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Behavior primate

Hsin-Hao Yu, Nafiseh Atapour, Tristan A Chaplin, Katrina H Worthy, Marcello G P Rosa
Lesions of striate cortex (V1) trigger massive retrograde degeneration of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In primates, these lesions also lead to scotomas within which conscious vision is abolished. Mediation of residual visual capacity within these regions (blindsight) has been traditionally attributed to an indirect visual pathway to the extrastriate cortex, which involves the superior colliculus and pulvinar complex. However, recent studies have suggested that preservation of the LGN is critical for behavioral evidence of blindsight, raising the question of what type of visual information is channeled by remaining neurons in this structure...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Paul A Garber
Over the past few decades, field studies conducted by Chinese primatologists have contributed significant new theoretical and empirical insights into the behavior, ecology, biology, genetics, and conservation of lorises, macaques, langurs, snub-nosed monkeys, and gibbons. With the recent establishment and inaugural meeting of the China Primatological Society in 2017, China has emerged as a leading nation in primate research. Several research teams have conducted long-term studies despite the difficult challenges of habituating and observing wild primates inhabiting mountainous temperate forests, and the fact that some 80% of China's 25-27 primate species are considered vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered and are distributed in small isolated subpopulations...
January 24, 2018: Zoological Research
Paul W Czoty, William S John, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael A Nader
Characterization of the effects of long-term alcohol consumption on the brain would be aided by the development of behavioral assays that are relatively easy to implement in animal models of alcohol use disorders. Assessing unconditioned behaviors, such as drug-elicited yawning in models that permit long-term alcohol ingestion, may be a valuable complement to more invasive and costly procedures. The present studies investigated previous unexpected findings of ethanol-induced yawning in nonhuman primates. Subjects were adult male rhesus monkeys (n = 8), all of which had experience self-administering intravenous cocaine for several years...
October 17, 2017: Alcohol
Susan E Maloney, Catherine Creeley, Richard E Hartman, Carla M Yuede, Charles F Zorumski, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Krikor Dikranian, Kevin K Noguchi, Nuri B Farber, David F Wozniak
Fifteen years ago Olney and colleagues began using animal models to evaluate the effects of anesthetic and sedative agents (ASAs) on neurodevelopment. The results from ongoing studies indicate that, under certain conditions, exposure to these drugs during development induces an acute elevated apoptotic neurodegenerative response in the brain and long-term functional impairments. These animal models have played a significant role in bringing attention to the possible adverse effects of exposing the developing brain to ASAs when few concerns had been raised previously in the medical community...
March 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Richard W Foltin
The reinforcing efficacy of vaporized methamphetamine HCl (0.3 mg/kg) was determined in baboons with minimal previous drug exposure. A group of 8 adult male baboons was tested prior to a group of 7 adult female baboons. Baboons were initially trained to suck on a brass stem activating a pressure-sensitive relay (i.e., puff), to receive one M&M® candy. Five of the 8 males and 6 of the 7 females learned to activate the relay. 0.05 ml of 95% ethyl alcohol containing 0.3 mg/kg methamphetamine was vaporized and delivered to the mouth of the baboon after he/she completed 2 puffs; a single candy was given after an additional 5 puffs to ensure that baboons continued puffing after the aerosol entered their mouths...
March 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mary E Orczykowski, Kevin R Arndt, Lauren E Palitz, Brian C Kramer, Monica A Pessina, Adrian L Oblak, Seth P Finklestein, Farzad Mortazavi, Douglas L Rosene, Tara L Moore
Stroke results in enduring damage to the brain which is accompanied by innate neurorestorative processes, such as reorganization of surviving circuits. Nevertheless, patients are often left with permanent residual impairments. Cell based therapy is an emerging therapeutic that may function to enhance the innate neurorestorative capacity of the brain. We previously evaluated human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in our non-human primate model of cortical injury limited to the hand area of primary motor cortex...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Laura Busia, Anthony R Denice, Filippo Aureli, Colleen M Schaffner
Homosexual behavior is defined as genital contact or genital manipulation between same-sex individuals. In nonhuman primates, it may regulate social relationships by serving as a means of reconciliation, tension alleviation, or alliance formation. Grappling is a rare and complex behavior, which most frequently occurs between same-sex individuals of the genus Ateles and can include mutual manipulation of the genitalia. Here we report three cases of penile-anal intromission during grappling between wild male spider monkeys living in the natural protected area of Otoch Ma'ax Yetel Kooh, Mexico...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Alban Lemasson, Hugo Pereira, Florence Levréro
Authors have raised the possibility of identifying primitive forms of conversational rules in monkeys: temporally ruled vocal interactions, call overlap avoidance, and socially based calling partner preferences. The question as to how these abilities have evolved in the primate lineage remains open to debate, particularly because studies based on apes are scarce and controversial. We studied a captive group of western lowland gorillas and tested the influence of caller characteristics and the type of bond between calling partners on vocal behavior based on the following: age, dominance, spatial proximity, sociopositive contact, and gaze...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves, Mary K Moore, Thea E Smith, Daniel A Crafton, Kelly L Marden
The midsession reversal task has been used to investigate behavioral flexibility and cue use in non-human animals, with results indicating differences in the degree of control by environmental cues across species. For example, time-based control has been found in rats only when tested in a T-maze apparatus and under specific conditions in which position and orientation (i.e., egocentric) cues during the intertrial interval could not be used to aid performance. Other research in an operant setting has shown that rats often produce minimal errors around the reversal location, demonstrating response patterns similar to patterns exhibited by humans and primates in this task...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Samuel Harding-Forrester, Daniel E Feldman
Somatosensory areas containing topographic maps of the body surface are a major feature of parietal cortex. In primates, parietal cortex contains four somatosensory areas, each with its own map, with the primary cutaneous map in area 3b. Rodents have at least three parietal somatosensory areas. Maps are not isomorphic to the body surface, but magnify behaviorally important skin regions, which include the hands and face in primates, and the whiskers in rodents. Within each map, intracortical circuits process tactile information, mediate spatial integration, and support active sensation...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jason P Gallivan, Melvyn A Goodale
In 1992, Goodale and Milner proposed a division of labor in the visual pathways of the primate cerebral cortex. According to their account, the ventral pathway, which projects to occipitotemporal cortex, constructs our visual percepts, while the dorsal pathway, which projects to posterior parietal cortex, mediates the visual control of action. Although the framing of the two-visual-system hypothesis has not been without controversy, it is clear that vision for action and vision for perception have distinct computational requirements, and significant support for the proposed neuroanatomic division has continued to emerge over the last two decades from human neuropsychology, neuroimaging, behavioral psychophysics, and monkey neurophysiology...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Shigeru Miyagawa, Cora Lesure, Vitor A Nóbrega
Early modern humans developed mental capabilities that were immeasurably greater than those of non-human primates. We see this in the rapid innovation in tool making, the development of complex language, and the creation of sophisticated art forms, none of which we find in our closest relatives. While we can readily observe the results of this high-order cognitive capacity, it is difficult to see how it could have developed. We take up the topic of cave art and archeoacoustics, particularly the discovery that cave art is often closely connected to the acoustic properties of the cave chambers in which it is found...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mariana Raño, Claudia R Valeggia, Martin M Kowalewski
Reproductive senescence patterns have been scarcely studied in Neotropical primates. The few studies available on the hormonal profiles of aging female monkeys indicate that the decline of ovarian function in nonhuman primates may resemble the hormonal events associated with the perimenopause in women. In this study, we explore a reproductive hormone profile of an aged black-and-gold howler monkey female (Alouatta caraya) from a wild population in northeastern Argentina and compare this profile with that of a cycling female in the same population...
March 8, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Gregorio Luis Galiñanes, Claudia Bonardi, Daniel Huber
Optogenetic tools and imaging methods for recording and manipulating brain activity have boosted the field of neuroscience in unprecedented ways. However, behavioral paradigms for mice lag behind those of primates, limiting the full potential of such tools. Here, we present an innovative behavioral framework in which head-fixed mice directionally reach for water droplets, similar to the primate "center-out" reaching task. Mice rapidly engaged in the task, performed hundreds of trials, and reached in multiple directions when droplets were presented at different locations...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Nancy G Forger, Elara Ruszkowski, Andrew Jacobs, Kim Wallen
The role of gonadal steroids in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS) is well established in rodents, but no study to date has manipulated androgens prenatally and examined their effects on any CNS structure in a primate. Onuf's nucleus is a column of motoneurons in the sacral spinal cord that innervates the striated perineal muscles. This cell group is larger in males than in females of many species, due to androgens acting during a sensitive perinatal period. Here, we examined Onuf's nucleus in 21 adult rhesus monkeys, including control males and females, as well as males whose mothers had been treated with an anti-androgen or testosterone during gestation...
March 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Véronique Sgambato, Léon Tremblay
The MPTP monkey model of Parkinson's disease (PD) has allowed huge advances regarding the understanding of the pathological mechanisms of PD and L-DOPA-induced adverse effects. Among the main findings were the imbalance between the efferent striatal pathways in opposite directions between the hypokinetic and hyperkinetic states of PD. In both normal and parkinsonian monkeys, the combination of behavioral and anatomical studies has allowed the deciphering of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits involved in both movement and behavioral disorders...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Marc R Meyer, Charles Woodward, Amy Tims, Markus Bastir
OBJECTIVES: Uncinate processes are protuberances on the cranial surface of subaxial cervical vertebrae that assist in stabilizing and guiding spinal motion. Shallow uncinate processes reduce cervical stability but confer an increased range of motion in clinical studies. Here we assess uncinate processes among extant primates and model cervical kinematics in early fossil hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compare six fossil hominin vertebrae with 48 Homo sapiens and 99 nonhuman primates across 20 genera...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Dong Ho Woo, Eun Ha Koh, Seung-Hyuk Shin, Young-Su Yang, Jae Chun Choe, C Justin Lee, Su-Cheol Han
Cortisol is a well-known endogenous glucocorticoid that serves as a stress indicator. It is normally released under stressful condition to warn about imminent danger and thus is critical for survival of the species. However, it is unclear how cortisol relates to cognitive process under physiological condition in high-order primates such as non-human primates (NHP). Here, we report that a slight but significant increase in blood cortisol level by mild stress is positively correlated with the cognitive function in cynomolgus monkey...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabriele Schino, Marta Pinzaglia
The effects of aging on the social behavior of nonhuman primates is little understood, especially in New World monkeys. We studied the members of a colony of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) in order to evaluate age related changes in their social behavior. We conducted observations on 25 subjects aged 4-36 years, living in captive social groups. We found that affiliative interactions (grooming and proximity) decreased with age, and that grooming was increasingly directed to a single preferred partner...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
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