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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919222/understanding-active-sampling-strategies-empirical-approaches-and-implications-for-attention-and-decision-research
#1
REVIEW
Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior we actively gather information using attention and active sensing behaviors (such as shifts of gaze) to sample relevant cues. However, while attention and decision making are naturally coordinated, in the laboratory they have been dissociated. Attention is studied independently of the actions it serves. Conversely, decision theories make the simplifying assumption that the relevant information is given, and do not attempt to describe how the decision maker may learn and implement active sampling policies...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918605/food-or-threat-wild-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-as-both-predators-and-prey-of-snakes
#2
Tiago Falótico, Michele P Verderane, Olívia Mendonça-Furtado, Noemi Spagnoletti, Eduardo B Ottoni, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar
Snakes present a hazard to primates, both as active predators and by defensive envenomation. This risk might have been a selective pressure on the evolution of primate visual and cognitive systems, leading to several behavioral traits present in human and non-human primates, such as the ability to quickly learn to fear snakes. Primates seldom prey on snakes, and humans are one of the few primate species that do. We report here another case, the wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), which preys on snakes...
September 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916171/neurobehavioral-assessment-of-mice-following-repeated-oral-exposures-to-domoic-acid-during-prenatal-development
#3
Motohiro Shiotani, Toby B Cole, Sungwoo Hong, Julie Ju Young Park, William C Griffith, Thomas M Burbacher, Tomomi Workman, Lucio G Costa, Elaine M Faustman
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal toxin which has been associated with significant neurotoxicity in humans, non-human primates, rodents, and marine mammals. Developmental exposure to DA is believed to result in neurotoxicity that may persist into adulthood. DA is produced by harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia, raising concerns about the consumption of contaminated seafood. We evaluated oral exposures to DA during pregnancy in mice. Doses of 0 (vehicle), 1 or 3mg/kg/d of DA were administered by gavage to C57BL/6J mice on gestational days 10 to 17...
September 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#4
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912155/visual-motion-discrimination-by-propagating-patterns-in-primate-cerebral-cortex
#5
Rory Townsend, Selina S Solomon, Paul R Martin, Samuel G Solomon, Pulin Gong
Visual stimuli can evoke waves of neural activity that propagate across the surface of visual cortical areas. The relevance of these waves for visual processing is unknown. Here we measured the phase and amplitude of local field potentials (LFPs) in electrode array recordings from motion-processing medial temporal area (MT) of anesthetized male marmosets. Animals viewed grating or dot-field stimuli drifting in different directions. We found that on individual trials, the direction of LFP wave propagation is sensitive to the direction of stimulus motion...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905724/position-statement-functionally-appropriate-nonhuman-primate-environments-as-an-alternative-to-the-term-ethologically-appropriate-environments
#6
Mollie A Bloomsmith, John Hasenau, Rudolf P Bohm
The American Society of Primatologists (ASP), the Association of Primate Veterinarians (APV), and the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) have come together to develop this position statement in which the term "functionally appropriate nonhuman primate environments" is proposed as a better descriptor and as an alternative to the previously used term, "ethologically appropriate environments" to describe environments that are suitable for nonhuman primates involved in biomedical research. In 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture requested comments on a petition which called for amending the Animal Welfare Act so that all research primates would be housed in "ethologically appropriate physical and social environments...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904108/comparison-of-three-models-of-saccade-disconjugacy-in-strabismus
#7
Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
In pattern strabismus the horizontal and vertical misalignments vary with eye position along the orthogonal axis. The disorder is typically described in terms of overaction or underaction of oblique muscles. Recent behavioral studies in humans and monkeys, however, have reported that such actions are insufficient to fully explain the patterns of directional and amplitude disconjugacy of saccades. There is mounting evidence that the oculomotor abnormalities associated with strabismus are at least partially attributable to neurophysiological abnormalities...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901197/sexually-dimorphic-faciometrics-in-humans-from-early-adulthood-to-late-middle-age-dynamic-declining-and-differentiated
#8
Julia M Robertson, Barbara E Kingsley, Gina C Ford
Faciometrics have widely been used in contemporary studies on gender-related behavioral traits, for example, perceived and actual aggression, co-operation and trustworthiness, prejudicial beliefs, unethical behavior, and achievement drive, as well as, but to a lesser degree, in nonhuman primates. For the large part, these studies have focused primarily on "student-aged" populations with little empirical scrutiny regarding the efficacy of applying these measures with older participants. This study therefore investigated sexual dimorphism across four age-groups (20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s) in 444 participants (225 men)...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900299/social-resource-foraging-is-guided-by-the-principles-of-the-marginal-value-theorem
#9
Courtney Turrin, Nicholas A Fagan, Olga Dal Monte, Steve W C Chang
Optimality principles guide how animals adapt to changing environments. During foraging for nonsocial resources such as food and water, species across taxa obey a strategy that maximizes resource harvest rate. However, it remains unknown whether foraging for social resources also obeys such a strategic principle. We investigated how primates forage for social information conveyed by conspecific facial expressions using the framework of optimal foraging theory. We found that the canonical principle of Marginal Value Theorem (MVT) also applies to social resources...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900120/recurrent-network-dynamics-reconciles-visual-motion-segmentation-and-integration
#10
N V Kartheek Medathati, James Rankin, Andrew I Meso, Pierre Kornprobst, Guillaume S Masson
In sensory systems, a range of computational rules are presumed to be implemented by neuronal subpopulations with different tuning functions. For instance, in primate cortical area MT, different classes of direction-selective cells have been identified and related either to motion integration, segmentation or transparency. Still, how such different tuning properties are constructed is unclear. The dominant theoretical viewpoint based on a linear-nonlinear feed-forward cascade does not account for their complex temporal dynamics and their versatility when facing different input statistics...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894949/diet-and-feeding-ecology-of-the-western-hoolock-gibbon-hoolock-hoolock-in-a-tropical-forest-fragment-of-northeast-india
#11
Mrigakhi Borah, Ashalata Devi, Awadhesh Kumar
Forest fragmentation alters plant species diversity and composition, and causes diverse affects on the feeding behavior of wild primates. We investigated the feeding behavior and diet of two groups of western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) inhabiting a small isolated forest patch (21 km(2)) in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, Northeast India, over a year using focal animal sampling. H. hoolock adults spent, on average, 35.2% of their total annual activity budget on feeding, and fed on young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits, petioles, buds and also on animal matter...
September 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894009/trichromacy-increases-fruit-intake-rates-of-wild-capuchins-cebus-capucinus-imitator
#12
Amanda D Melin, Kenneth L Chiou, Emily R Walco, Mackenzie L Bergstrom, Shoji Kawamura, Linda M Fedigan
Intraspecific color vision variation is prevalent among nearly all diurnal monkeys in the neotropics and is seemingly a textbook case of balancing selection acting to maintain genetic polymorphism. Clear foraging advantages to monkeys with trichromatic vision over those with dichromatic "red-green colorblind" vision have been observed in captive studies; however, evidence of trichromatic advantage during close-range foraging has been surprisingly scarce in field studies, perhaps as a result of small sample sizes and strong impacts of environmental or individual variation on foraging performance...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893661/effect-of-castration-on-social-behavior-and-hormones-in-male-japanese-macaques-macaca-fuscata
#13
Rafaela S C Takeshita, Michael A Huffman, Kodzue Kinoshita, Fred B Bercovitch
Population control is essential for animal welfare and human safety in free-ranging or captive settings, especially when resources are limited. As an alternative to lethal control, contraceptive methods such as castration in males can be a practical solution, because the testicles are a visual cue to determine which males have been sterilized. However, careful analyses should be carried out to ensure no disruption in the social structure of the population. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) live in a society centered around dominance rank and matrilineal kin relationships...
September 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890683/rapid-processing-of-a-global-feature-in-the-on-visual-pathways-of-behaving-monkeys
#14
Jun Huang, Yan Yang, Ke Zhou, Xudong Zhao, Quan Zhou, Hong Zhu, Yingshan Yang, Chunming Zhang, Yifeng Zhou, Wu Zhou
Visual objects are recognized by their features. Whereas, some features are based on simple components (i.e., local features, such as orientation of line segments), some features are based on the whole object (i.e., global features, such as an object having a hole in it). Over the past five decades, behavioral, physiological, anatomical, and computational studies have established a general model of vision, which starts from extracting local features in the lower visual pathways followed by a feature integration process that extracts global features in the higher visual pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877369/diet-and-feeding-behavior-of-a-group-of-42-phayre-s-langurs-in-a-seasonal-habitat-in-mt-gaoligong-yunnan-china
#15
Chi Ma, Peng-Fei Fan, Zhong-Yuan Zhang, Jia-Hong Li, Xiao-Chun Shi, Wen Xiao
In habitats such as temperate evergreen forests, fruit, and seed productivity is reported to exhibit marked changes in seasonal availability, such that fruit is most available in summer and seeds are most available in autumn. Primates living in these habitats, therefore, are expected to adjust their diets in response to the spatial and temporal variation in these food resources. We studied the diet and feeding behavior of a group of 42 Phayre's langurs (Trachypithecus phayrei) living in a northern (24°48'N) montane habitat (1,700-2,350 m) in Mt...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874272/postcrania-of-the-most-primitive-euprimate-and-implications-for-primate-origins
#16
Doug M Boyer, Séverine Toussaint, Marc Godinot
The fossil record of early primates is largely comprised of dentitions. While teeth can indicate phylogenetic relationships and dietary preferences, they say little about hypotheses pertaining to the positional behavior or substrate preference of the ancestral crown primate. Here we report the discovery of a talus bone of the dentally primitive fossil euprimate Donrussellia provincialis. Our comparisons and analyses indicate that this talus is more primitive than that of other euprimates. It lacks features exclusive to strepsirrhines, like a large medial tibial facet and a sloping fibular facet...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874269/locomotion-and-basicranial-anatomy-in-primates-and-marsupials
#17
Catalina I Villamil
There is ongoing debate in paleoanthropology about whether and how the anatomy of the cranium, and especially the cranial base, is evolving in response to locomotor and postural changes. However, the majority of studies focus on two-dimensional data, which fails to capture the complexity of cranial anatomy. This study tests whether three-dimensional cranial base anatomy is linked to locomotion or to other factors in primates (n = 473) and marsupials (n = 231). Results indicate that although there is a small effect of locomotion on cranial base anatomy in primates, this is not the case in marsupials...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874267/facing-the-facts-the-runx2-gene-is-associated-with-variation-in-facial-morphology-in-primates
#18
Terrence B Ritzman, Nicholas Banovich, Kaitlin P Buss, Jennifer Guida, Meagan A Rubel, Jennifer Pinney, Bao Khang, Matthew J Ravosa, Anne C Stone
The phylogenetic and adaptive factors that cause variation in primate facial form-including differences among the major primate clades and variation related to feeding and/or social behavior-are relatively well understood. However, comparatively little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie diversity in facial form in primates. Because it is essential for osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal development, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is one gene that may play a role in these genetic mechanisms...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874078/behavioral-manipulation-by-optogenetics-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#19
Chunshan Deng, Hong Yuan, Ji Dai
Given their neuroanatomical similarities to humans and their ability to perform complex behaviors, the nonhuman primate has been an important model for understanding complex systems such as sensory processing, motor control, social interaction, and nervous system disorders. Optogenetics offers cell-type specific neural control with millisecond precision, making it a powerful neural modulation technique. Combining optogenetics with the nonhuman primate model promises to lead to significant advances in both basic and applied research...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871156/late-onset-hypersensitivity-after-a-lesion-in-the-ventral-posterolateral-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-a-macaque-model-of-central-post-stroke-pain
#20
Kazuaki Nagasaka, Ichiro Takashima, Keiji Matsuda, Noriyuki Higo
Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) can occur as a result of a cerebrovascular accident in the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Developing therapeutic interventions for CPSP is difficult because its pathophysiology is unclear. Here we developed and characterized a macaque model of CPSP. The location of the VPL was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and extracellular recording of neuronal activity during tactile stimulation, after which a hemorrhagic lesion was induced by injecting collagenase type IV...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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