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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448208/explanations-for-not-receiving-the-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-an-ontario-canada-based-survey
#1
Samantha B Meyer, Rebecca Lum
Despite evidence of the importance of the seasonal influenza vaccine for both individual and population health, only a third of the Ontario population received the vaccine in 2013/2014. The objective of this study was to identify why Ontarians are not getting the seasonal influenza vaccine. Written responses to the question "Why didn't you get the seasonal flu vaccine in the last flu season?" were deductively analyzed using the Conceptual Model of Vaccine Hesitancy. Inductive coding was also conducted to identify explanations that fall outside of the present model and may be unique to the seasonal influenza vaccine...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437234/poliovirus-vaccination-during-the-endgame-insights-from-integrated-modeling
#2
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Kimberly M Thompson
Managing the polio endgame requires access to sufficient quantities of poliovirus vaccines. After oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, outbreaks may occur that require outbreak response using monovalent OPV (mOPV) and/or inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Areas covered: We review the experience and challenges with managing vaccine supplies in the context of the polio endgame. Building on models that explored polio endgame risks and the potential mOPV needs to stop outbreaks from live poliovirus reintroductions, we conceptually explore the potential demands for finished and bulk mOPV doses from a stockpile in the context of limited shelf-life of finished vaccine and time delays to convert bulk to finished vaccine...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433849/clinical-significance-of-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-posttraumatic-skull-base-fracture
#3
Sharon Leibu, Guy Rosenthal, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
BACKGROUND: To assess in children with skull base fractures, incidences of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, meningitis, and the need for prophylactic antibiotics, anti-pneumococcal vaccination, and surgical interventions. METHODS: We reviewed the records of children with skull base fractures who were admitted to our tertiary care center during 2009-2014. RESULTS: 196 children (153 male) were hospitalized with skull base fractures, aged 1 month to 18 years (mean 6 ± 4 years)...
April 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429116/dutch-national-immunization-schedule-compliance-and-associated-characteristics-for-the-primary-series
#4
Elsemieke D Scheepers, Alies van Lier, Ingrid H Drijfhout, Guy Berbers, Nicoline A T van der Maas, Hester E de Melker, Mirjam J Knol
In the Netherlands, the recommended priming immunization schedule for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (DTaP-IPV) is at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. We evaluated the compliance with the recommended schedule, as well as its characteristics. We included all infants born between 2007 and 2012 who received minimally one DTaP-IPV vaccination (n = 1,061,578). Infants complied with the schedule if they received the first vaccination between 6 and 9 weeks of age, and the second and third vaccination 2-6 weeks after the first and second vaccination...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427992/invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-infections-in-children-in-kamikawa-subprefecture-hokkaido-japan-2006-2015-the-effectiveness-of-h-%C3%A2-influenzae-type-b-vaccine
#5
Hiroshi Sakata, Yoko Adachi, Miyuki Morozumi, Kimiko Ubukata
We evaluated 24 children with invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections between 2006 and 2015 in Kamikawa subprefecture of Hokkaido, Japan. The most frequent disease was pneumonia in 12 cases (50.0%), followed by meningitis in 7 (29.2%) and bacteremia in 5 (20.8%). Patients ranged in age from 3 months to 12 years of age. Seventeen (70.8%) of the total were less than 2 years old. The incidence rate of H. influenzae infection varied from 15.1 to 36.3 per 100,000 population in the Kamikawa area during the period from 2006 through 2011...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427898/pharmacist-impact-on-pediatric-vaccination-errors-and-missed-opportunities-in-the-setting-of-clinical-decision-support
#6
Kelly A Wise, Sonya J Sebastian, Anna C Haas-Gehres, Melissa D Moore-Clingenpeel, Kristen E Lamberjack
OBJECTIVE: To determine pharmacist impact on vaccination errors and missed opportunities in the pediatric primary care setting with the presence of clinical decision support (CDS) by comparing a clinic with a pharmacist and CDS to a clinic with CDS alone. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients' electronic medical records compared vaccination errors and missed opportunities between 2 pediatric primary care clinics. SETTING: Two urban, pediatric primary care clinics were selected for the study...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412974/acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-with-delayed-appearance-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report
#7
Nicholas Brousseau, Donald G Murphy, Vladimir Gilca, Jacynthe Larouche, Sema Mandal, Richard S Tedder
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B immunization programs worldwide, outbreaks of acute infection still occur in unimmunized individuals. A timely diagnosis of hepatitis B is necessary to ensure adequate clinical care and public health interventions that will reduce transmission. Yet, interpretation of hepatitis B serological markers can be complex. We present a case of hepatitis B with atypical markers, including delayed appearance of hepatitis B core antibody...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410369/quantitative-assessment-of-the-impact-of-partially-protective-anti-schistosomiasis-vaccines
#8
Ramzi A Alsallaq, David Gurarie, Martial Ndeffo Mbah, Alison Galvani, Charles King
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel has been the intervention of choice against schistosomiasis but with limited success in interrupting the transmission. The development of anti-Schistosoma vaccines is underway. Our objective is to quantify the population-level impact of anti-Schistosoma vaccines when administered alone and in combination with mass drug administration (MDA) and determine factors in vaccine design and public health implementation that optimize vaccination role in schistosomiasis control and elimination...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405623/bcg-vaccination-induces-hiv-target-cell-activation-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-trial
#9
Melanie A Gasper, Anneke C Hesseling, Isaac Mohar, Landon Myer, Tali Azenkot, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Willem Hanekom, Mark F Cotton, I Nicholas Crispe, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398837/the-immunity-community
#10
Jennie Schoeppe, Allen Cheadle, Mackenzie Melton, Todd Faubion, Creagh Miller, Juno Matthys, Clarissa Hsu
Parental concerns about vaccine safety have grown in the United States and abroad, resulting in delayed or skipped immunizations (often called "vaccine hesitancy"). To address vaccine hesitancy in Washington State, a public-private partnership of health organizations implemented and evaluated a 3-year community intervention, called the "Immunity Community." The intervention mobilized parents who value immunization and provided them with tools to engage in positive dialogue about immunizations in their communities...
March 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394236/the-role-of-infections-in-neuropsychiatric-lupus
#11
F M Ribeiro, F Signorelli
Opportunistic infections can cause manifestations that resemble neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus and they can also trigger lupus flares. Therefore, central nervous system infections as differential diagnosis in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus may be difficult, leading to delayed diagnosis and specific treatment. Central nervous system infection in systemic lupus erythematosus is not common but, if left misdiagnosed and not treated promptly, can be fatal. Complementary diagnosis tests are generally non-specific and disappointing...
April 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392420/efficacy-of-delayed-brincidofovir-treatment-against-a-lethal-rabbitpox-virus-challenge-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#12
Irma M Grossi, Scott A Foster, Melicia R Gainey, Robert T Krile, John A Dunn, Thomas Brundage, Jody M Khouri
In the event of a bioterror attack with variola virus (smallpox), exposure may only be identified following onset of fever. To determine if antiviral therapy with brincidofovir (BCV; CMX001) initiated at, or following, onset of fever could prevent severe illness and death, a lethal rabbitpox model was used. BCV is in advanced development as an antiviral for the treatment of smallpox under the US Food and Drug Administration's 'Animal Rule'. This pivotal study assessed the efficacy of immediate versus delayed treatment with BCV following onset of symptomatic disease in New Zealand White rabbits intradermally inoculated with a lethal rabbitpox virus (RPXV), strain Utrecht...
April 6, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388572/combination-gitr-targeting-pd-1-blockade-with-vaccination-drives-robust-antigen-specific-antitumor-immunity
#13
Daniel O Villarreal, Diana Chin, Melissa A Smith, Leopoldo L Luistro, Linda A Snyder
Tumor progression is facilitated immunologically by mechanisms that include low antigen expression, an absence of coimmunostimulatory signals, and the presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which act to suppress and restrict effector T cells in the tumor. It may be possible to overcome these conditions by a combination of modulatory immunotherapy agents and tumor-antigen targeting to activate and drive effective antitumor T cell responses. Here, we demonstrated that co-administration of aGITR and aPD-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in combination with a peptide vaccine (Vax) in mice bearing established tumors significantly delayed tumor growth and induced complete regression in 50% of the mice...
March 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378805/neonatal-mice-possess-two-phenotypically-and-functionally-distinct-lung-migratory-cd103-dendritic-cell-populations-following-respiratory-infection
#14
T J Ruckwardt, K M Morabito, E Bar-Haim, D Nair, B S Graham
The CD103(+) subset of lung-migratory dendritic cells (DCs) plays an important role in the generation of CD8(+) T cell responses following respiratory infection. Here, we demonstrate that the dependence on CD103(+) DCs for stimulation of RSV-specific T cells is both epitope and age-dependent. CD103(+) DCs in neonatal mice develop two phenotypically and functionally distinct populations following respiratory infection. Neonatal CD103(+) DCs expressing low levels of CD103 (CD103lo DCs) and other lineage and maturation markers including costimulatory molecules are phenotypically immature and functionally limited...
April 5, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375854/quality-improvement-project-to-reduce-delayed-vaccinations-in-preterm-infants
#15
Alain Cuna, Lindy Winter
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are especially vulnerable to infectious diseases. Although vaccinations are a safe and effective measure to protect preterm infants from vaccine-preventable diseases, delays in vaccinations are not uncommon. PURPOSE: The goal of this quality improvement project was to improve on time vaccinations of preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: The Plan-Do-Study-Act model of quality improvement was adopted to develop, test, and implement interventions aimed at improving timely vaccination of preterm infants...
April 3, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364939/innovations-in-cold-chain-equipment-for-immunization-supply-chains
#16
REVIEW
Joanie Robertson, Lauren Franzel, Denis Maire
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, numerous new technologies have entered the immunization cold chain equipment market. The World Health Organization (WHO) Immunization Devices Programme-Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS)-has played a key role in bringing these to market. In this article, the authors explore the emergence of new cold chain equipment technologies from 2004 to 2016 and the role of PQS in this evolution. METHODS: This review focuses on three major vaccine cold chain technology innovations-solar direct-drive refrigerators, long-term passive cold boxes, and equipment with user-independent freeze prevention...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364927/preliminary-results-from-direct-to-facility-vaccine-deliveries-in-kano-nigeria
#17
Muyi Aina, Uchenna Igbokwe, Leke Jegede, Rabiu Fagge, Adam Thompson, Nasir Mahmoud
OBJECTIVE: As part of its vaccine supply chain redesign efforts, Kano state now pushes vaccines directly from 6 state stores to primary health centers equipped with solar refrigerators. Our objective is to describe preliminary results from the first 20months of Kano's direct vaccine delivery operations. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of Kano's direct vaccine delivery program. We analyzed trends in health facility vaccine stock levels, and examined the relationship between stock-out rates and each of cascade vaccine deliveries and timeliness of deliveries...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364919/vaccine-stockouts-around-the-world-are-essential-vaccines-always-available-when-needed
#18
Patrick Lydon, Benjamin Schreiber, Aurelia Gasca, Laure Dumolard, Daniela Urfer, Kamel Senouci
INTRODUCTION: As countries rise to the challenge of implementing the priorities of this "Decade of Vaccine" and their commitments delineated in the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), many continue to face important challenges of securing a continuous supply of essential vaccine for their national immunization programme. This study provides evidence on the incidence of vaccine stockouts in countries, their root causes and their potential impact on service delivery. METHODS: Vaccine stockout indicators collected from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF) and UNICEF's Vaccine Forecasting Tool were analysed for the years covering the first half of the GVAP (2011 to 2015) and using 2010 as the baseline year...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357974/immunisation-status-and-determinants-of-left-behind-children-aged-12-72-months-in-central-china
#19
Z L Ni, X D Tan, H Y Shao, Y Wang
Many parents move from rural China to urban areas in search of job opportunities, and leave their children behind to be raised by relatives. We aimed to assess the immunisation coverage, including the 1:3:3:3:1 vaccine series (one dose of Bacilli Chalmette-Guérin vaccine; three doses of live attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine; three doses of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis combined; three doses of hepatitis B vaccine; and one dose of measles-containing vaccine), in children aged 12-72 months and identify the determinants of immunisation uptake among left-behind children in Hubei Province, Central China, in 2014...
March 30, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357377/chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infections
#20
REVIEW
Catherine M O'Connell, Morgan E Ferone
Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity...
September 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
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