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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351055/are-pre-terms-born-timely-and-right-immunized-results-of-an-italian-cohort-study
#1
Nicola Laforgia, Antonio Di Mauro, Francesco Paolo Bianchi, Federica Di Mauro, Andrea Zizzi, Manuela Capozza, Silvia Intini, Maria Serena Gallone, Silvio Tafuri
The aim of this study is to evaluate the vaccination coverage at 24 months of chronological age in a sample of preterm infants discharged by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Bari Policlinico University General Hospital in Italy. The list of infants preterm born discharged during 2013 by the NICU was obtained by hospital database. Vaccination status of each subject at 24 months of chronological age was acquired by the Apulian Regional Vaccination Register (GIAVA). 159 preterm borns were enrolled in this study...
January 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348479/prime-boost-vaccination-with-recombinant-protein-and-adenovirus-vector-expressing-plasmodium-vivax-circumsporozoite-protein-csp-partially-protects-mice-against-pb-pv-sporozoite-challenge
#2
Tarsila Mendes de Camargo, Elisângela Oliveira de Freitas, Alba Marina Gimenez, Luciana Chagas Lima, Karina de Almeida Caramico, Kátia Sanches Françoso, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Chiara Andolina, François Nosten, Laurent Rénia, Hildegund C J Ertl, Ruth S Nussenzweig, Victor Nussenzweig, Mauricio M Rodrigues, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval, Irene S Soares
Vaccine development against Plasmodium vivax malaria lags behind that for Plasmodium falciparum. To narrow this gap, we administered recombinant antigens based on P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP) to mice. We expressed in Pichia pastoris two chimeric proteins by merging the three central repeat regions of different CSP alleles (VK210, VK247, and P. vivax-like). The first construct (yPvCSP-AllFL) contained the fused repeat regions flanked by N- and C-terminal regions. The second construct (yPvCSP-AllCT) contained the fused repeat regions and the C-terminal domain, plus RI region...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343580/advancing-our-understanding-of-protective-maternal-immunity-as-a-guide-for-development-of-vaccines-to-reduce-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infections
#3
Sallie R Permar, Mark R Schleiss, Stanley A Plotkin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide, impacting an estimated 1 million newborns annually. Congenital HCMV (cCMV) infection is a major global contributor to long-term neurologic deficits, including deafness, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as fetal loss and occasional infant mortality. Accordingly, a maternal vaccine to prevent cCMV continues to be a top public health priority. Nevertheless, we remain without a licensed vaccine. Maternal immunity provides partial protection, as the risk of vertical HCMV transmission from chronically infected mothers is reduced compared to settings in which the mother is newly infected during pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341984/effect-of-age-at-vaccination-on-rotavirus-vaccine-effectiveness-in-bolivian-infants
#4
Rachel M Burke, Jacqueline E Tate, Kimberly D Pringle, Manish Patel, Lucia H De Oliveira, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines are less effective in developing countries versus developed countries. One hypothesis for this difference in performance is that higher levels of maternal antibodies in developing countries may interfere with vaccine response, suggesting that delayed dosing could be beneficial. The present analysis aims to assess whether rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) varies by age at vaccination during routine use in Bolivia. METHODS: Data were merged from two post-licensure evaluations of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Bolivia, where two doses of RV1 are recommended at two and four months of age...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341945/lessons-about-causes-and-management-of-an-ebola-outbreak
#5
Aida Elargoubi, Anis W Belhaj Khelifa, Ons Haddad, Salma Mhalla, Nabil Sakly, Maha Mastouri
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the deadliest viral diseases. It is characterized by a high mortality rate due to the lack of effective and safe treatments or vaccines and its ability to spread at an unstoppable pace. The West Africa outbreak ended but the disease may strike again at any time. The latest epidemic was, by far, the deadliest to date. The most concern was why this outbreak was so different from the previous ones. We proposed in this review firstly to summarize the principal causes of its unprecedented spread and secondly to identify the steps for an effective management approach of a future Ebola outbreak...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339224/emerging-souvenirs-clinical-presentation-of-the-returning-traveller-with-imported-arbovirus-infections-in-europe
#6
Isabella Eckerle, Violeta Briciu, Onder Ergonul, Mihaela Lupse, Anna Papa, Amanda Radulescu, Sotirios Tsiodras, Christine Tsitou, Christian Drosten, Véronique Nussenblatt, Chantal Reusken, Louise Sigfrid, Nick J Beeching
BACKGROUND: Arboviruses are an emerging group of viruses that are causing increasing health concerns globally, including in Europe. Clinical presentation usually consists of a non-specific febrile illness that may be accompanied by rash, arthralgia and arthritis and/or with neurological or haemorrhagic syndromes. The range of differential diagnoses of other infectious and non-infectious aetiologies is broad, presenting a challenge for physicians. While knowledge of the geographic distribution of pathogens and the current epidemiological situation, incubation periods, exposure risk factors and vaccination history can help guide the diagnostic approach, the non-specific and variable clinical presentation can delay final diagnosis...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338782/evaluation-of-two-health-education-interventions-to-improve-the-varicella-vaccination-a-randomized-controlled-trial-from-a-province-in-the-east-china
#7
Yu Hu, Qian Li, Yaping Chen
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of two Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)-based health educational interventions on varicella vaccine (VarV) vaccination among pregnant women in a province in the east China. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted among 200 pregnant women with ≥12 gestation weeks to test two interventions, including a messaging video and a messaging booklet. The participants were randomly assigned into the control group, the video group or the booklet group...
January 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338001/modelling-the-large-scale-yellow-fever-outbreak-in-luanda-angola-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#8
Shi Zhao, Lewi Stone, Daozhou Gao, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF), transmitted via bites of infected mosquitoes, is a life-threatening viral disease endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. YF has largely been controlled by widespread national vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, between December 2015 and August 2016, YF resurged in Angola, quickly spread and becoming the largest YF outbreak for the last 30 years. Recently, YF resurged again in Brazil (December 2016). Thus, there is an urgent need to gain better understanding of the transmission pattern of YF...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336924/immunization-of-preterm-infants-with-gsk-s-hexavalent-combined-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-b-inactivated-poliovirus-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccine-a-review-of-safety-and-immunogenicity
#9
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335856/abscopal-effects-of-radiotherapy-and-combined-mrna-based-immunotherapy-in-a-syngeneic-ova-expressing-thymoma-mouse-model
#10
Lucas Basler, Aleksandra Kowalczyk, Regina Heidenreich, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Savas Tsitsekidis, Daniel Zips, Franziska Eckert, Stephan M Huber
BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis and immune evasion present major challenges of cancer treatment. Radiotherapy can overcome immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. Anecdotal reports suggest abscopal anti-tumor immune responses. This study assesses abscopal effects of radiotherapy in combination with mRNA-based cancer vaccination (RNActive®). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were injected with ovalbumin-expressing thymoma cells into the right hind leg (primary tumor) and left flank (secondary tumor) with a delay of 4 days...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329528/transmission-of-measles-among-healthcare-workers-in-hospital-w-xinjiang-autonomous-region-china-2016
#11
Haimei Jia, Chao Ma, Mengting Lu, Jianping Fu, Lance E Rodewald, Qiru Su, Huaqin Wang, Lixin Hao
BACKGROUND: As China approaches the elimination of measles, outbreaks of measles continue to occur. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are known to be at high risk of infection and transmission of measles virus. A measles outbreak occurred in a hospital in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. We report an investigation of this outbreak and its implications for measles elimination and outbreak preparedness. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective search for measles cases using hospital records...
January 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314223/delayed-type-hypersensitivity-to-vaccine-aluminum-adjuvant-causing-subcutaneous-leg-mass-and-urticaria-in-a-child
#12
Samantha C Gordon, Diana W Bartenstein, Shahein H Tajmir, Johanna S Song, Elena B Hawryluk
A 3-year-old girl presented with a 7-month history of a waxing and waning left thigh mass associated with pruritus and erythema at the site of two previous DTaP-HepB-IPV vaccinations. Patch testing was positive to aluminum chloride, supporting a diagnosis of vaccine granuloma secondary to aluminum allergy; her symptoms had been well controlled with antihistamines and topical steroids. Injection site granulomas are a benign but potentially bothersome reaction to aluminum-containing immunizations that can be supportively managed, and we encourage strict adherence to the recommended vaccine schedule in this setting...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311235/deletion-of-the-mfs-transporter-fptb-alters-host-cell-interactions-and-attenuates-the-virulence-of-type-a-francisella-tularensis
#13
Phillip M Balzano, Aimee L Cunningham, Christen Grassel, Eileen M Barry
Francisella tularensis is a Gram negative facultative intracellular coccobacillus that can infect a wide variety of hosts. In humans, F. tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia following insect bites, ingestion, inhalation, and the handling of infected animals. That a very small inoculum delivered by the aerosol route can cause severe disease, coupled with the possibility of its use as an aerosolized bioweapon, have led to the classification of Francisella tularensis as a Category A select agent and has renewed interest in the formulation of a vaccine...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311091/neutralizing-%C3%AE-toxin-accelerates-healing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-wounds-in-normal-and-diabetic-mice
#14
Roger V Ortines, Haiyun Liu, Lily I Cheng, Taylor S Cohen, Heather Lawlor, Abhishek Gami, Yu Wang, Carly A Dillen, Nathan K Archer, Robert J Miller, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Bret L Pinsker, Mark C Marchitto, Christine Tkaczyk, C Kendall Stover, Bret R Sellman, Lloyd S Miller
Staphylococcus aureus wound infections delay healing and result in invasive complications such as osteomyelitis, especially in the setting of diabetic foot ulcers. In preclinical animal models of S. aureus skin infection, antibody neutralization of α-toxin (AT), a S. aureus secreted pore-forming cytolytic toxin, reduces disease severity by inhibiting skin necrosis and restoring effective host immune responses. However, whether therapeutic neutralization of α-toxin is effective against S. aureus-infected wounds is unclear...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306506/antibody-responses-among-adolescent-females-receiving-two-or-three-quadrivalent-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-doses-at-standard-and-prolonged-intervals
#15
Lea E Widdice, Elizabeth R Unger, Gitika Panicker, Rebecca Hoagland, S Todd Callahan, Lisa A Jackson, Andrea A Berry, Karen Kotloff, Sharon E Frey, Christopher J Harrison, Barbara A Pahud, Kathryn M Edwards, Mark J Mulligan, Jon Sudman, David I Bernstein
BACKGROUND: The originally recommended dosing schedule, 0, 2, 6 months, for the 3-dose quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV) was often not followed, resulting in longer than recommended intervals between doses and interest in the effect of prolonged intervals. Recent two-dose recommendations require investigations into the effect of delaying dose 2. METHODS: This multi-site, prospective study enrolled healthy 9-17 year old girls (n = 1321) on the day of or within 28 days following a third dose of 4vHPV vaccination...
January 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287981/exploiting-the-apicoplast-apicoplast-targeting-drugs-and-malaria-vaccine-development
#16
Leanne M Low, Danielle I Stanisic, Michael F Good
The apicoplast, a relic plastid found in most Apicomplexan parasites, is a notable drug target. Certain antibiotics elicit a delayed death phenotype by targeting this organelle. Here, we review apicoplast targeting drugs and their targets, particularly those that cause delayed death, and highlight its potential uses in malaria vaccine development.
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285399/fighting-against-a-protean-enemy-immunosenescence-vaccines-and-healthy-aging
#17
Giuseppe Del Giudice, Jörg J Goronzy, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Paul-Henri Lambert, Tomas Mrkvan, Jeffrey J Stoddard, T Mark Doherty
The progressive increase of the aged population worldwide mandates new strategies to ensure sustained health and well-being with age. The development of better and/or new vaccines against pathogens that affect older adults is one pivotal intervention in approaching this goal. However, the functional decline of various physiological systems, including the immune system, requires novel approaches to counteract immunosenescence. Although important progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the age-related decline of the immune response to infections and vaccinations, knowledge gaps remain, both in the areas of basic and translational research...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282521/engineered-exosomes-emerging-from-muscle-cells-break-immune-tolerance-to-her2-in-transgenic-mice-and-induce-antigen-specific-ctls-upon-challenge-by-human-dendritic-cells
#18
Simona Anticoli, Eleonora Aricò, Claudia Arenaccio, Francesco Manfredi, Chiara Chiozzini, Eleonora Olivetta, Flavia Ferrantelli, Laura Lattanzi, Maria Teresa D'Urso, Enrico Proietti, Maurizio Federico
We recently described a novel biotechnological platform for the production of unrestricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) vaccines. It relies on in vivo engineering of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles constitutively released by all cells, with full-length antigens of choice upon fusion with an exosome-anchoring protein referred to as Nefmut. They are produced upon intramuscular injection of a DNA vector and, when uploaded with a viral tumor antigen, were found to elicit an immune response inhibiting the tumor growth in a model of transplantable tumors...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281719/cd14-159c-t-polymorphism-in-the-development-of-delayed-skin-hypersensitivity-to-tuberculin
#19
Magdalena Druszczynska, Marcin Wlodarczyk, Grzegorz Kielnierowski, Michal Seweryn, Sebastian Wawrocki, Wieslawa Rudnicka
The skin tuberculin test (TST), an example of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, is based on measuring the extent of skin induration to mycobacterial tuberculin (PPD). Little is known about the genetic basis of TST reactivity, widely used for diagnosing TB infection. The study investigated the relationship of the single base change polymorphic variants in CD14 gene (CD14(-159C/T)) with the development of DTH to PPD in BCG-vaccinated Polish Caucasian individuals. We found persistent lack of TST reactivity in about 40% of healthy subjects despite receiving more than one dose of BCG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280428/african-and-asian-zika-virus-isolates-display-phenotypic-differences-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Darci R Smith, Thomas R Sprague, Bradley S Hollidge, Stephanie M Valdez, Susana L Padilla, Stephanie A Bellanca, Joseph W Golden, Susan R Coyne, David A Kulesh, Lynn Jean Miller, Andrew D Haddow, Jeff W Koehler, Gregory D Gromowski, Richard G Jarman, Maria Theresa P Alera, In-Kyu Yoon, Rome Buathong, Robert G Lowen, Christopher D Kane, Timothy D Minogue, Sina Bavari, Robert B Tesh, Scott C Weaver, Kenneth J Linthicum, Margaret L Pitt, Farooq Nasar
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the genus Flavivirus that has emerged since 2007 to cause outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and most recently, in the Americas. Here, we used an isolate history as well as genetic and phylogenetic analyses to characterize three low-passage isolates representing African (ArD 41525) and Asian (CPC-0740, SV0127-14) lineages to investigate the potential phenotypic differences in vitro and in vivo. The African isolate displayed a large plaque phenotype (∼3-4 mm) on Vero and HEK-293 cells, whereas the Asian isolates either exhibited a small plaque phenotype (∼1-2 mm) or did not produce any plaques...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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