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Behavior primate

Nahoko Tokuyama, Deborah Lynn Moore, Kirsty Emma Graham, Albert Lokasola, Takeshi Furuichi
Maternal cannibalism, whereby a mother consumes her own offspring, occurs in various animal taxa and is commonly explained by nutritional stress or environmental pressures. It is rare in nonhuman primates and is considered an aberrant behavior only observed under high-stress conditions. It was therefore surprising when, in the first reported case of cannibalism in wild bonobos, a mother consumed part of the dead infant at LuiKotale. Here we report two more cases of maternal cannibalism by wild bonobos at two different study sites, Wamba and Kokolopori...
October 25, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Robyn A Grant, Mariane G Delaunay, Sebastian Haidarliu
All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared to terrestrial, diurnal mammals...
October 25, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Simone Grassini, Suvi K Holm, Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto
Snakes were probably one of the earliest predators of primates, and snake images produce specific behavioral and electrophysiological reactions in humans. Pictures of snakes evoke enhanced activity over the occipital cortex, indexed by the "early posterior negativity" (EPN), as compared with pictures of other dangerous or non-dangerous animals. The present study investigated the possibility that the response to snake images is independent from visual awareness. The observers watched images of threatening and non-threatening animals presented in random order during rapid serial visual presentation...
October 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
Caroline M Hostetler, Katherine Hinde, Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Douglas J Rowland, Guobao B Wang, David Kukis, Simon R Cherry, Karen L Bales
Pair bonding leads to increases in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) binding in the nucleus accumbens of monogamous prairie voles. In the current study, we hypothesized that there is similar up-regulation of D1R in a monogamous primate, the titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus). Receptor binding of the D1R antagonist [(11) C]-SCH23390 was measured in male titi monkeys using PET scans before and after pairing with a female. We found that within-subject analyses of pairing show significant increases in D1R binding in the lateral septum, but not the nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, or ventral pallidum...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Mylène Quervel-Chaumette, Gaëlle Mainix, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species' propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context because it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Thomas Ebenhan, Isabel Schoeman, Daniel D Rossouw, Anne Grobler, Biljana Marjanovic-Painter, Judith Wagener, Hendrik G Kruger, Mike M Sathekge, Jan Rijn Zeevaart
PURPOSE: Radiopharmaceuticals containing the motive tripeptide arginyl-glycyl-asparatic acid (RGD) are known to target ανβ3 integrins during tumor angiogenesis. A more generic kit radiolabeling procedure accommodating Ga-68 from different generators was developed for NOTA-RGD and evaluated for its versatile use and safety in subsequent in vivo applications. The [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kit was further verified for its expected biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in nonhuman primates and its clinical sensitivity to detect solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) in cancer patients...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Jeff Walker, Jason MacLean, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The common marmoset has recently gained interest as an animal model for systems and behavioral neuroscience. This is due in part to the advent of transgenic marmosets, which affords the possibility of combining genetic manipulations with physiological recording and behavioral monitoring to study neural systems. In this review, we will argue that the marmoset provides a unique opportunity to study the neural basis of voluntary motor control from an integrative perspective. First, as an intermediate animal model, the marmoset represents an important bridge in motor system function between other primates, including humans, and rodents...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Steven J Eliades, Cory T Miller
There has been recent increasing interest in the use of marmosets, a New World primate species, as a model in biomedical research. One of the principal advantages of marmosets as a research model is their rich vocal repertoire and communicative vocal behaviors displayed both in the wild and in captivity. Studies of this species' vocal communication system have the potential to reveal the evolutionary underpinnings of human speech, and therefore are of interest to the neuroscience and biology research communities...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Fabian Grabenhorst, Istvan Hernadi, Wolfram Schultz
The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation...
October 12, 2016: ELife
Sohei Oyama, Hidetomo Kitamura, Taichi Kuramochi, Yoshinobu Higuchi, Hiroaki Matsushita, Tsukasa Suzuki, Masaaki Goto, Hideki Adachi, Keiko Kasutani, Akihisa Sakamoto, Yuki Iwayanagi, Akihisa Kaneko, Masahiko Nanami, Etsuko Fujii, Keiko Esaki, Yoshiaki Takashima, Shin Shimaoka, Kunihiro Hattori, Yoshiki Kawabe
Scratching is an important factor exacerbating skin lesions through the so-called itch-scratch cycle in atopic dermatitis (AD). In mice, interleukin (IL)-31 and its receptor IL-31 receptor A (IL-31RA) are known to play a critical role in pruritus and the pathogenesis of AD; however, study of their precise roles in primates is hindered by the low sequence homologies between primates and mice and the lack of direct evidence of itch sensation by IL-31 in primates. We showed that administration of cynomolgus IL-31 induces transient scratching behavior in cynomolgus monkeys, and by that were able to establish a monkey model of scratching...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Rebecca H Larke, Nicole Maninger, Benjamin J Ragen, Sally P Mendoza, Karen L Bales
Relatively little is known about serotonergic involvement in pair-bonding despite its putative role in regulating social behavior. Here we sought to determine if pharmacological elevation of serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor activity would lead to changes in social behavior in pair-bonded male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus). Adult males in established heterosexual pairs were injected daily with the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT or saline for 15days using a within-subjects design. Social behavior with the female pair-mate was quantified, and plasma concentrations of oxytocin, vasopressin, and cortisol were measured...
October 3, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Douglas A Smith, Bruce E Blough, Matthew L Banks
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones have emerged as the newest class of abused monoamine transporter substrates. Structurally, these compounds are all beta-ketone amphetamine (cathinone) analogs. Whether synthetic cathinone analogs produce differential behavioral effects from their amphetamine analog counterparts has not been systematically examined. Preclinical drug discrimination procedures have been useful for determining the structure activity relationships (SARs) of abused drugs; however, direct comparisons between amphetamine and cathinone analogs are lacking and, in particular, in non-human primate models...
October 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Caroline Schuppli, Sofia I F Forss, Ellen J M Meulman, Nicole Zweifel, Kevin C Lee, Evasari Rukmana, Erin R Vogel, Maria A van Noordwijk, Carel P van Schaik
BACKGROUND: Orangutans have one of the slowest-paced life histories of all mammals. Whereas life-history theory suggests that the time to reach adulthood is constrained by the time needed to reach adult body size, the needing-to-learn hypothesis instead suggests that it is limited by the time needed to acquire adult-level skills. To test between these two hypotheses, we compared the development of foraging skills and growth trajectories of immature wild orangutans in two populations: at Tuanan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), Borneo, and Suaq Balimbing (Pongo abelii), Sumatra...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Jack DiGiovanna, Nadia Dominici, Lucia Friedli, Jacopo Rigosa, Simone Duis, Julie Kreider, Janine Beauparlant, Rubia van den Brand, Marco Schieppati, Silvestro Micera, Grégoire Courtine
: Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nicola Schiel, Antonio Souto
Callithrix jacchus are small-bodied Neotropical primates popularly known as common marmosets. They are endemic to Northeast Brazil and occur in contrasting environments such as the humid Atlantic Forest and the dry scrub forest of the Caatinga. Common marmosets live in social groups, usually containing only one breeding pair. These primates have a parental care system in which individuals help by providing assistance to the infants even when they are not related to them. Free-ranging groups use relatively small home ranges (0...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Elizabeth K Mallott, Paul A Garber, Ripan S Malhi
OBJECTIVES: Invertebrate foraging strategies in nonhuman primates often require complex extractive foraging or prey detection techniques. As these skills take time to master, juveniles may have reduced foraging efficiency or concentrate their foraging efforts on easier to acquire prey than adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use DNA barcoding, behavioral observations, and ecological data to assess age-based differences in invertebrate prey foraging strategies in a group of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in northeastern Costa Rica...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Serena Bianchi, Laura D Reyes, William D Hopkins, Jared P Taglialatela, Chet C Sherwood
Vocal learning is a key property of spoken language, which might also be present in nonhuman primate species, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), to a limited degree. While understanding the origins of vocal learning in the primate brain may help shed light on the evolution of speech and language, little is still known regarding the neurobiological correlates of vocal flexibility in nonhuman primates. The current study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess whether the cerebral cortex of captive chimpanzees that learned to voluntarily produce sounds to attract the attention of a human experimenter (attention-getting sounds) differs in grey matter distribution compared to chimpanzees that do not exhibit this behavior...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthias J Wieser, Vladimir Miskovic, Andreas Keil
Like many other primates, humans place a high premium on social information transmission and processing. One important aspect of this information concerns the emotional state of other individuals, conveyed by distinct visual cues such as facial expressions, overt actions, or by cues extracted from the situational context. A rich body of theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated that these socioemotional cues are processed by the human visual system in a prioritized fashion, in the service of optimizing social behavior...
October 4, 2016: Psychophysiology
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