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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933293/differences-in-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-developing-cerebral-cortical-proliferative-zone-between-mice-and-ferrets-at-both-the-tissue-and-single-cell-levels
#1
Arata Nagasaka, Tomoyasu Shinoda, Takumi Kawaue, Makoto Suzuki, Kazuaki Nagayama, Takeo Matsumoto, Naoto Ueno, Ayano Kawaguchi, Takaki Miyata
Cell-producing events in developing tissues are mechanically dynamic throughout the cell cycle. In many epithelial systems, cells are apicobasally tall, with nuclei and somata that adopt different apicobasal positions because nuclei and somata move in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This movement is apical during G2 phase and basal during G1 phase, whereas mitosis occurs at the apical surface. These movements are collectively referred to as interkinetic nuclear migration, and such epithelia are called "pseudostratified...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933005/social-brain-hypothesis-vocal-and-gesture-networks-of-wild-chimpanzees
#2
Sam G B Roberts, Anna I Roberts
A key driver of brain evolution in primates and humans is the cognitive demands arising from managing social relationships. In primates, grooming plays a key role in maintaining these relationships, but the time that can be devoted to grooming is inherently limited. Communication may act as an additional, more time-efficient bonding mechanism to grooming, but how patterns of communication are related to patterns of sociality is still poorly understood. We used social network analysis to examine the associations between close proximity (duration of time spent within 10 m per hour spent in the same party), grooming, vocal communication, and gestural communication (duration of time and frequency of behavior per hour spent within 10 m) in wild chimpanzees...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931506/neural-stem-cells-derived-from-human-parthenogenetic-stem-cells-engraft-and-promote-recovery-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-parkinsons-disease
#3
Rodolfo Gonzalez, Ibon Garitaonandia, Maxim Poustovoitov, Tatiana Abramihina, Caleb McEntire, Ben Culp, Jordan Attwood, Alexander Noskov, Trudy Christiansen-Weber, Marwa Khater, Sergio Mora-Castilla, Cuong To, Andrew Crain, Glenn Sherman, Andrey Semechkin, Louise C Laurent, John D Elsworth, John Sladek, Evan Y Snyder, D Eugene Redmond, Russell A Kern
Cell therapy has attracted considerable interest as a promising therapeutic alternative for patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). Clinical studies have shown that grafted fetal neural tissue can achieve considerable biochemical and clinical improvements in PD. However, the source of fetal tissue grafts is limited and ethically controversial. Human parthenogenetic stem cells offer a good alternative because they are derived from unfertilized oocytes without destroying potentially viable human embryos and can be used to generate an unlimited supply of neural cells for transplantation...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927962/selective-neuronal-activation-by-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-primate
#4
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
: Despite the success of cochlear implants (CIs) in human populations, most users perform poorly in noisy environments and music and tonal language perception. How CI devices engage the brain at the single neuron level has remained largely unknown, in particular in the primate brain. By comparing neuronal responses with acoustic and CI stimulation in marmoset monkeys unilaterally implanted with a CI electrode array, we discovered that CI stimulation was surprisingly ineffective at activating many neurons in auditory cortex, particularly in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the CI...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927787/functional-characterization-and-spatial-clustering-of-visual-cortical-neurons-in-the-predatory-grasshopper-mouse-onychomys-arenicola
#5
Benjamin Scholl, Jagruti J Pattadkal, Ashley Rowe, Nicholas J Priebe
Mammalian neocortical circuits are functionally organized such that the selectivity of individual neurons systematically shifts across the cortical surface, forming a continuous map. Maps of the sensory space exist in cortex, such as retinotopic maps in the visual system or tonotopic maps in the auditory system, but other functional response properties may also be similarly organized. For example, many carnivores and primates possess a map for orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex (V1), whereas mice, rabbits, and the gray squirrel lack orientation maps...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927739/the-roles-of-dopamine-d1-receptor-on-the-social-hierarchy-of-rodents-and-non-human-primates
#6
Yoshie Yamaguchi, Young-A Lee, Akemi Kato, Yukiori Goto
BACKGROUND: Although dopamine (DA) has been suggested to play a role in mediating social behaviors of individual animals, it is not clear whether such DA signaling contributes to attributes of social groups such as social hierarchy. METHODS: In this study, the effects of the pharmacological manipulation of DA D1 receptor function on the social hierarchy and behavior of group-housed mice and macaques were investigated using a battery of behavioral tests. RESULTS: D1 receptor blockade facilitated social dominance in mice at the middle, but not high or low, social rank in the groups without altering social preference among mates...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926446/how-motivation-and-reward-learning-modulate-selective-attention
#7
A Bourgeois, L Chelazzi, P Vuilleumier
Motivational stimuli such as rewards elicit adaptive responses and influence various cognitive functions. Notably, increasing evidence suggests that stimuli with particular motivational values can strongly shape perception and attention. These effects resemble both selective top-down and stimulus-driven attentional orienting, as they depend on internal states but arise without conscious will, yet they seem to reflect attentional systems that are functionally and anatomically distinct from those classically associated with frontoparietal cortical networks in the brain...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923731/social-modulation-of-cognition-lessons-from-rhesus-macaques-relevant-to-education
#8
REVIEW
Elisabetta Monfardini, Amélie J Reynaud, Jérôme Prado, Martine Meunier
Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922101/social-determinants-of-eyeblinks-in-adult-male-macaques
#9
Sébastien Ballesta, Clayton P Mosher, Jeno Szep, Kate D Fischl, Katalin M Gothard
Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919830/newly-acquired-and-reactivated-contextual-fear-memories-are-more-intense-and-prone-to-generalize-after-activation-of-prelimbic-cortex-nmda-receptors
#10
Ana C Vanvossen, Marina A M Portes, Rafael Scoz-Silva, Hugo B Reichmann, Cristina A J Stern, Leandro J Bertoglio
Activity in the rodent prelimbic (PL) cortex contributes to consolidation, retrieval and reconsolidation of learned fear. The PL cortex is considered homologous to the primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the dACC is often reported to be hyperactive after acquisition and/or around the retrieval of the traumatic memory. It is still unknown, however, whether there is a relationship between altered dACC functioning at these time points and PTSD-associated behavioral outcomes, such as fear overgeneralization...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#11
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911740/the-puzzle-of-visual-development-behavior-and-neural-limits
#12
Lynne Kiorpes
The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910919/group-benefit-associated-with-polymorphic-trichromacy-in-a-malagasy-primate-propithecus-verreauxi
#13
Carrie C Veilleux, Clara J Scarry, Anthony Di Fiore, E Christopher Kirk, Deborah A Bolnick, Rebecca J Lewis
In some primate lineages, polymorphisms in the X-linked M/LWS opsin gene have produced intraspecific variation in color vision. In these species, heterozygous females exhibit trichromacy, while males and homozygous females exhibit dichromacy. The evolutionary persistence of these polymorphisms suggests that balancing selection maintains color vision variation, possibly through a 'trichromat advantage' in detecting yellow/orange/red foods against foliage. We identified genetic evidence of polymorphic trichromacy in a population of Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) at Kirindy Mitea National Park in Madagascar, and explored effects of color vision on reproductive success and feeding behavior using nine years of morphological, demographic, and feeding data...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903730/network-patterns-associated-with-navigation-behaviors-are-altered-in-aged-nonhuman-primates
#14
James R Engle, Christopher J Machado, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, Andrew P Maurer, Alicia M Bulleri, Carol A Barnes
: The ability to navigate through space involves complex interactions between multiple brain systems. Although it is clear that spatial navigation is impaired during aging, the networks responsible for these altered behaviors are not well understood. Here, we used a within-subject design and [(18)F]FDG-microPET to capture whole-brain activation patterns in four distinct spatial behaviors from young and aged rhesus macaques: constrained space (CAGE), head-restrained passive locomotion (CHAIR), constrained locomotion in space (TREADMILL), and unconstrained locomotion (WALK)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903726/distinct-neural-activities-in-premotor-cortex-during-natural-vocal-behaviors-in-a-new-world-primate-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#15
Sabyasachi Roy, Lingyun Zhao, Xiaoqin Wang
: Although evidence from human studies has long indicated the crucial role of the frontal cortex in speech production, it has remained uncertain whether the frontal cortex in nonhuman primates plays a similar role in vocal communication. Previous studies of prefrontal and premotor cortices of macaque monkeys have found neural signals associated with cue- and reward-conditioned vocal production, but not with self-initiated or spontaneous vocalizations (Coudé et al., 2011; Hage and Nieder, 2013), which casts doubt on the role of the frontal cortex of the Old World monkeys in vocal communication...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899768/effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-adipose-mass-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-aging-in-human
#16
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Esmeralda Giovannetti, Katia Aquilano
In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895610/the-origin-of-social-evaluation-social-eavesdropping-reputation-formation-image-scoring-or-what-you-will
#17
REVIEW
Judit Abdai, Ádám Miklósi
Social evaluation is a mental process that leverages the preference toward prosocial partners (positivity bias) against the avoidance of antisocial individuals (negativity bias) in a cooperative context. The phenomenon is well-known in humans, and recently comparative investigations looked at the possible evolutionary origins. So far social evaluation has been investigated mainly in non-human and human primates and dogs, however, there are few data on the presence of negativity/positivity bias in client-cleaner reef fish interactions as well...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890304/awareness-of-goal-oriented-behavior-during-infancy-and-early-childhood-in-human-and-non-human-primates
#18
Heidi L Marsh, Maria Legerstee
We review the literature surrounding the phylogenetic and developmental emergence of goal-oriented behavior, among human and non-human primates. We define goal-oriented awareness as the ability to perceive goals and perceptions in others. We examine empirical literature involving gaze-following, shared attention, distinguishing between actions and intentions, and the ability to generate and understand communicative cues. We conclude that at least a rudimentary awareness of goal-oriented behavior is present from birth in humans, and in adult great apes...
November 24, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889921/chimpanzee-uses-manipulative-gaze-cues-to-conceal-and-reveal-information-to-foraging-competitor
#19
Katie Hall, Mike W Oram, Matthew W Campbell, Timothy M Eppley, Richard W Byrne, Frans B M de Waal
: Tactical deception has been widely reported in primates on a functional basis, but details of behavioral mechanisms are usually unspecified. We tested a pair of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the informed forager paradigm, in which the subordinate saw the location of hidden food and the dominant did not. We employed cross-correlations to examine temporal contingencies between chimpanzees' behavior: specifically how the direction of the subordinate's gaze and movement functioned to manipulate the dominant's searching behavior through two tactics, withholding, and misleading information...
November 27, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888771/increased-anxiety-like-behaviors-but-blunted-cortisol-stress-response-after-neonatal-hippocampal-lesions-in-monkeys
#20
Jessica Raper, Mark Wilson, Mar Sanchez, Christa Payne, Jocelyne Bachevalier
The hippocampus is most notably known for its role in cognition and spatial memory; however it also plays an essential role in emotional behaviors and neuroendocrine responses. The current study investigated the long-term effects of neonatal hippocampal lesions (Neo-Hibo) on emotional and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. During infancy, unlike controls, Neo-Hibo monkeys exhibited enhanced expression of emotional behaviors (e.g. freezing, anxiety-like, and self-directed behaviors) when exposed to a human intruder (HI task)...
November 18, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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