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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634675/wild-capuchin-monkeys-anticipate-the-amount-of-ripe-fruit-in-natural-trees
#1
María Paula Tujague, Charles H Janson
Tropical forests have a high diversity of tree species which have very low densities and vary across time in their seasons of peak fruiting and maturation rates. As evidence of the ability of primates to track or anticipate changes in fruit production at individual trees, researchers have used the increased speed of primate groups toward more rewarding food patches. We analyzed the speed of approach to natural trees of wild capuchin monkeys under the effect of scramble competition, after excluding any plausible visual, olfactory and auditory cues...
June 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634668/black-and-white-snub-nosed-monkey-rhinopithecus-bieti-feeding-behavior-in-a-degraded-forest-fragment-clues-to-a-stressed-population
#2
Zhi-Pang Huang, Matthew B Scott, Yan-Peng Li, Guo-Peng Ren, Zuo-Fu Xiang, Liang-Wei Cui, Wen Xiao
Rapid global deforestation has forced many of the world's primates to live in fragmented habitats, making the understanding of their behavioral responses to degraded and fragmented habitats a key challenge for their future protection and management. The black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) is an endangered species endemic to southwest China. The forest habitat ranges from near-continuous to fragmented. In this study, we investigated the activity budget and diet of a R. bieti population that live in an isolated and degraded habitat patch at Mt...
June 20, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630255/social-context-dependent-activity-in-marmoset-frontal-cortex-populations-during-natural-conversations
#3
Samuel U Nummela, Vladimir Jovanovic, Lisa de la Mothe, Cory T Miller
Communication is an inherently interactive process that weaves together the fabric of both human and nonhuman primate societies. To investigate the properties of the primate brain during active social signaling, we recorded the responses of frontal cortex neurons as freely-moving marmosets engaged in conversational exchanges with a visually occluded Virtual Marmoset (VM). We found that small changes in firing rate (∼1Hz) occurred across a broadly distributed population of frontal cortex neurons when marmosets heard a conspecific vocalization, and that these changes corresponded to subjects' likelihood of producing or withholding a vocal reply...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625354/foraging-cognition-reviving-the-ecological-intelligence-hypothesis
#4
REVIEW
Alexandra G Rosati
What are the origins of intelligent behavior? The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that 'foraging cognition' - skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control - varies adaptively across primates...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#5
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624586/modeling-the-development-of-drug-addiction-in-male-and-female-animals
#6
REVIEW
Wendy J Lynch
An increasing emphasis has been placed on the development and use of animal models of addiction that capture defining features of human drug addiction, including escalation/binge drug use, enhanced motivation for the drug, preference for the drug over other reward options, use despite negative consequences, and enhanced drug-seeking/relapse vulnerability. The need to examine behavior in both males and females has also become apparent given evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622924/functional-associations-between-support-use-and-forelimb-shape-in-strepsirrhines-and-their-relevance-to-inferring-locomotor-behavior-in-early-primates
#7
Anne-Claire Fabre, Judit Marigó, Michael C Granatosky, Daniel Schmitt
The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and orientation. It is widely assumed that primates are behaviorally and anatomically adapted to movement on specific substrates, but few explicit tests of this relationship in an evolutionary context have been conducted. Without direct tests of form-function relationships in living primates it is impossible to reliably infer behavior in fossil taxa...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622158/general-anesthesia-and-young-brain-what-is-new
#8
Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Ansgar Brambrick
Considering that growing population of very young children is exposed to general anesthesia every year, it is of utmost importance to understand how and whether such practice may affect the development and growth of their very immature and vulnerable brains. Compelling evidence from animal studies suggests that an early exposure to general anesthesia is detrimental to normal brain development leading to structural and functional impairments of neurons and glia, and long-lasting impairments in normal emotional and cognitive development...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620834/dysregulation-of-striatal-projection-neurons-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Goichi Beck, Arun Singh, Stella M Papa
The loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) is the primary cause of motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying striatal mechanisms remain unclear. In spite of abundant literature portraying structural, biochemical and plasticity changes of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), in the past there has been a data vacuum from the natural human disease and its close model in non-human primates. Recently, single-cell recordings in advanced parkinsonian primates have generated new insights into the altered function of SPNs...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620013/the-evolution-of-vertical-climbing-in-primates-evidence-from-reaction-forces
#10
Jandy B Hanna, Michael C Granatosky, Pooja Rana, Daniel Schmitt
Vertical climbing is an essential behavior for arboreal animals, yet limb mechanics during climbing are poorly understood and rarely compared to those observed during horizontal walking. Primates commonly engage in both arboreal walking and vertical climbing, and this makes them an ideal taxa in which to compare these locomotor forms. Additionally, primates exhibit unusual limb mechanics compared to most other quadrupeds, with weight distribution biased towards the hindlimbs, a pattern that is argued to have evolved in response to the challenges of arboreal walking...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615338/activity-of-primate-v1-neurons-during-the-gap-saccade-task
#11
Kayeon Kim, Choongkil Lee
When a saccadic eye movement is made toward a visual stimulus, the variability in accompanying V1 activity is related to saccade latency in both human (Bompas et al., 2015) and non-human (Lee et al., 2010) primates. In order to understand the nature of this relationship, we examined the functional link between V1 activity and the initiation of visually guided saccades during the gap saccade task, in which a brief temporal gap is interposed between the turning off of a fixation stimulus and the appearance of a saccadic target...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612152/harassment-of-adults-by-immatures-in-bonobos-pan-paniscus-testing-the-exploratory-aggression-and-rank-improvement-hypotheses
#12
Klaree Boose, Frances White
The immatures of many primate species frequently pester adult group members with aggressive behaviors referred to as a type of harassment. Although these behaviors are characteristic of immatures as they develop from infancy through adolescence, there have been few studies that specifically address the adaptive significance of harassment. Two functional hypotheses have been generated from observations of the behavior in chimpanzees. The Exploratory Aggression hypothesis describes harassment as a mechanism used by immatures to learn about the parameters of aggression and dominance behavior and to acquire information about novel, complex, or unpredictable relationships...
June 13, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609387/long-term-sertraline-treatment-and-depression-effects-on-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-in-premenopausal-female-primates
#13
Marnie G Silverstein-Metzler, Jamie N Justice, Susan E Appt, Leanne Groban, Dalane W Kitzman, John Jeffrey Carr, Thomas C Register, Carol A Shively
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis developed during premenopausal years predicts postmenopausal atherosclerosis burden. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, recently approved for hot flushes, have been associated with increased ischemic stroke risk in several observational studies; however, effects on carotid artery atherosclerosis, a strong predictor of future vascular events, are unknown. METHODS: The effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on atherosclerosis in the carotid artery was assessed in a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study of premeonopausal depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n = 42)...
June 12, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607170/oxytocin-and-serotonin-brain-mechanisms-in-the-non-human-primate
#14
Lefevre Arthur, Richard Nathalie, Jazayeri Mina, Beuriat Pierre-Aurélien, Fieux Sylvain, Zimmer Luc, Duhamel Jean-René, Sirigu Angela
Oxytocin is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between oxytocin (OT) and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET-scan in humans we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) function is modified after intra-nasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592695/unravelling-the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-reversal-learning
#15
Adrià Vilà-Balló, Ernest Mas-Herrero, Pablo Ripollés, Marta Simó, Júlia Miró, David Cucurell, Diana López-Barroso, Montserrat Juncadella, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Mercè Falip, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Research in reversal learning has mainly focused on the functional role of dopamine and striatal structures in driving behavior on the basis of classic reinforcement learning mechanisms. However, recent evidence indicates that beyond classic RL adaptations, individuals may also learn the inherent task structure and anticipate the occurrence of reversals. A candidate structure to support such task representation is the hippocampus, which might create a flexible representation of the environment that can be adaptively applied to goal-directed behavior...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592502/the-mouse-lemur-a-genetic-model-organism-for-primate-biology-behavior-and-health
#16
REVIEW
Camille Ezran, Caitlin J Karanewsky, Jozeph L Pendleton, Alex Sholtz, Maya R Krasnow, Jason Willick, Andriamahery Razafindrakoto, Sarah Zohdy, Megan A Albertelli, Mark A Krasnow
Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans...
June 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586711/an-eye-tracking-system-for-monitoring-face-scanning-patterns-reveals-the-enhancing-effect-of-oxytocin-on-eye-contact-in-common-marmosets
#17
Manato Kotani, Kohei Shimono, Toshihiro Yoneyama, Tomokazu Nakako, Kenji Matsumoto, Yuji Ogi, Naho Konoike, Katsuki Nakamura, Kazuhito Ikeda
Eye tracking systems are used to investigate eyes position and gaze patterns presumed as eye contact in humans. Eye contact is a useful biomarker of social communication and known to be deficient in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Interestingly, the same eye tracking systems have been used to directly compare face scanning patterns in some non-human primates to those in human. Thus, eye tracking is expected to be a useful translational technique for investigating not only social attention and visual interest, but also the effects of psychiatric drugs, such as oxytocin, a neuropeptide that regulates social behavior...
May 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585062/comparison-of-the-social-systems-of-primates-and-feral-horses-data-from-a-newly-established-horse-research-site-on-serra-d-arga-northern-portugal
#18
Monamie Ringhofer, Sota Inoue, Renata S Mendonça, Carlos Pereira, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Satoshi Hirata, Shinya Yamamoto
Horses are phylogenetically distant from primates, but considerable behavioral links exist between the two. The sociality of horses, characterized by group stability, is similar to that of primates, but different from that of many other ungulates. Although horses and primates are good models for exploring the evolution of societies in human and non-human animals, fewer studies have been conducted on the social system of horses than primates. Here, we investigated the social system of feral horses, particularly the determinant factors of single-male/multi-male group dichotomy, in light of hypotheses derived from studies of primate societies...
June 5, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584928/effects-of-the-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonist-way163909-on-the-abuse-related-effects-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-neurochemistry-induced-by-abused-stimulants-in-rhesus-monkeys
#19
Laís F Berro, Maylen Perez Diaz, Eric Maltbie, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that the serotonergic system plays a major role in psychostimulant abuse through its interactions with the dopaminergic system. Studies indicate that serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are one of the main classes of receptors involved in mediating the influence of serotonin in drug abuse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY163909 on the behavioral neuropharmacology of cocaine and methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques...
June 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579395/cryopreservation-maintains-functionality-of-human-ipsc-dopamine-neurons-and-rescues-parkinsonian-phenotypes-in%C3%A2-vivo
#20
Dustin R Wakeman, Benjamin M Hiller, David J Marmion, Christopher W McMahon, Grant T Corbett, Kile P Mangan, Junyi Ma, Lauren E Little, Zhong Xie, Tamara Perez-Rosello, Jaime N Guzman, D James Surmeier, Jeffrey H Kordower
A major challenge for clinical application of pluripotent stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) is large-scale manufacturing and cryopreservation of neurons that can be efficiently prepared with minimal manipulation. To address this obstacle, midbrain dopamine neurons were derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-mDA) and cryopreserved in large production lots for biochemical and transplantation studies. Cryopreserved, post-mitotic iPSC-mDA neurons retained high viability with gene, protein, and electrophysiological signatures consistent with midbrain floor-plate lineage...
May 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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