien Louys, Thomas Plummer, Laura C Bishop
Nearly all primates are ecologically dependent on trees, but they are nonetheless found in an enormous range of habitats, from highly xeric environments to dense rainforest. Most primates have a relatively 'generalised' skeleton, enabling locomotor flexibility and facilitating other crucial functions, such as manual foraging and grooming. This paper explores the associations between habitat, locomotion and morphology in the forelimbs of cercopithecids (Old World monkeys), contextualising their skeletal ecomorphological patterns with those of other mammals, and complementing functional morphological analyses with phylogenetic comparative techniques...
April 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Gérald Umhang, Jennifer Lahoreau, Vanessa Hormaz, Jean-Marc Boucher, Amandine Guenon, Damien Montange, Frédéric Grenouillet, Franck Boue
The fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease that may be fatal if untreated. A broad spectrum of mammalian species may be accidentally infected even in captivity. In April 2011, liver lesions due to E. multilocularis were observed during the necropsy of a captive-born nutria (Myocastor coypus) in a French wildlife park, leading to initiation of a study to survey the parasite's presence in the park. A comparable environmental contamination with fox's feces infected by E...
June 2016: Parasitology International
Keren Klass, Marina Cords
Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years...
December 2015: American Journal of Primatology
Peggy Motsch, Guillaume Le Flohic, Carole Dilger, Alexia Delahaye, Carmela Chateau-Smith, Sebastien Couette
We carried out a multidisciplinary study linking behavioral and morphological data from a little-known guenon species, Cercopithecus solatus, endemic to Gabon. Over a period of 9 months, we documented the pattern of stratum use associated with postural and locomotor behavior by direct observation (650 hrs) of a semi-free-ranging breeding colony. We also conducted a morphometric analysis of the humerus and limb proportions of 90 adult specimens from 16 guenon species, including C. solatus. Field observations indicated that C...
October 2015: American Journal of Primatology
Steffen Foerster, Kiio Kithome, Marina Cords, Steven L Monfort
OBJECTIVE: When resource competition within primate social groups is effective, high-ranking individuals generally gain fitness benefits. Contrary to expectations, female Cercopithecus mitis form linear dominance hierarchies without evidence for rank-related variation in fitness-relevant measures, raising questions about the evolution of guenon social structure. Here, we test whether social status predicts gastrointestinal helminth infections, known to influence health and morbidity in other mammalian hosts...
September 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Yusuke Nakano, Kenta Matsuda, Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Eri Yamada, Naoko Misawa, Vanessa M Hirsch, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
It has been estimated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originated from the zoonotic transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of chimpanzees, SIVcpz, and that SIVcpz emerged by the recombination of two lineages of SIVs in Old World monkeys (SIVgsn/mon/mus in guenons and SIVrcm in red-capped mangabeys) and SIVcpz Nef is most closely related to SIVrcm Nef. These observations suggest that SIVrcm Nef had an advantage over SIVgsn/mon/mus during the evolution of SIVcpz in chimpanzees, although this advantage remains uncertain...
September 2015: Journal of General Virology
Desiré L Dalton, Birthe Linden, Kirsten Wimberger, Lisa Jane Nupen, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Peter John Taylor, M Thabang Madisha, Antoinette Kotze
The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C...
2015: PloS One
William L Allen, James P Higham
Careful investigation of the form of animal signals can offer novel insights into their function. Here, we deconstruct the face patterns of a tribe of primates, the guenons (Cercopithecini), and examine the information that is potentially available in the perceptual dimensions of their multicomponent displays. Using standardized colour-calibrated images of guenon faces, we measure variation in appearance both within and between species. Overall face pattern was quantified using the computer vision 'eigenface' technique, and eyebrow and nose-spot focal traits were described using computational image segmentation and shape analysis...
March 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ben T Coleman, Russell A Hill
Primate species are characterised by variation in foraging behaviour and dietary composition across their geographic range. Here we examine how ecological conditions account for variation in the behavioural ecology of a widespread arboreal guenon, Cercopithecus mitis. Although substantial variation existed in time budgets, group size, home range and day journey length, clear biogeographic patterns were not apparent. In contrast, dietary variation was correlated with underlying climatic conditions. Temperature seasonality, which tends to increase with latitude, was significantly positively related to the proportion of fruit in the diet and negatively related to the proportion of animal matter...
2014: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
S Guénon, J G Ramírez, Ali C Basaran, J Wampler, M Thiemens, S Taylor, Ivan K Schuller
We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10(-12) cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials...
2014: Scientific Reports
Anja Zschoke, Ruth Thomsen
In Old World monkeys (OWM), the olfactory sense is thought to be less important than in other primate taxa. However, during the last decade experimental studies have shown that OWM possess much better olfactory capabilities than suspected. Here, we investigate for the very first time sniffing behaviours in three guenon species (Diana, de Brazza's and owl-faced monkeys) held in the Leipzig Zoo, Germany. We recorded frequencies and contexts of sniffing. The sniff index was used to allow comparisons across species...
2014: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Michael Lauck, William M Switzer, Samuel D Sibley, David Hyeroba, Alex Tumukunde, Geoffrey Weny, Anupama Shankar, Justin M Greene, Adam J Ericsen, HaoQiang Zheng, Nelson Ting, Colin A Chapman, Thomas C Friedrich, Tony L Goldberg, David H O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and 2, the causative agents of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), emerged from African non-human primates (NHPs) through zoonotic transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). Among African NHPs, the Cercopithecus genus contains the largest number of species known to harbor SIV. However, our understanding of the diversity and evolution of SIVs infecting this genus is limited by incomplete taxonomic and geographic sampling, particularly in East Africa...
2014: Retrovirology
Christopher C Gilbert, Faysal Bibi, Andrew Hill, Mark J Beech
A newly discovered fossil monkey (AUH 1321) from the Baynunah Formation, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, is important in a number of distinct ways. At ∼ 6.5-8.0 Ma, it represents the earliest known member of the primate subfamily Cercopithecinae found outside of Africa, and it may also be the earliest cercopithecine in the fossil record. In addition, the fossil appears to represent the earliest member of the cercopithecine tribe Cercopithecini (guenons) to be found anywhere, adding between 2 and 3...
July 15, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
William L Allen, Martin Stevens, James P Higham
Animal visual signals have the potential to act as an isolating barrier to prevent interbreeding of populations through a role in species recognition. Within communities of competing species, species recognition signals are predicted to undergo character displacement, becoming more visually distinctive from each other; however, this pattern has rarely been identified. Using computational face recognition algorithms to model primate face processing, we demonstrate that the face patterns of guenons (tribe: Cercopithecini) have evolved under selection to become more visually distinctive from those of other guenon species with whom they are sympatric...
June 26, 2014: Nature Communications
Samuel D Sibley, Michael Lauck, Adam L Bailey, David Hyeroba, Alex Tumukunde, Geoffrey Weny, Colin A Chapman, David H O'Connor, Tony L Goldberg, Thomas C Friedrich
Within the Flaviviridae, the recently designated genus Pegivirus has expanded greatly due to new discoveries in bats, horses, and rodents. Here we report the discovery and characterization of three simian pegiviruses (SPgV) that resemble human pegivirus (HPgV) and infect red colobus monkeys (Procolobus tephrosceles), red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius) and an olive baboon (Papio anubis). We have designated these viruses SPgVkrc, SPgVkrtg and SPgVkbab, reflecting their host species' common names, which include reference to their location of origin in Kibale National Park, Uganda...
2014: PloS One
Julia Weinelt, Stuart J D Neil
UNLABELLED: The mammalian antiviral membrane protein tetherin (BST2/CD317) can be expressed as two isoforms derived from differential translational initiation. The shorter isoform of the human protein (S-tetherin) lacks the first 12 amino acids of the longer (L-tetherin) cytoplasmic tail, which includes a tyrosine motif that acts as both an endocytic recycling signal and a determinant of virus-induced NF-κB activation. S-tetherin is also reported to be less sensitive to the prototypic viral antagonist human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu...
May 2014: Journal of Virology
Brahim Arkoun, Camille Gautier, Christelle Delalande, Isabelle Barrier-Battut, Isabelle Guénon, Didier Goux, Hélène Bouraïma-Lelong
Among mammals, the stallion produces the largest amount of testicular estrogens. These steroid hormones are produced mainly by Leydig and Sertoli cells in the testis and also in the epididymis. Their role in horse testicular physiology and their ability to act on spermatozoa are still unknown. In order to determine if spermatozoa are targets for estrogens, the presence of estrogen receptors in mature ejaculated spermatozoa has been investigated. The presence of a single isoform of ESR1 (66kDa) and ESR2 (61kDa) was found by Western-blot analysis in samples from seven stallions...
May 1, 2014: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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