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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791432/logistical-constraints-lead-to-an-intermediate-optimum-in-outbreak-response-vaccination
#1
Yun Tao, Katriona Shea, Matthew Ferrari
Dynamic models in disease ecology have historically evaluated vaccination strategies under the assumption that they are implemented homogeneously in space and time. However, this approach fails to formally account for operational and logistical constraints inherent in the distribution of vaccination to the population at risk. Thus, feedback between the dynamic processes of vaccine distribution and transmission might be overlooked. Here, we present a spatially explicit, stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Vaccinated model that highlights the density-dependence and spatial constraints of various diffusive strategies of vaccination during an outbreak...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785403/immunotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-advances-and-future-expectations
#2
REVIEW
Yingjun Xie, Yien Xiang, Jiyao Sheng, Dan Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yao, Yongsheng Yang, Xuewen Zhang
Primary liver cancer is a common kind of digestive cancers with high malignancy, causing 745,500 deaths each year. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major pathological type of primary liver cancer. Traditional treatment methods for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have shown poor efficacy in killing residual cancer cells for a long time. In recent years, tumor immunotherapy has emerged as a promising method owing to its safety and efficacy with respect to delaying the progression of advanced tumors and protecting postoperative patients against tumor relapse and metastasis...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781740/predicting-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programme-options-in-vietnam
#3
Olivier Le Polain de Waroux, W John Edmunds, Kensuke Takahashi, Koya Ariyoshi, E Kim Mulholland, David Goldblatt, Yoon Hong Choi, Dang Duc Anh, Lay Myint Yoshida, Stefan Flasche
Although catch-up campaigns (CCs) at the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may accelerate their impact, supply constraints may limit their benefit if the need for additional PCV doses results in introduction delay. We studied the impact of PCV13 introduction with and without CC in Nha Trang, Vietnam - a country that has not yet introduced PCV - through a dynamic transmission model. We modelled the impact on carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of routine vaccination (RV) only and that of RV with CCs targeting <1y olds (CC1), <2y olds (CC2) and <5y olds (CC5)...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780768/lack-of-school-requirements-and-clinician-recommendations-for-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#4
Linda M Niccolai, Anna L North, Alison Footman, Caitlin E Hansen
Background: A strong recommendation from a clinician is one of the best predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents, yet many clinicians do not provide effective recommendations. The objective of this study was to understand how the lack of school entry requirements for HPV vaccination influences clinicians' recommendations. Design and Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 32 clinicians were conducted in 2015 in Connecticut USA...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779764/experimental-animal-models-of-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis-a-historical-review
#5
REVIEW
Carlos Sánchez-Garibay, María Elena Hernández-Campos, Martha Lilia Tena-Suck, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara
Animal models are and will remain valuable tools in medical research because their use enables a deeper understanding of disease development, thus generating important knowledge for developing disease control strategies. Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) is the most devastating disease in humans. Moreover, as the variability of signs and symptoms delay a timely diagnosis, patients usually arrive at the hospital suffering from late stage disease. Therefore, it is impossible to obtain fresh human tissue for research before an autopsy...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779454/vaccinia-based-vaccines-to-biothreat-and-emerging-viruses
#6
Les P Nagata, Chad R Irwin, Wei-Gang Hu, David H Evans
The past few years have seen a rash of emerging viral diseases, including the Ebola crisis in West Africa, the pandemic spread of chikungunya, and the recent explosion of Zika in South America. Vaccination is the most reliable and cost-effective method of control of infectious diseases, however, there is often a long delay in production and approval in getting new vaccines to market. Vaccinia was the first vaccine developed for the successful eradication of smallpox and has properties that make it attractive as a universal vaccine vector...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773279/-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-cervical-adenitis-in-children-2-cases
#7
N Sigg, S Bailleul, J-M Turmel, G Legrand, S Kettani, L Martin
BACKGROUND: Cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in immunocompetent children. Nevertheless, it is poorly known by dermatologists. Its incidence, which is currently increasing since the cessation of BCG vaccination in 2007, raises several issues regarding its pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report two cases of NTM adenitis: one in a 2-year-old girl vaccinated with BCG and one in an unvaccinated 22-month-old boy, in whom a misleading presentation led to delayed diagnosis...
May 14, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772736/exploring-the-effect-of-phage-therapy-in-preventing-vibrio-anguillarum-infections-in-cod-and-turbot-larvae
#8
Nanna Rørbo, Anita Rønneseth, Panos G Kalatzis, Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen, Hans Petter Kleppen, Heidrun Inger Wergeland, Lone Gram, Mathias Middelboe
The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest in the past few years. In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage KVP40 to control four different V...
May 16, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771921/mosquito-saliva-alone-has-profound-effects-on-the-human-immune-system
#9
Megan B Vogt, Anismrita Lahon, Ravi P Arya, Alexander R Kneubehl, Jennifer L Spencer Clinton, Silke Paust, Rebecca Rico-Hesse
Mosquito saliva is a very complex concoction of >100 proteins, many of which have unknown functions. The effects of mosquito saliva proteins injected into our skin during blood feeding have been studied mainly in mouse models of injection or biting, with many of these systems producing results that may not be relevant to human disease. Here, we describe the numerous effects that mosquito bites have on human immune cells in mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells. We used flow cytometry and multiplex cytokine bead array assays, with detailed statistical analyses, to detect small but significant variations in immune cell functions after 4 mosquitoes fed on humanized mice footpads...
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771595/mainstreaming-implementation-science-into-immunization-systems-in-the-decade-of-vaccines-a-programmatic-imperative-for-the-african-region
#10
Abdu A Adamu, Aishatu L Adamu, Abdulkarim I Dahiru, Olalekan A Uthman, Charles S Wiysonge
Several innovations that can improve immunization systems already exist. Some interventions target service consumers within communities to raise awareness, build trust, improve understanding, remind caregivers, reward service users, and improve communication. Other interventions target health facilities to improve access and quality of vaccination services among others. Despite available empirical evidence, there is a delay in translating innovations into routine practice by immunization programmes. Drawing on an existing implementation science framework, we propose an interactive, and multi-perspective model to improve uptake and utilization of available immunization-related innovations in the African region...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771487/cancer-cell-membrane-coated-adjuvant-nanoparticles-with-mannose-modification-for-effective-anticancer-vaccination
#11
Rong Yang, Jun Xu, Ligeng Xu, Xiaoqi Sun, Qian Chen, Yuhuan Zhao, Rui Peng, Zhuang Liu
Tumor vaccines for cancer prevention and treatment have attracted tremendous interests in the area of cancer immunotherapy in recent years. In this work, we present a strategy to construct cancer vaccines by encapsulating immune-adjuvant nanoparticles with cancer cell membrane modified by mannose. Poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles are firstly loaded with toll-like receptor 7 agonist, imiquimod (R837). Those adjuvant nanoparticles (NP-R) are then coated with cancer cell membranes (NP-R@M), whose surface proteins could act as tumor-specific antigens...
May 17, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769034/demand-side-determinants-of-timely-vaccination-of-oral-polio-vaccine-in-social-mobilization-network-areas-of-core-group-polio-project-in-uttar-pradesh-india
#12
Manojkumar Choudhary, Roma Solomon, Jitendra Awale, Rina Dey
BACKGROUND: Children who receive all doses of scheduled vaccines reduce their susceptibility to vaccine-preventable diseases. In India, full immunization coverage has increased significantly. However, only a small proportion of children are immunized on time. Globally, studies on factors affecting coverage of childhood immunization have found a significant impact by demand and supply-side determinants. This paper explores the demand-side determinants of timely immunization of the third dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV3) among children aged 6-11 months in the catchment areas of CORE Group Polio Project India...
May 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765386/design-of-a-type-1-diabetes-vaccine-candidate-using-edible-plants-expressing-a-major-autoantigen
#13
Edoardo Bertini, Matilde Merlin, Elisa Gecchele, Andrea Puggia, Annalisa Brozzetti, Mauro Commisso, Alberto Falorni, Vittorio Bini, Victor Klymyuk, Mario Pezzotti, Linda Avesani
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease involving the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. It is often diagnosed by the detection of autoantibodies, typically those recognizing insulin itself or the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65). Oral insulin can be used to induce systemic immunological tolerance and thus prevent or delay the onset of T1D, suggesting that combination treatments with other autoantigens such as GAD65 could be even more successful. GAD65 has induced oral tolerance and prevented T1D in preclinical studies but it is difficult to produce in sufficient quantities for clinical testing...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753607/maternal-immunization-with-a-dna-vaccine-candidate-elicits-specific-passive-protection-against-post-natal-zika-virus-infection-in-immunocompetent-balb-c-mice
#14
Ran Wang, Xianzheng Liao, Dongying Fan, Lei Wang, Ji Song, Kaihao Feng, Mingyuan Li, Peigang Wang, Hui Chen, Jing An
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is closely associated in the fetus with microcephaly and in the adults with Guillain-Barré syndrome and even male infertility. It is an urgent international priority to develop a safe and effective vaccine that offers protection to both women of childbearing age and their children. In this study, female immunocompetent BALB/c mice were immunized with a DNA-based vaccine candidate, pVAX1-ZME, expressing the prM/E protein of ZIKV, and the immunogenicity for maternal mice and the post-natal protection for suckling mice were evaluated...
May 9, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753042/application-of-e75-peptide-vaccine-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Reyhane Chamani, Peyman Ranji, Maryam Hadji, Azin Nahvijou, Ebrahim Esmati, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh
The E75 peptide vaccine, derived from tumor-associated antigen HER2, is the most frequently studied anti-HER2 vaccination strategy for the treatment of breast cancer patients. It has been investigated in the several phases Ι/Π of the clinical trials and is currently being evaluated in a randomized multicenter phase III clinical trial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the outcomes of the E75 peptide vaccine including the therapeutic efficacy, the disease recurrence, the survival rate, and the side effects...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751176/il-4-mediates-the-delayed-neurobehavioral-impairments-induced-by-neonatal-hepatitis-b-vaccination-that-involves-the-down-regulation-of-the-il-4-receptor-in-the-hippocampus
#16
Xiao Wang, Junhua Yang, Zhiwei Xing, Hongyang Zhang, Yaru Wen, Fangfang Qi, Zejie Zuo, Jie Xu, Zhibin Yao
We have previously verified that neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced hippocampal neuroinflammation and behavior impairments in mice. However, the exact mechanism of these effects remain unclear. In this study, we observed that neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine response lasting for 4-5 weeks in both the serum and the hippocampus, primarily indicated by elevated IL-4 levels. Three weeks after the vaccination schedule, however, hepatitis B vaccine (HBV)-mice showed delayed hippocampal neuroinflammation...
May 8, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751136/anti-epidermal-growth-factor-vaccine-antibodies-enhance-the-efficacy-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-and-delay-the-emergence-of-resistance-in-egfr-mutant-lung-cancer-cells
#17
Jordi Codony-Servat, Silvia García-Roman, Miguel Ángel Molina-Vila, Jordi Bertran-Alamillo, Ana Giménez-Capitán, Santiago Viteri, Andrés F Cardona, Erik d'Hondt, Niki Karachaliou, Rafael Rosell
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in EGFR correlate with impaired response to immune checkpoint inhibitors and the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches for EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is of particular interest. Immunization against EGF has demonstrated efficacy in a phase III trial including unselected NSCLC patients, but little was known about the mechanisms involved in the effects of the anti-EGF antibodies generated by vaccination (anti-EGF VacAbs) or their activity in tumor cells with EGFR mutations...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749485/gas%C3%A2-filled-ultrasound-microbubbles-enhance-the-immunoactivity-of-the-hsp70%C3%A2-magea1-fusion-protein-against-magea1%C3%A2-expressing-tumours
#18
Xing Gao, Yang Nan, Yuan Yuan, Xue Gong, Yuanyuan Sun, Huihui Zhou, Yujin Zong, Lijun Zhang, Ming Yu
Advanced malignant melanoma is characterized by rapid development, poor prognosis and insensitivity to chemoradiotherapy. Immunotherapy has become one of the primary clinical treatments for malignant melanomas. In recent decades, identifying specific tumour antigens and the enhanced immunoactivity of tumour vaccines has become critical for engineering successful tumour vaccines. As a widely used vaccine carrier, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) clearly increases the immunogenicity of tumour antigens, such as melanoma‑associated antigen A1 (MAGEA1)...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741934/mistrust-in-medicine-the-rise-and-fall-of-america-s-first-vaccine-institute
#19
Tess Lanzarotta, Marco A Ramos
In 1813, the American government passed An Act to Encourage Vaccination, the first federal endorsement of a medical practice in American history. The law tasked a federal agent with maintaining a supply of the smallpox vaccine and distributing it nationwide. James Smith, a well-respected physician and proponent of vaccination, was appointed as vaccine agent. Smith was skeptical of claims that only well-trained physicians should be allowed to perform vaccination; he felt it was a simple procedure that should be available to all American citizens...
June 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740435/a-beneficial-effect-of-low-dose-aspirin-in-a-murine-model-of-active-tuberculosis
#20
Vera Marie Kroesen, Paula Rodríguez-Martínez, Eric García, Yaiza Rosales, Jorge Díaz, Montse Martín-Céspedes, Gustavo Tapia, Maria Rosa Sarrias, Pere-Joan Cardona, Cristina Vilaplana
An excessive, non-productive host-immune response is detrimental in active, chronic tuberculosis (TB) disease as it typically leads to tissue damage. Given their anti-inflammatory effect, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can potentially attenuate excessive inflammation in active TB disease. As such, we investigated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of low-dose aspirin (LDA) (3 mg/kg/day), either alone or in combination with common anti-TB treatment or BCG vaccination, on disease outcome in an experimental murine model of active TB...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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