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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146465/more-than-blindsight-case-report-of-a-child-with-extraordinary-visual-capacity-following-perinatal-bilateral-occipital-lobe-injury
#1
Inaki-Carril Mundinano, Juan Chen, Mitchell de Souza, Marc G Sarossy, Marc F Joanisse, Melvyn A Goodale, James A Bourne
Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) and the geniculostriate pathway in adults results in cortical blindness, abolishing conscious visual perception. Early studies by Larry Weiskrantz and colleagues demonstrated that some patients with an occipital-lobe injury exhibited a degree of unconscious vision and visually-guided behaviour within the blind field. A more recent focus has been the observed phenomenon whereby early-life injury to V1 often results in the preservation of visual perception in both monkeys and humans...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145489/expert-cognition-in-the-production-sequence-of-acheulian-cleavers-at-gesher-benot-ya-aqov-israel-a-lithic-and-cognitive-analysis
#2
Gadi Herzlinger, Thomas Wynn, Naama Goren-Inbar
Stone cleavers are one of the most distinctive components of the Acheulian toolkit. These tools were produced as part of a long and complex reduction sequence and they provide indications for planning and remarkable knapping skill. These aspects hold implications regarding the cognitive complexity and abilities of their makers and users. In this study we have analyzed a cleaver assemblage originating from the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel, to provide a reconstruction of the chaîne opératoire which structured their production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#3
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142094/standardized-automated-training-of-rhesus-monkeys-for-neuroscience-research-in-their-housing-environment
#4
Michael Berger, Antonino Calapai, Valeska Stephan, Michael Niessing, Leonore Burchardt, Alexander Gail, Stefan Treue
Teaching non-human primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules, and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134410/extractive-foraging-of-toxic-caterpillars-in-wild-northern-pig-tailed-macaques-macaca-leonina
#5
Florian Trébouet, Ulrich H Reichard, Nantasak Pinkaew, Suchinda Malaivijitnond
Extractive foraging in nonhuman primates may involve different levels of technical complexity in terms of the number of actions that must be performed and the manual dexterity involved. We describe the extractive foraging of caterpillars in wild northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. The study group, observed from May to December 2016 (n = 146 days), comprised 60-70 habituated individuals, including 3-4 adult males, 20-23 adult females, and 36-47 immatures. Four adult males and five adult females, observed from September to November 2016 for a total of 24 days, were selected for focal animal sampling...
November 13, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128294/behavioral-depression-is-associated-with-increased-vagally-mediated-heart-rate-variability-in-adult-female-cynomolgus-monkeys-macaca-fascicularis
#6
Marc N Jarczok, Julian Koenig, Carol A Shively, Julian F Thayer
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms (DS) in humans are associated with decreased resting state vagal activity, but sex seems to moderate this association. Recently, in human females DS have been associated with greater or similar cardiac vagal activity compared to men in both, clinical and non-clinical samples. A previously validated animal model of behavioral depression was used in the present study to investigate the association of DS and cardiac vagal activity in non-human primates. METHODS: The root mean square of successive differences between adjacent heart beats (RMSSD) was used as an indicator of vagally-mediated heart rate variability in 24h heart rate recordings collected via telemetry in 42 adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127484/progress-in-developing-transgenic-monkey-model-for-huntington-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Brooke R Snyder, Anthony W S Chan
Huntington's disease (HD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that has no cure. Although treatments can often be given to relieve symptoms, the neuropathology associated with HD cannot be stopped or reversed. HD is characterized by degeneration of the striatum and associated pathways that leads to impairment in motor and cognitive functions as well as psychiatric disturbances. Although cell and rodent models for HD exist, longitudinal study in a transgenic HD nonhuman primate (i.e., rhesus macaque; HD monkeys) shows high similarity in its progression with human patients...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125625/low-inherent-sensitivity-to-the-intoxicating-effects-of-ethanol-in-rhesus-monkeys-with-low-csf-concentrations-of-the-serotonin-metabolite-5-hydroxyindoleacetic-acid
#8
Elizabeth K Wood, Ryno Kruger, Angus Bennion, Bradley M Cooke, Stephen Lindell, Melanie Schwandt, David Goldman, Christina S Barr, Stephen J Suomi, J Dee Higley
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 Alcoholism is characterized by low serotonin system functioning and has a high degree of heritability, with offspring of alcoholics often showing a reduced response to the intoxicating effects of ethanol, which is thought to be marker for future alcohol use disorders (AUDs). As such, an important aim of studies investigating the origins of AUDs is understanding the relationship between serotonin system functioning and level of intoxication. A nonhuman primate model was used to evaluate observational ratings of sensitivity to ethanol and to further investigate the relationship between central serotonin activity and behavioral response to ethanol...
November 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120094/visitor-effect-on-the-behavior-of-a-group-of-spider-monkeys-ateles-geoffroyi-maintained-at-an-island-in-lake-catemaco-veracruz-mexico
#9
Sergio Pérez-Galicia, Manuel Miranda-Anaya, Domingo Canales-Espinosa, Jairo Muñoz-Delgado
We analyzed the effect of human visitors on the behavior of a group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept on a small tourist island. Although the spider monkey is a common species in zoos, there are very few specific studies on visitor effects on these monkeys. We conducted behavioral observations on the group of spider monkeys to evaluate the effect of visitors. We also used actimetry devices to measure the variations in the spider monkeys' locomotor activity associated with human presence. With regard to the effect on behavior, we found an increase in self-directed behaviors and a decrease in vocalization, both associated with human presence...
November 9, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118339/action-categorization-in-rhesus-monkeys-discrimination-of-grasping-from-non-grasping-manual-motor-acts
#10
Koen Nelissen, Wim Vanduffel
The ability to recognize others' actions is an important aspect of social behavior. While neurophysiological and behavioral research in monkeys has offered a better understanding of how the primate brain processes this type of information, further insight with respect to the neural correlates of action recognition requires tasks that allow recording of brain activity or perturbing brain regions while monkeys simultaneously make behavioral judgements about certain aspects of observed actions. Here we investigated whether rhesus monkeys could actively discriminate videos showing grasping or non-grasping manual motor acts in a two-alternative categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118219/nonhuman-primate-optogenetics-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#11
Adriana Galvan, William R Stauffer, Leah Acker, Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Shay Ohayon, Michael C Schmid
Optogenetics is the use of genetically coded, light-gated ion channels or pumps (opsins) for millisecond resolution control of neural activity. By targeting opsin expression to specific cell types and neuronal pathways, optogenetics can expand our understanding of the neural basis of normal and pathological behavior. To maximize the potential of optogenetics to study human cognition and behavior, optogenetics should be applied to the study of nonhuman primates (NHPs). The homology between NHPs and humans makes these animals the best experimental model for understanding human brain function and dysfunction...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117195/biological-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-west-african-lineages-of-west-nile-virus
#12
Gamou Fall, Nicholas Di Paola, Martin Faye, Moussa Dia, Caio César de Melo Freire, Cheikh Loucoubar, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African lineages in arthropod (Ap61) and primate (Vero) cell lines, and in mice...
November 8, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115213/maintained-avalanche-dynamics-during-task-induced-changes-of-neuronal-activity-in-nonhuman-primates
#13
Shan Yu, Tiago L Ribeiro, Christian Meisel, Samantha Chou, Andrew Mitz, Richard Saunders, Dietmar Plenz
Sensory events, cognitive processing and motor actions correlate with transient changes in neuronal activity. In cortex, these transients form widespread spatiotemporal patterns with largely unknown statistical regularities. Here, we show that activity associated with behavioral events carry the signature of scale-invariant spatiotemporal clusters, neuronal avalanches. Using high-density microelectrode arrays in nonhuman primates, we recorded extracellular unit activity and the local field potential (LFP) in premotor and prefrontal cortex during motor and cognitive tasks...
November 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113833/the-role-of-genetic-background-in-susceptibility-to-chemical-warfare-nerve-agents-across-rodent-and-non-human-primate-models
#14
REVIEW
Liana M Matson, Hilary S McCarren, C Linn Cadieux, Douglas M Cerasoli, John H McDonough
Genetics likely play a role in various responses to nerve agent exposure, as genetic background plays an important role in behavioral, neurological, and physiological responses to environmental stimuli. Mouse strains or selected lines can be used to identify susceptibility based on background genetic features to nerve agent exposure. Additional genetic techniques can then be used to identify mechanisms underlying resistance and sensitivity, with the ultimate goal of developing more effective and targeted therapies...
November 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107551/caudate-microstimulation-increases-value-of-specific-choices
#15
Samantha R Santacruz, Erin L Rich, Joni D Wallis, Jose M Carmena
Value-based decision-making involves an assessment of the value of items available and the actions required to obtain them. The basal ganglia are highly implicated in action selection and goal-directed behavior [1-4], and the striatum in particular plays a critical role in arbitrating between competing choices [5-9]. Previous work has demonstrated that neural activity in the caudate nucleus is modulated by task-relevant action values [6, 8]. Nonetheless, how value is represented and maintained in the striatum remains unclear since decision-making in these tasks relied on spatially lateralized responses, confounding the ability to generalize to a more abstract choice task [6, 8, 9]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106402/selective-neuronal-lapses-precede-human-cognitive-lapses-following-sleep-deprivation
#16
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi, Itzhak Fried
Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099404/differential-effects-of-dopaminergic-drugs-on-spontaneous-motor-activity-in-the-common-marmoset-following-pretreatment-with-a-bilateral-brain-infusion-of-6-hydroxydopamine
#17
Kiyoshi Ando, Chiyoko Nishime, Ryo Inoue, Eiko Nishinaka, Kenji Kawai, Koji Urano, Hideki Tsutsumi
The differential effects of dopaminergic drugs with different pharmacological profiles were investigated with respect to spontaneous motor activity in the common marmoset following pretreatment with a bilateral brain infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Three marmosets received infusions of 6-OHDA (either 30 or 40 μg/side) into the bilateral dopamine-rich area running from the substantia nigra to the striatum. The motor activity of the 6-OHDA marmosets was compared with that of three intact marmosets...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098692/ontogeny-of-hallucal-metatarsal-rigidity-and-shape-in-the-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta-and-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#18
Biren A Patel, Jason M Organ, Tea Jashashvili, Stephanie H Bui, Holly M Dunsworth
Life history variables including the timing of locomotor independence, along with changes in preferred locomotor behaviors and substrate use during development, influence how primates use their feet throughout ontogeny. Changes in foot function during development, in particular the nature of how the hallux is used in grasping, can lead to different structural changes in foot bones. To test this hypothesis, metatarsal midshaft rigidity [estimated from the polar second moment of area (J) scaled to bone length] and cross-sectional shape (calculated from the ratio of maximum and minimum second moments of area, Imax /Imin ) were examined in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 73) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 79)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095507/social-hair-pulling-in-captive-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#19
Allison Heagerty, Rebecca A Wales, Kamm Prongay, Daniel H Gottlieb, Kristine Coleman
Alopecia is common among captive populations of nonhuman primates. There are many potential causes of alopecia, including physiological conditions such as hormonal imbalance and infection, features of the captive environment such as housing type, ground substrate, and group density, as well as behavioral abnormalities such as self-plucking. A potential behavioral cause of alopecia in group-housed primates is social hair pulling, where one animal pulls hair from a conspecific. While social hair pulling has been conflated with overgrooming in some of the alopecia literature, other authors have categorized it as a form of aggression rather than a form of excessive grooming...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093179/a-distinct-hematopoietic-stem-cell-population-for-rapid-multilineage-engraftment-in-nonhuman-primates
#20
Stefan Radtke, Jennifer E Adair, Morgan A Giese, Yan-Yi Chan, Zachary K Norgaard, Mark Enstrom, Kevin G Haworth, Lauren E Schefter, Hans-Peter Kiem
Hematopoietic reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation is thought to be driven by committed multipotent progenitor cells followed by long-term engrafting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We observed a population of early-engrafting cells displaying HSC-like behavior, which persisted long-term in vivo in an autologous myeloablative transplant model in nonhuman primates. To identify this population, we characterized the phenotype and function of defined nonhuman primate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) subsets and compared these to human HSPCs...
November 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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