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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146945/maraba-virus-vectored-cancer-vaccines-represent-a-safe-and-novel-therapeutic-option-for-cats
#1
Jeff Hummel, Dorothee Bienzle, Annette Morrison, Michelle Cieplak, Kyle Stephenson, Josepha DeLay, J Paul Woods, Brian D Lichty, Byram W Bridle
Direct killing of malignant cells combined with induction of tumour-specific immune responses makes oncolytic vaccines attractive for cancer therapy. We previously developed a heterologous cancer immunization strategy that utilized a replication-defective adenovirus-vectored primary vaccine encoding a tumour antigen followed by boosting with a replication-competent Maraba virus expressing the same antigen. To assess the safety of oncolytic Maraba virus-based booster vaccines and inform the design of clinical trials, we conducted translational studies in cats, which have immune systems that are similar to people and spontaneously develop cancers of comparable types and etiologies...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138320/structural-basis-for-antibody-recognition-of-the-nanp-repeats-in-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein
#2
David Oyen, Jonathan L Torres, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Christian F Ockenhouse, Daniel Emerling, Jacob Glanville, Wayne Volkmuth, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Fidel Zavala, Andrew B Ward, C Richter King, Ian A Wilson
Acquired resistance against antimalarial drugs has further increased the need for an effective malaria vaccine. The current leading candidate, RTS,S, is a recombinant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum that contains 19 NANP repeats followed by a thrombospondin repeat domain. Although RTS,S has undergone extensive clinical testing and has progressed through phase III clinical trials, continued efforts are underway to enhance its efficacy and duration of protection. Here, we determined that two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 311 and 317), isolated from a recent controlled human malaria infection trial exploring a delayed fractional dose, inhibit parasite development in vivo by at least 97%...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135340/generation-and-testing-anti-influenza-human-monoclonal-antibodies-in-a-new-humanized-mouse-model-draga-hla-a2-hla-dr4-rag1-ko-il-2r%C3%AE-c-ko-nod
#3
Mirian Mendoza, Angela Ballesteros, Qiu Qi, Luis Pow Sang, Soumya Shashikumar, Sofia Casares, Teodor-D Brumeanu
Pandemic outbreaks of influenza type A viruses have resulted in numerous fatalities around the globe. Since the conventional influenza vaccines (CIV) provide less than 20% protection for individuals with weak immune system, it has been considered that broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies may provide a better protection. Herein, we showed that a recently generated humanized mouse (DRAGA mouse; HLA-A2. HLA-DR4. Rag1KO. IL-2Rγc KO. NOD) that lacks the murine immune system and expresses a functional human immune system can be used to generate cross-reactive, human anti-influenza monoclonal antibodies (hu-mAb)...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132993/re-evaluating-the-effect-of-favipiravir-treatment-on-rabies-virus-infection
#4
Ashley C Banyard, Karen L Mansfield, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Leigh Thorne, Colin Birch, Penelope Koraka, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Anthony R Fooks
There is no antiviral treatment available once clinical disease following rabies virus infection has initiated. Considered a neglected tropical disease, >60,000 human rabies deaths are estimated each year despite the availability of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for pre-immunisation or administration following a potential exposure before the onset of clinical disease. Such post-exposure treatments include administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) and vaccination at a distant site to prime a humoral immune response...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132992/measuring-the-timeliness-of-childhood-vaccinations-using-cohort-data-and-routine-health-records-to-evaluate-quality-of-immunisation-services
#5
Suzanne Walton, Mario Cortina-Borja, Carol Dezateux, Lucy J Griffiths, Karen Tingay, Ashley Akbari, Amrita Bandyopadhyay, Ronan A Lyons, Helen Bedford
BACKGROUND: To achieve full benefits of vaccination programmes, high uptake and timely receipt of vaccinations are required. OBJECTIVES: To examine uptake and timeliness of infant and pre-school booster vaccines using cohort study data linked to health records. METHODS: We included 1782 children, born between 2000 and 2001, participating in the Millennium Cohort Study and resident in Wales, whose parents gave consent for linkage to National Community Child Health Database records at the age seven year contact...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129177/copd-x-australian-and-new-zealand-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-2017-update
#6
Ian A Yang, Juliet L Brown, Johnson George, Sue Jenkins, Christine F McDonald, Vanessa M McDonald, Kirsten Phillips, Brian J Smith, Nicholas A Zwar, Eli Dabscheck
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation, and is associated with exacerbations and comorbidities. Advances in the management of COPD are updated quarterly in the national COPD guidelines, the COPD-X plan, published by Lung Foundation Australia in conjunction with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and available at http://copdx.org.au. Main recommendations: Spirometry detects persistent airflow limitation (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128381/early-impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-in-mozambique
#7
Nilsa de Deus, Jorfélia José Chilaúle, Marta Cassocera, Miguel Bambo, Jerónimo Sozinho Langa, Ezequias Sitoe, Assucênio Chissaque, Elda Anapakala, Júlia Sambo, Esperança Lourenço Guimarães, Diocreciano Matias Bero, Eva Dora João, Idalécia Cossa-Moiane, Jason M Mwenda, Goitom G Weldegebriel, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
BACKGROUND: Mozambique introduced rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix, GSK Biologicals) in the National Immunization Program in September 2015 with the objective of reducing the burden of total diarrheal disease and specifically severe rotavirus disease. This study aimed to evaluate the early impact of rotavirus vaccine in reducing all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalizations. METHODS: We analysed stool specimens collected from children under five years old, between January 2014 and June 2017 within the National Surveillance for Acute Diarrhea...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126808/innovative-vaccine-delivery-strategies-in-response-to-a-cholera-outbreak-in-the-challenging-context-of-lake-chilwa-a-rapid-qualitative-assessment
#8
Leonard W Heyerdahl, Bagrey Ngwira, Rachel Demolis, Gabriel Nyirenda, Maurice Mwesawina, Florentina Rafael, Philippe Cavailler, Jean Bernard Le Gargasson, Martin A Mengel, Bradford D Gessner, Elise Guillermet
A reactive campaign using two doses of Shanchol Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) was implemented in 2016 in the Lake Chilwa Region (Malawi) targeting fish dependent communities. Three strategies for the second vaccine dose delivery (including delivery by a community leader and self-administration) were used to facilitate vaccine access. This assessment collected vaccine perceptions and opinions about the OCV campaign of 313 study participants, including: fishermen, fish traders, farmers, community leaders, and one health and one NGO officer...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#9
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122384/strengthening-global-vaccine-access-for-adolescents-and-adults
#10
REVIEW
Angeline Nanni, Stefanie Meredith, Stephanie Gati, Karin Holm, Tom Harmon, Ann Ginsberg
Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119464/pediatric-cataract-importance-of-early-detection-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Sudarshan Khokhar, Ganesh Pillay, Esha Agarwal
Pediatric cataract is often diagnosed and managed late. This delay may be due to the ignorance on the part of the community, financial constraints, delay in the diagnosis and lack of tertiary care facilities. There is an urgent need to include rubella vaccination in the universal immunization program. A Simple Red Reflex test to detect a cataract and guiding the parent for early intervention will go a long way in achieving the target of eliminating cataract as a cause of childhood blindness. The importance of early detection and quick referral to a multispecialty center can save the child of lot many blind-years...
November 9, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116289/difficulties-in-the-revaccination-program-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients
#12
Paula Moreira da Silva, Élen Monteiro da Silva, Anderson João Simioni, Mair Pedro de Souza, Vergílio Antonio Rensi Colturato, Clarisse Martins Machado
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients should be routinely revaccinated after transplantation. We evaluated the difficulties met in the revaccination program and how a prospective and tailored follow-up could help to overcome these obstacles. HSCT recipients (n=122) were prospectively followed up and categorized into Group 1 (n=72), recipients who had already started the revaccination program, and Group 2 (n=50), recipients starting their vaccines. Whenever a difficulty was reported, interventions and subsequent evaluations were performed...
November 6, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109373/development-of-a-lethal-intranasal-exposure-model-of-ebola-virus-in-the-cynomolgus-macaque
#13
Kendra J Alfson, Laura E Avena, Gabriella Worwa, Ricardo Carrion, Anthony Griffiths
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a filovirus that can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD). No approved vaccines or therapies exist for filovirus infections, despite an urgent need. The development and testing of effective countermeasures against EBOV requires use of animal models and a thorough understanding of how the model aligns with EVD in humans. The majority of published studies report outcomes of parenteral exposures for emulating needle stick transmission. However, based on data from EVD outbreaks, close contact exposures to infected bodily fluid seems to be one of the primary routes of EBOV transmission...
October 29, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108905/-maternal-deaths-due-to-infectious-cause-results-from-the-french-confidential-enquiry-into-maternal-deaths-2010-2012
#14
A Rigouzzo, V Tessier, L Zieleskiewicz
Over the period 2010-2012, maternal mortality from infectious causes accounted for 5% of maternal deaths by direct causes and 16% of maternal deaths by indirect causes. Among the 22 deaths caused by infection occurred during this period, 6 deaths were attributed to direct causes from genital tract origin, confirming thus the decrease in direct maternal deaths by infection during the last ten years. On the contrary, indirect maternal deaths by infection, from extragenital origin, doubled during the same period, with 16 deaths in the last triennium, dominated by winter respiratory infections, particularly influenza: the 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic was the leading cause of indirect maternal mortality by infection during the studied period...
November 3, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104389/eruption-chronology-in-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Neha Verma, Arpana Bansal, Parimala Tyagi, Ankur Jain, Utkarsh Tiwari, Ruchika Gupta
Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriate reference standard for eruption timing of primary teeth in infants and preschool children of Bhopal city and to determine the role of various factors affecting the eruption of primary dentition. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the infants and preschool children (4-36 months) attending the local government or private hospitals, and vaccination centers...
July 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098766/some-statistical-considerations-in-the-clinical-development-of-cancer-immunotherapies
#16
Bo Huang
Immuno-oncology has emerged as an exciting new approach to cancer treatment. Common immunotherapy approaches include cancer vaccine, effector cell therapy, and T-cell-stimulating antibody. Checkpoint inhibitors such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed death-1/L1 antagonists have shown promising results in multiple indications in solid tumors and hematology. However, the mechanisms of action of these novel drugs pose unique statistical challenges in the accurate evaluation of clinical safety and efficacy, including late-onset toxicity, dose optimization, evaluation of combination agents, pseudoprogression, and delayed and lasting clinical activity...
November 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093095/combination-adenovirus-and-protein-vaccines-prevent-infection-or-reduce-viral-burden-after-heterologous-clade-c-shiv-mucosal-challenge
#17
Delphine C Malherbe, Jason Mendy, Lo Vang, Philip T Barnette, Jason Reed, Samir K Lakhashe, Joshua Owuor, Johannes S Gach, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Celia C LaBranche, David Montefiori, Donald N Forthal, Byung Park, James M Wilson, James H McLinden, Jinhua Xiang, Jack T Stapleton, Jonah B Sacha, Barton F Haynes, Hua-Xin Liao, Ruth M Ruprecht, Jonathan Smith, Marc Gurwith, Nancy L Haigwood, Jeff Alexander
HIV vaccine development is focused on designing immunogens and delivery methods that elicit protective immunity. We evaluated a combination of Ad vectors expressing HIV 1086.C (Clade C) Envelope glycoprotein, SIV Gag p55, and human pegivirus GBV-C E2 glycoprotein. We compared replicating simian (SAd7) with non-replicating human (Ad4) adenovirus-vectored vaccines paired with recombinant proteins in a novel prime-boost regimen in rhesus macaques, with the goal of eliciting protective immunity against SHIV challenge...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093083/dynamics-of-sendai-virus-spread-clearance-and-immunotherapeutic-efficacy-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-imaged-non-invasively-in-mice
#18
Heba H Mostafa, Peter Vogel, Ashok Srinivasan, Charles J Russell
There are no approved vaccines or virus-specific treatments for human parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), which have recently been reclassified into species human respirovirus 1 and 3 and human rubulavirus 2 and 4 These viruses cause morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients including those undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). No small-animal models exist for non-invasive imaging of respiratory viral infection in the HCT host despite the utility such a system would offer to monitor prolonged infection, its clearance, and treatment options...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073129/receipt-of-selected-preventive-health-services-for-women-and-men-of-reproductive-age-united-states-2011-2013
#19
Karen Pazol, Cheryl L Robbins, Lindsey I Black, Katherine A Ahrens, Kimberly Daniels, Anjani Chandra, Anjel Vahratian, Lorrie E Gavin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Receipt of key preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age (i.e., 15-44 years) can help them achieve their desired number and spacing of healthy children and improve their overall health. The 2014 publication Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs (QFP) establishes standards for providing a core set of preventive services to promote these goals. These services include contraceptive care for persons seeking to prevent or delay pregnancy, pregnancy testing and counseling, basic infertility services for those seeking to achieve pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, and other preconception care and related preventive health services...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072624/an-archaeosome-adjuvanted-vaccine-and-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-combination-significantly-enhances-protection-from-murine-melanoma
#20
Felicity C Stark, Risini D Weeratna, Lise Deschatelets, Komal Gurnani, Renu Dudani, Michael J McCluskie, Lakshmi Krishnan
Archaeosomes constitute archaeal lipid vesicle vaccine adjuvants that evoke a strong CD8⁺ T cell response to antigenic cargo. Therapeutic treatment of murine B16-ovalbumin (B16-OVA) melanoma with archaeosome-OVA eliminates small subcutaneous solid tumors; however, they eventually resurge despite an increased frequency of circulating and tumor infiltrating OVA-CD8⁺ T cells. Herein, a number of different approaches were evaluated to improve responses, including dose number, interval, and the combination of vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors...
October 26, 2017: Vaccines
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