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vaccination delayed

Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elisa C Martinez, Ravendra Garg, Pratima Shrivastava, Susantha Gomis, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. There are no licensed RSV vaccines available, and the few treatment options for high-risk individuals are either extremely costly or cause severe side effects and toxicity. Immunomodulation mediated by a novel formulation consisting of the toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (P-I-P) was evaluated in the context of lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
Yuekun Lang, Jamie Henningson, Dane Jasperson, Yonghai Li, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuhao Li, Nan Cao, Haixia Liu, William Wilson, Juergen Richt, Mark Ruder, Scott McVey, Wenjun Ma
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a Category A pathogen and select agent, is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever. To date, no fully licensed vaccine is available in the U.S. for human or animal use and effective antiviral drugs have not been identified. The RVFV MP12 strain is conditionally licensed for use for veterinary purposes in the U.S. which was excluded from the select agent rule of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The MP12 vaccine strain is commonly used in BSL-2 laboratories that is generally not virulent in mice...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Melissa B Gilkey, William A Calo, Macary W Marciniak, Noel T Brewer
BACKGROUND: We sought to estimate the national prevalence of HPV vaccine refusal and delay in a population-based sample of parents of adolescents. We also compared parents who refused versus delayed HPV vaccine in terms of their vaccination beliefs and clinical communication preferences. METHODS: In 2014 to 2015, we conducted an online survey of 1,484 U.S. parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old child in their household. We used weighted multinomial logistic regression to assess correlates of HPV vaccine refusal and delay...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi, Fariba Jousheghany, Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Development of cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is an alternative approach to chemotherapy with sustained anti-tumor effects. The success of active immunotherapy has been hampered by tumor-induced immune suppressors. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a population of immune suppressors with a proven role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Removing or subduing Tregs activity leads to more robust anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we used a cell-based vaccination strategy in the 4T1 murine mammary model to examine whether bulk removal of certain TAAs, using their glycan profile, can affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Mladen Korbelik, Judith Banáth, Wei Zhang
Myeloid regulatory cells (Mregs) are, together with regulatory T cells (Tregs), a dominant effector population responsible for restriction of the duration and strength of antitumor immune response. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and cancer vaccines generated by PDT are modalities whose effectiveness in tumor destruction is closely dependent on the associated antitumor immune response. The present study investigated whether the immunodepletion of granulocytic Mregs in host mice by anti-GR1 antibody would improve the response of tumors to PDT or PDT vaccines in these animals...
October 15, 2016: Cancers
Richard Treger, Ramy M Hanna, Brian M Lee, Eduardo A Lopez, James Wilson, Dalila Corry
The introduction of hepatitis B vaccination and infection control in 1977 has greatly decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B. Currently, approximately 2.8% of the end-stage renal disease population is hepatitis B positive with a presence in 27.7% of the USA hemodialysis (HD) units according to the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study data. The behavior of hepatitis B infection differs significantly between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Immunosuppressed hosts present more subtly with complications of chronic hepatitis B infection, being more challenging to detect...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Dandan Li, Feilong Sun, Meriem Bourajjaj, Yinan Chen, Ebel H Pieters, Jian Chen, Joep B van den Dikkenberg, Bo Lou, Marcel G M Camps, Ferry Ossendorp, Wim E Hennink, Tina Vermonden, Cornelus F van Nostrum
Cancer vaccines are at present mostly based on tumor associated protein antigens but fail to elicit strong cell-mediated immunity in their free form. For protein-based vaccines, the main challenges to overcome are the delivery of sufficient proteins into the cytosol of dendritic cells (DCs) and processing by, and presentation through, the MHC class I pathway. Recently, we developed a cationic dextran nanogel in which a model antigen (ovalbumin, OVA) is reversibly conjugated via disulfide bonds to the nanogel network to enable redox-sensitive intracellular release...
October 17, 2016: Nanoscale
Isabel Rossen, Mark J Hurlstone, Carmen Lawrence
Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Fayna Diaz-San Segundo, Nestor A Montiel, Diego F Sturza, Eva Perez-Martin, Danielle Hickman, Elizabeth Ramirez-Medina, Marvin J Grubman, Teresa de Los Santos
Foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD) remains the most infectious livestock disease worldwide. Although commercially available inactivated or adenovirus-vectored-vaccines (Ad5-FMD) are effective, they require 5-7 days to induce protection. Therefore, new control strategies that stimulate rapid immune responses are needed. Expression of bovine interferon λ3 using the Ad5-vector platform (Ad5-boIFNλ3) is able to delay disease in cattle, but clinical signs appear at 9 days after challenge. We hypothesized that combination of Ad5-boIFNλ3 and Ad5-FMD could induce immediate and lasting protection against FMD...
October 12, 2016: Virology
Nicolas F Schlecht, Angela Diaz, Viswanathan Shankar, Arnold H Szporn, Maoxin Wu, Anne Nucci-Sack, Ken Peake, Howard D Strickler, Robert D Burk
BACKGROUND:  Uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States is slow, and the real-world effectiveness of the vaccine has not been assessed in high-risk adolescent populations. METHODS:  We conducted a longitudinal study of 1139 sexually-active, inner-city adolescent women receiving the 3-dose quadrivalent (4vHPV) vaccine. Cervical and anal specimens collected semi-annually were tested using a L1-PCR assay. Post-vaccination incidence of 4vHPV vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types, and risk of cervical cytological abnormalities, were assessed in relation to time-to-completion of all three vaccine doses...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stefano Mancini, Carmen Menzi, Frank Oechslin, Philippe Moreillon, José Manuel Entenza
Streptococcus gordonii and related species of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of infective endocarditis (IE). We explored vaccination as a strategy to prevent VGS- IE, using a novel antigen presenting system based on non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis displaying vaccinogens on its surface.Hsa and PadA are surface-located S. gordonii proteins implicated in platelet adhesion and aggregation, which are key steps in the pathogenesis of IE. This function makes them ideal targets for vaccination against VGS- IE...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Priya S Verghese
Successful renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for chronic kidney failure, but this was not always so for children. Beginning with the first kidney transplants in the 1950s, children experienced poorer patient and graft survival rates than adult patients. But over the last 6 decades, an improved understanding of the immune system which has steered pediatric multi-center clinical / pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies that have sculpted our immunosuppression with markedly better patient and graft survivals...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Research
Paula M Frew, Allison Kennedy Fisher, Michelle M Basket, Yunmi Chung, Jay Schamel, Judith L Weiner, Jennifer Mullen, Saad B Omer, Walter A Orenstein
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the current status of parents' vaccine decision making is crucial to inform public policy. We sought to assess changes in vaccine decisions among parents of young children. METHODS: We conducted a web-based national poll of parents of children <7years in 2012 and 2014. Participants reported vaccine decisions for their youngest child. We calculated survey-weighted population estimates of overall immunizations decisions, and delay/refusal rates for specific vaccines...
October 6, 2016: Vaccine
Hanif Esmail, Friedrich Thienemann, Tolu Oni, Rene Goliath, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection impairs tuberculosis (TB) specific immune responses affecting the diagnosis of latent TB. We aimed to (1) determine the proportion of HIV-1-infected adults with a negative QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) and Tuberculin skin testing (TST) that convert to QFT-GIT positive following TST, and (2) evaluate the relationship between conversion and baseline QFT-GIT results. METHODS: HIV-1 infected adults being screened for a TB vaccine study in South Africa underwent QFT-GIT followed by TST...
October 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Dan Yamin, Katherine E Atkins, Vanessa Remy, Alison P Galvani
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against rotavirus has shown great potential for reducing the primary cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. Previous economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination in France have not modeled the potential impact of vaccines on disease burden via reduced transmission. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccination into the French infant vaccination schedule. METHODS: We developed an age-structured model of rotavirus transmission calibrated to 6 years of French gastroenteritis incidence and vaccine clinical trial data...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Gregory Valentine, Lucila Marquez, Mohan Pammi
Zika Virus (ZIKV), previously the cause of only rare and sporadic human infections, is now considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Over the past two years, ZIKV has become a pandemic encompassing much of the Americas. ZIKV is now proven to cause microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies in the newborn. Hydrops fetalis, developmental delay, and other anomalies are increasingly being attributed to ZIKV infection in fetuses and neonates. Sequelae of congenital infection and rapid spread of ZIKV throughout the Americas has catapulted Zika virus concerns to the forefront of the medical community...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Adthakorn Madapong, Gun Temeeyasen, Kepalee Saeng-Chuto, Thitima Tripipat, Wichian Navasakuljinda, Alongkot Boonsoongnern, Angkana Tantituvanont, Dachrit Nilubol
The antibody response and pattern of shedding of vaccine virus following vaccination with modified live genotype I or II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines (MLVs) were investigated. Ninety PRRSV-free pigs were divided randomly seven, groups including the NEG, EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups. The NEG group was unvaccinated. The EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups were vaccinated with the following MLVs: AMERVAC(®) PRRS, Porcillis(®) PRRS, Fostera™ PRRS, Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV, Ingelvac(®) PRRS ATP, and PrimePac™ PRRS+ , respectively...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Virology
Evans M Mpabalwani, Jason M Mwenda, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, are increasingly being introduced in national immunization programmes in Africa to prevent severe dehydrating acute gastroenteritis. A low-level risk of intussusception has been associated with rotavirus vaccines. We reviewed published data on intussusception in children <2 years of age in Africa. PubMed electronic database search was used to retrieve papers published on intussusception. The search was further refined to identify surveillance reports and case series conducted from 1980 to 2014, with at least 25 cases...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Yan Sun, Carolina B López
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild to severe respiratory illness in humans and is a major cause of hospitalizations of infants and the elderly. Both the innate and the adaptive immune responses contribute to the control of RSV infection, but despite successful viral clearance, protective immunity against RSV re-infection is usually suboptimal and infections recur. Poor understanding of the mechanisms limiting the induction of long-lasting immunity has delayed the development of an effective vaccine...
September 26, 2016: Vaccine
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