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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333058/acquisition-of-a-socially-learned-tool-use-sequence-in-chimpanzees-implications-for-cumulative-culture
#1
Gillian L Vale, Sarah J Davis, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture underpins humanity's enormous success as a species. Claims that other animals are incapable of cultural ratcheting are prevalent, but are founded on just a handful of empirical studies. Whether cumulative culture is unique to humans thus remains a controversial and understudied question that has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the evolution of this phenomenon. We investigated whether one of human's two closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees, are capable of a degree of cultural ratcheting by exposing captive populations to a novel juice extraction task...
September 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331042/the-effects-of-social-context-and-food-abundance-on-chimpanzee-feeding-competition
#2
Rebecca Koomen, Esther Herrmann
Feeding competition is thought to play a role in primate social organization as well as cognitive evolution. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), social and ecological factors can affect competition, yet how these factors interact to affect feeding behavior is not fully understood; they can be difficult to disentangle in wild settings. This experiment investigated the differential effects of food quantity, the presence of a co-feeding partner, and the contestability of a food patch on feeding rate. We presented tolerant pairs of chimpanzees from a semi-captive social group with an apparatus comprising a matrix of transparent tubes between two adjacent rooms, of which, either all (abundant condition) or only a small proportion (scarce condition) were baited with peanuts...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330957/behavioral-correlates-of-cranial-muscle-functional-morphology
#3
Adam Hartstone-Rose, Sharlene E Santana
This issue of the Anatomical Record is the first of a two-volume set that focuses on new investigations into behavioral correlates of muscle functional morphology. Much of the research on functional morphology and adaptation to specific functional niches focuses on the shapes of hard-tissues-bones and teeth. Investigations into soft-tissue anatomy tend to be predominantly descriptive with only brief allusion to ontogenetic or evolutionary origins of structures. When muscles are included in analyses of functional systems, their function tends to be oversimplified-usually considered a simple force vector connecting two osteological points, with the force treated as a constant derived from some simple calculation of muscle size...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330952/jaw-muscle-fiber-architecture-and-leverage-in-the-hard-object-feeding-sooty-mangabey-are-not-structured-to-facilitate-relatively-large-bite-forces-compared-to-other-papionins
#4
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316540/allogrooming-in-male-female-pairs-of-captive-owl-monkeys-aotus-nancymaae
#5
Christy K Wolovich, Elizabeth Tapanes, Sian Evans
Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) are socially monogamous, yet allogrooming is reported to be rare. Because Aotus are nocturnal and arboreal, allogrooming is difficult to observe in natural settings. We observed 21 male-female pairs of captive Aotus nancymaae during 2 nonconsecutive study periods in order to describe the details of allogrooming between mates (partner grooming). We found that grooming bouts are brief and consist of tugging the hair or skin with flexed fingers and/or the mouth. Males groomed females most often, and their rates of partner grooming were negatively related to age...
January 10, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316506/expansion-microscopy-development-and-neuroscience-applications
#6
REVIEW
Emmanouil D Karagiannis, Edward S Boyden
Many neuroscience questions center around understanding how the molecules and wiring in neural circuits mechanistically yield behavioral functions, or go awry in disease states. However, mapping the molecules and wiring of neurons across the large scales of neural circuits has posed a great challenge. We recently developed expansion microscopy (ExM), a process in which we physically magnify biological specimens such as brain circuits. We synthesize throughout preserved brain specimens a dense, even mesh of a swellable polymer such as sodium polyacrylate, anchoring key biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the polymer...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313896/great-ape-walking-kinematics-implications-for-hominoid-evolution
#7
Emma M Finestone, Mary H Brown, Stephen R Ross, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVES: Great apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics. METHODS: High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299937/assessment-of-environmental-enrichment-for-different-primate-species-under-low-budget-a-case-study
#8
R Costa, C Sousa, M Llorente
The 2011 European Union Zoo Inquiry presented evidence that most zoos fail to achieve adequate levels of nonhuman animal welfare. Appropriate environmental enrichment (EE) can play a role in the promotion of welfare. However, financial and staff constraints frequently make it challenging to implement EE on a daily basis. The aim of this study was to test how individuals of three different nonhuman primate species at the Maia Zoo in Portugal (white-handed gibbons, Hylobates lar; Mona monkeys, Cercopithecus mona; and brown lemurs, Eulemur fulvus) reacted to EE devices...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298912/transient-visual-pathway-critical-for-normal-development-of-primate-grasping-behavior
#9
Inaki-Carril Mundinano, Dylan M Fox, William C Kwan, Diego Vidaurre, Leon Teo, Jihane Homman-Ludiye, Melvyn A Goodale, David A Leopold, James A Bourne
An evolutionary hallmark of anthropoid primates, including humans, is the use of vision to guide precise manual movements. These behaviors are reliant on a specialized visual input to the posterior parietal cortex. Here, we show that normal primate reaching-and-grasping behavior depends critically on a visual pathway through the thalamic pulvinar, which is thought to relay information to the middle temporal (MT) area during early life and then swiftly withdraws. Small MRI-guided lesions to a subdivision of the inferior pulvinar subnucleus (PIm) in the infant marmoset monkey led to permanent deficits in reaching-and-grasping behavior in the adult...
January 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282581/cumulative-culture-in-nonhumans-overlooked-findings-from-japanese-monkeys
#10
REVIEW
Daniel P Schofield, William C McGrew, Akiko Takahashi, Satoshi Hirata
Cumulative culture, generally known as the increasing complexity or efficiency of cultural behaviors additively transmitted over successive generations, has been emphasized as a hallmark of human evolution. Recently, reviews of candidates for cumulative culture in nonhuman species have claimed that only humans have cumulative culture. Here, we aim to scrutinize this claim, using current criteria for cumulative culture to re-evaluate overlooked qualitative but longitudinal data from a nonhuman primate, the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata)...
December 27, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281860/subchondral-bone-radiodensity-patterns-in-the-glenoid-fossa-of-ape-and-human-scapulae
#11
Biren A Patel, Joshua T Romanu, Kristian J Carlson
Regions of denser subchondral bone deep to a joint's articular surface indicate locations where the joint experiences relatively higher or more frequent compressive trans-articular forces than less dense regions. Human clinically-focused studies have hypothesized that regional variation of highest radiodensity (HiRD), acquired with computed tomography osteoabsorptiomety (CT-OAM), in the human glenoid fossa (GF) is specifically related to forces arising from everyday rotator cuff muscle function. We test this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between rotator cuff function and GF HiRD subchondral bone patterns in a broader comparative context...
December 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280023/body-signals-used-during-social-play-in-captive-immature-western-lowland-gorillas
#12
Erin A Weigel, Carol M Berman
The play face is a well-established play signal in nonhuman primates that functions to invite play and convey a playful intent. However, recent evidence indicates that some species display repertoires of play signals that may have more specific meanings related to particular aspects of play. Furthermore, previous studies have inconsistently categorized gorilla behaviors as play signals versus actual play. Here we aim to identify behaviors displayed by two immature captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the Buffalo Zoo that meet three necessary criteria to be considered play signals...
December 26, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279379/two-types-of-aggression-in-human-evolution
#13
Richard W Wrangham
Two major types of aggression, proactive and reactive, are associated with contrasting expression, eliciting factors, neural pathways, development, and function. The distinction is useful for understanding the nature and evolution of human aggression. Compared with many primates, humans have a high propensity for proactive aggression, a trait shared with chimpanzees but not bonobos. By contrast, humans have a low propensity for reactive aggression compared with chimpanzees, and in this respect humans are more bonobo-like...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259545/neuromodulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-non-human-primates-by-dopaminergic-receptors-during-rule-guided-flexible-behavior-and-cognitive-control
#14
REVIEW
Susheel Vijayraghavan, Alex J Major, Stefan Everling
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is indispensable for several higher-order cognitive and executive capacities of primates, including representation of salient stimuli in working memory (WM), maintenance of cognitive task set, inhibition of inappropriate responses and rule-guided flexible behavior. PFC networks are subject to robust neuromodulation from ascending catecholaminergic systems. Disruption of these systems in PFC has been implicated in cognitive deficits associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249843/female-spider-monkeys-ateles-geoffroyi-cope-with-anthropogenic-disturbance-through-fission-fusion-dynamics
#15
Michelle A Rodrigues
Most primates live in habitats with some level of anthropogenic disturbance, and such disturbances have a larger impact on frugivorous primates that are more sensitive to ecological disruptions than folivores. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provide insight into how the external environment affects internal physiological state, and thus provide information on how anthropogenic pressures become embodied. Here, I examine how subgroup size and glucocorticoids vary with high and low fruit abundance, and how fruit abundance, subgroup size, and activity budget affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) living in an anthropogenically disturbed habitat...
October 2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244623/attachment-figure-s-regulation-of-infant-brain-and-behavior
#16
Regina M Sullivan
Altricial infants (i.e., requiring parental care for survival), such as humans and rats, form an attachment to their caregiver and receive the nurturing and protections needed for survival. Learning has a strong role in attachment, as is illustrated by strong attachment formed to non-biological caregivers of either sex. Here we summarize and integrate results from animal and human infant attachment research that highlights the important role of social buffering (social presence) of the stress response by the attachment figure and its effect on infant processing of threat and fear through modulation of the amygdala...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242978/animal-models-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-the-6-ohda-lesioned-rat-and-mouse
#17
REVIEW
Elisabetta Tronci, Veronica Francardo
Appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) represents a major limitation in the pharmacological therapy with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA. Indeed, the vast majority of parkinsonian patients develop dyskinesia within 9-10 years of L-DOPA oral administration. This makes the discovery of new therapeutic strategies an important need. In the last decades, several animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been developed, to both study mechanisms underlying PD pathology and treatment-induced side effects (i...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242902/effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-the-visual-system-of-monkeys-measured-at-different-stages-of-development
#18
Vanessa Harrar, Laurent Elkrief, Joseph Bouskila, Ryan Kucera, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jean-François Bouchard, Roberta Palmour, Maurice Ptito
Purpose: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disease characterized by behavioral problems and physical defects including malformations of the eye and associated optical defects. How these malformations affect retinal functioning is not well known, although animal models have suggested that scotopic vision is particularly deficient. Age is also known to affect scotopic vision. Here, we determined the combined effects of age and fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) on retinal function using full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) in monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230674/diet-and-activity-patterns-of-arsi-geladas-in-low-elevation-disturbed-habitat-south-of-the-rift-valley-at-indetu-ethiopia
#19
Kelil Abu, Addisu Mekonnen, Afework Bekele, Peter J Fashing
Understanding the basic natural history of threatened primate taxa is crucial to developing and implementing successful conservation strategies for them. Data on feeding ecology and activity patterns are particularly important for identifying the strategies through which primates invest time and foraging effort towards survival and reproduction at a given locale. Here, we report the results of the first study of the diet and activity budget of Arsi geladas, a population of < 1000 individuals endemic to a heavily disturbed region of the southern Ethiopian Highlands and believed to represent a new taxon of geladas...
December 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230601/deer-mates-a-quantitative-study-of-heterospecific-sexual-behaviors-performed-by-japanese-macaques-toward-sika-deer
#20
Noëlle Gunst, Paul L Vasey, Jean-Baptiste Leca
This is the first quantitative study of heterospecific sexual behavior between a non-human primate and a non-primate species. We observed multiple occurrences of free-ranging adolescent female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) performing mounts and sexual solicitations toward sika deer (Cervus nippon) at Minoo, central Japan. Our comparative description of monkey-deer versus monkey-monkey interactions supported the "heterospecific sexual behavior" hypothesis: the mounts and demonstrative solicitations performed by adolescent female Japanese macaques toward sika deer were sexual in nature...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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