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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720113/evaluation-of-electric-nets-as-means-to-sample-mosquito-vectors-host-seeking-on-humans-and-primates
#1
Frances Hawkes, Benny Obrain Manin, Sui Han Ng, Stephen J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua, Heather M Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is found in macaques and is the only major zoonotic malaria to affect humans. Transmission of P. knowlesi between people and macaques depends on the host species preferences and feeding behavior of mosquito vectors. However, these behaviours are difficult to measure due to the lack of standardized methods for sampling potential vectors attracted to different host species. This study evaluated electrocuting net traps as a safe, standardised method for sampling P...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#2
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
July 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709783/role-of-the-lateral-habenula-in-memory-through-online-processing-of-information
#3
REVIEW
Victor Mathis, Lucas Lecourtier
Our memory abilities, whether they involve short-term working memory or long-term episodic or procedural memories, are essential for our well-being, our capacity to adapt to constraints of our environment and survival. Therefore, several key brain regions and neurotransmitter systems are engaged in the processing of sensory information to either maintain such information in working memory so that it will quickly be used, and/or participate in the elaboration and storage of enduring traces useful for longer periods of time...
July 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689980/the-contribution-of-area-mt-to-visual-motion-perception-depends-on-training
#4
Liu D Liu, Christopher C Pack
Perceptual decisions require the transformation of raw sensory inputs into cortical representations suitable for stimulus discrimination. One of the best-known examples of this transformation involves the middle temporal area (MT) of the primate visual cortex. Area MT provides a robust representation of stimulus motion, and previous work has shown that it contributes causally to performance on motion discrimination tasks. Here we report that the strength of this contribution can be highly plastic: depending on the recent training history, pharmacological inactivation of MT can severely impair motion discrimination, or it can have little detectable influence...
June 29, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680403/scopolamine-induces-deficits-in-spontaneous-object-location-recognition-and-fear-learning-in-marmoset-monkeys
#5
Jonathan L Melamed, Fernando M de Jesus, Rafael S Maior, Marilia Barros
The non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCP) induces memory deficits in both animals and humans. However, few studies have assessed the effects of amnesic agents on memory functions of marmosets - a small-bodied neotropical primate that is becoming increasingly used as a translational model for several neuropathologies. Here we assessed the effects of an acute SCP administration (0.03 mg/kg, sc) on the behavior of adult marmoset monkeys in two tasks. In the spontaneous object-location (SOL) recognition task, two identical neutral stimuli were explored on the sample trial, after which preferential exploration of the displaced versus the stationary object was analyzed on the test trial...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680188/modeling-social-dominance-elo-ratings-prior-history-and-the-intensity-of-aggression
#6
Nicholas E Newton-Fisher
Among studies of social species, it is common practice to rank individuals using dyadic social dominance relationships. The Elo-rating method for achieving this is powerful and increasingly popular, particularly among studies of nonhuman primates, but suffers from two deficiencies that hamper its usefulness: an initial burn-in period during which the model is unreliable and an assumption that all win-loss interactions are equivalent in their influence on rank trajectories. Here, I present R code that addresses these deficiencies by incorporating two modifications to a previously published function, testing this with data from a 9-mo observational study of social interactions among wild male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Uganda...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670296/the-evolution-of-lateralized-brain-circuits
#7
Michael C Corballis
In the vast clade of animals known as the bilateria, cerebral and behavioral asymmetries emerge against the backdrop of bilateral symmetry, with a functional trade-off between the two. Asymmetries can lead to more efficient processing and packaging of internal structures, but at the expense of efficient adaptation to a natural world without systematic left-right bias. Asymmetries may arise through the fissioning of ancestral structures that are largely symmetrical, creating new circuits. In humans these may include asymmetrical adaptations to language and manufacture, and as one or other hemisphere gains dominance for functions that were previously represented bilaterally...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667703/hippocampal-gamma-slow-oscillation-coupling-in-macaques-during-sedation-and-sleep
#8
Andrew G Richardson, Xilin Liu, Pauline K Weigand, Eric D Hudgins, Joel M Stein, Sandhitsu R Das, Alexander Proekt, Max B Kelz, Milin Zhang, Jan Van der Spiegel, Timothy H Lucas
Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the slow (≤ 1 Hz) oscillation (SO) during sleep plays a role in consolidating hippocampal (HIPP)-dependent memories. The effects of the SO on HIPP activity have been studied in rodents and cats both during natural sleep and during anesthetic administration titrated to mimic sleep-like slow rhythms. In this study, we sought to document these effects in primates. First, HIPP field potentials were recorded during ketamine-dexmedetomidine sedation and during natural sleep in three rhesus macaques...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666782/how-bonobo-communities-deal-with-fruits-containing-high-tannin-content-re-ingestion-and-other-feeding-processes
#9
David Beaune, Gottfried Hohmann, Adeline Serckx, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Victor Narat, Barbara Fruth
This report describes bonobo (Pan paniscus, Hominidae) behavioral flexibility and inter-community differences in with high tannin level fruit processing. In fruiting plants, tannin should discourage certain seed dispersers (direct deterrence hypothesis) such as primates. Based on data deriving from five study sites; LuiKotale, Lomako, Wamba, Malebo and Manzano, we compare consumption and dispersal of fruit species rich in tannins: Parinari and Musanga pulp was chewed across all communities probably for saliva tannin neutralisation...
June 27, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659284/renal-vascular-and-glomerular-pathologies-associated-with-spontaneous-hypertension-in-the-nonhuman-primate-chlorocebus-aethiops-sabaeus
#10
Megan K Rhoads, Slavina B Goleva, William H Beierwaltes, Jeffrey L Osborn
Hypertension is a complex disease affecting 78 million adults in the United States. The etiology of essential hypertension is unknown and current experimental models do not recapitulate all behavioral and physiological characteristics of the pathology. Researchers should assess the translational capacity of these models and look to other animal models for the discovery of new therapies. Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus, the African Green Monkey (AGM), is a nonhuman primate that develops spontaneous hypertension and is a novel translational model for the study of hypertension and associated diseases...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658297/abnormal-dendritic-maturation-of-developing-cortical-neurons-exposed-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-insights-into-effects-of-prenatal-adversity
#11
Megan M Curran, Curt A Sandman, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Tallie Z Baram
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the hypothalamus initiates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the body's stress response. CRH levels typically are undetectable in human plasma, but during pregnancy the primate placenta synthesizes and releases large amounts of CRH into both maternal and fetal circulations. Notably, placental CRH synthesis increases in response to maternal stress signals. There is evidence that human fetal exposure to high concentrations of placental CRH is associated with behavioral consequences during infancy and into childhood, however the direct effects on of the peptide on the human brain are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658057/plasma-retention-and-systemic-kinetics-of-90sr-intramuscularly-injected-in-female-nonhuman-primates
#12
Deepesh Poudel, John A Klumpp, Luiz Bertelli, Raymond A Guilmette, Richard R Brey
Thirteen female Rhesus macaques were intramuscularly injected with Sr(NO3)2 diluted in sodium citrate solution. The biokinetic data from these animals were compared against the predictions of the NCRP 156 wound models combined with the ICRP systemic models. It was observed that the activities measured in plasma of these nonhuman primates (NHPs) were consistently lower than those predicted by the default human biokinetic models. The urinary excretion from the NHPs at times immediately after injection was much greater than that in humans...
August 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656886/genetic-characterization-of-a-captive-colony-of-pigtailed-macaques-macaca-nemestrina
#13
Xinjun Zhang, Sree Kanthaswamy, Jessica S Trask, Jillian Ng, Robert F Oldt, Joseph L Mankowski, Robert J Adams, David G Smith
Effective colony management is critical to guarantee the availability of captive NHP as subjects for biomedical research.Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are an important model for the study of human and nonhuman primate diseasesand behavior. Johns Hopkins University hosts one of the largest captive colonies of pigtailed macaques in the United States.In this study, we used 56 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to characterize this population of pigtailed macaques, understandtheir population structure, and assess the effectiveness of their colony management...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654656/developmental-trajectory-of-the-corpus-callosum-from-infancy-to-the-juvenile-stage-comparative-mri-between-chimpanzees-and-humans
#14
Tomoko Sakai, Akichika Mikami, Juri Suzuki, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Mie Matsui, Masaki Tomonaga, Yuzuru Hamada, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Hideyuki Okano, Kenichi Oishi
How brains develop during early life is one of the most important topics in neuroscience because it underpins the neuronal functions that mature during this period. A comparison of the neurodevelopmental patterns among humans and nonhuman primates is essential to infer evolutional changes in neuroanatomy that account for higher-order brain functions, especially those specific to humans. The corpus callosum (CC) is the major white matter bundle that connects the cerebral hemispheres, and therefore, relates to a wide variety of neuronal functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654635/two-different-mechanisms-support-selective-attention-at-different-phases-of-training
#15
Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Kexin Cha, Anna Byers, John T Serences
Selective attention supports the prioritized processing of relevant sensory information to facilitate goal-directed behavior. Studies in human subjects demonstrate that attentional gain of cortical responses can sufficiently account for attention-related improvements in behavior. On the other hand, studies using highly trained nonhuman primates suggest that reductions in neural noise can better explain attentional facilitation of behavior. Given the importance of selective information processing in nearly all domains of cognition, we sought to reconcile these competing accounts by testing the hypothesis that extensive behavioral training alters the neural mechanisms that support selective attention...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649198/the-role-of-retinal-carotenoids-and-age-on-neuroelectric-indices-of-attentional-control-among-early-to-middle-aged-adults
#16
Anne M Walk, Caitlyn G Edwards, Nicholas W Baumgartner, Morgan R Chojnacki, Alicia R Covello, Ginger E Reeser, Billy R Hammond, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Naiman A Khan
One apparent consequence of aging appears to be loss of some aspects of cognitive control. This loss is measurable as early as mid-adulthood. Since, like many aspects of cognition, there is wide variance among individuals, it is possible that behavior, such as one's diet, could drive some of these differences. For instance, past data on older humans and non-human primates have suggested that dietary carotenoids could slow cognitive decline. In this study, we tested how early such protection might manifest by examining a sample (n = 60) of 25-45 year olds...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648720/an-engineered-home-environment-for-untethered-data-telemetry-from-nonhuman-primates
#17
Marc P Powell, William R Britz, James S Harper, David A Borton
BACKGROUND: Wireless neural recording technologies now provide untethered access to large populations of neurons in the nonhuman primate brain. Such technologies enable long-term, continuous interrogation of neural circuits and importantly open the door for chronic neurorehabilitation platforms. For example, by providing continuous consistent closed loop feedback from a brain machine interface, the nervous system can leverage plasticity to integrate more effectively into the system than would be possible in short experimental sessions...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648497/selective-optogenetic-control-of-purkinje-cells-in-monkey-cerebellum
#18
Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo, Gregory D Horwitz
Purkinje cells of the primate cerebellum play critical but poorly understood roles in the execution of coordinated, accurate movements. Elucidating these roles has been hampered by a lack of techniques for manipulating spiking activity in these cells selectively-a problem common to most cell types in non-transgenic animals. To overcome this obstacle, we constructed AAV vectors carrying the channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) gene under the control of a 1 kb L7/Pcp2 promoter. We injected these vectors into the cerebellar cortex of rhesus macaques and tested vector efficacy in three ways...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648172/serial-parallel-and-hierarchical-decision-making-in-primates
#19
Ariel Zylberberg, Jeannette Am Lorteije, Brian G Ouellette, Chris I De Zeeuw, Mariano Sigman, Pieter Roelfsema
The study of decision-making has mainly focused on isolated decisions where choices are associated with motor actions. However, problem-solving often involves considering a hierarchy of sub-decisions. In a recent study (Lorteije et al. 2015), we reported behavioral and neuronal evidence for hierarchical decision making in a task with a small decision tree. We observed a first phase of parallel evidence integration for multiple sub-decisions, followed by a phase in which the overall strategy formed. It has been suggested that a 'flat' competition between the ultimate motor actions might also explain these results...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648171/breaking-down-hierarchies-of-decision-making-in-primates
#20
Alexandre Hyafil, Rubén Moreno-Bote
Possible options in a decision often organize as a hierarchy of subdecisions. A recent study concluded that perceptual processes in primates mimic this hierarchical structure and perform subdecisions in parallel. We argue that a flat model that directly selects between final choices accounts more parsimoniously for the reported behavioral and neural data. Critically, a flat model is characterized by decision signals integrating evidence at different hierarchical levels, in agreement with neural recordings showing this integration in localized neural populations...
June 26, 2017: ELife
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