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the art and science

Roberta Venturella, Paola Quaresima, Mariella Micieli, Erika Rania, Annarita Palumbo, Federica Visconti, Fulvio Zullo, Costantino Di Carlo
PURPOSE: To propose an evidence-based review on the most frequent indications for Cesarean section (CS) given by specialists in disciplines other than Obstetrics and Gynecology, with the aim of increasing consciousness about the available data in the literature and the guidelines recommendations about topics that are not frequently managed by obstetricians and gynecologists. METHODS: We analyzed hospital discharge data regarding deliveries occurred in a 10-year study period in our department to obtain the prevalence and the list of the most recurrent non-obstetrical indications for CS...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Vincenza Gianfredi, Milena Villarini, Roberto Rosselli, Ahmed Nasr, Amr Hussein, Mariano Martini, Masoud Behzadifar
Vaccines are public health interventions aimed at preventing infections-related mortality, morbidity, and disability. While vaccines have been successfully designed for those infectious diseases preventable by preexisting neutralizing specific antibodies, for other communicable diseases, additional immunological mechanisms should be elicited to achieve a full protection. "New vaccines" are particularly urgent in the nowadays society, in which economic growth, globalization, and immigration are leading to the emergence/reemergence of old and new infectious agents at the animal-human interface...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Wenjie Zhong, Kayvan Haghighi, Prem Rathore, Eddy Wong, Pascal Mancuso
Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy to treat localized prostate cancer has increased in popularity, although other options exist, including radiotherapy and active surveillance. The decision about choosing the right treatment has become pertinent for many patients. This literature review aimed to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding decisional aids and the associated decisional outcomes for the purpose of designing a method for both patients and doctors to use to make the best treatment decision for the patient...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Jinkwon Jun, Soyoung Yoo
Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE) has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sami S AlAbdulwahab, Shaji John Kachanathu, Abdullah Saad AlSaeed
[Purpose] Academic performance of college students can be impacted by the efficacy of students' ability and teaching methods. It is important to assess the progression of college students' cognitive abilities among different college majors and as they move from junior to senior levels. However, dearth of studies have been examined the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool to determine the aptitude of the perspective students. Therefore, this study assessed cognitive abilities of computer science and ART students...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Begoña Errasti-Ibarrondo, José Antonio Jordán-Sierra, Mercedes P Díez-Del-Corral, María Arantzamendi
AIMS: To offer a complete outlook in a readable easy way of van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological method to nurses interested in undertaking phenomenological research. BACKGROUND: Phenomenology, as research methodology, involves a certain degree of complexity. It is difficult to identify a single article or author which sets out the didactic guidelines that specifically guide research of this kind. In this context, the theoretical-practical view of Max van Manen's Phenomenology of Practice may be seen as a rigorous guide and directive on which researchers may find support to undertake phenomenological research...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Foad Nahai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Lawrence R Lustig
: The American Otological Society (AOS) has been on the forefront of advancing the science of auditory and vestibular physiology, and art of ear medicine since its founding in 1868. For 150 years, through its publications, the AOS has provided a critical forum to debate these advances, highlighting treatment successes and failures, and served a place to celebrate its history. This historical review provides an overview of the publications of the AOS since its founding: the Transactions of the annual meeting from 1868 through 2006, Treatises on Otosclerosis (1928-1935), the History of the Society from the 100 and 125th anniversary, and the sponsored Society journals-American Journal of Otology (1879-1883, 1979-2000) and Otology & Neurotology (2001-present)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Francesc Viñes, Carmen Sousa, Francesc Illas
Core level binding energies, directly measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), provide unique information regarding the chemical environment of atoms in a given system. However, interpretation of XPS in extended systems may not be straightforward and requires assistance from theory. The different state-of-the-art theoretical methods commonly used to approach core level binding energies and their shifts with respect to a given reference are reviewed and critically assessed with special emphasis on recently developed theoretical methods and with a focus on future applications in materials and surface sciences...
March 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Melissa Anne Tadros, Brett Anthony Graham, Robert John Callister
In this issue of the Journal of Physiology, Balachandar and Prescott (2018) model the action potential discharge patterns (ie, spiking types) that have long been used to classify superficial dorsal horn (SDH: lamina I-II) neurons by varying the expression levels of two potassium conductances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Guangyuan Ren, Liangliang Gao, Chao Teng, Yunan Li, Hequn Yang, Jianglan Shui, Xianyong Lu, Ying Zhu, Liming Dai
The method of fabricating non-precious-metal electrocatalysts with high activity and durability through a facile and eco-friendly procedure is of great significance to the development of low cost fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, we present that an ancient chemical reaction of "Pharaoh's snakes" can be a fast and convenient technique to prepare Fe/N-doped carbon nanosheets/nanotubes (Fe/N-C) electrocatalysts with sugar, soda, melamine and iron nitrate as precursors. The resultant Fe/N-C catalyst has a hierarchically porous structure, large surface area and uniformly distributed active sites...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mehrzad Kiani, Mahmoud Abbasi, Mehdi Ahmadi, Bahare Salehi
Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have a decisive role in the culture of organ donation, which is the only way to guarantee that the healthy organs of a brain-dead person can continue to work and save the lives of people in need of organ transplantation. The brain death phenomenon and its possible application in organ transplantation, while offering new hope for the salvation of a number of patients, has led to many ethical, cultural, and legal issues...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jack Farr
Patellar pain and instability are common presentations to surgeons, yet assessment is more a static art than a dynamic science. In addition to resource-intensive gait laboratory, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to measure patellar tracking. CT has the limitation of radiation and MRI has the limitation of software processing times. With an updated MRI protocol and software, it is now possible to dynamically view patellar tracking. Determining how this will be used to help in the diagnosis and treatment of patients will be the next goal...
March 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Md Shahidul Islam
It is important to understand the rationale for appropriate use of different diuretics, alone or in combination, in different heart failure patients, under diverse clinical settings. Clinicians and nurses engaged in heart failure care, must be familiar with different diuretics, their appropriate doses, methods of administration, monitoring of the responses, and the side-effects. Inappropriate use of diuretics, both under-treatment and overtreatment, and poor follow-up can lead to failures, and adverse outcomes...
March 3, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hai-Long Qian, Cheng-Xiong Yang, Wen-Long Wang, Cheng Yang, Xiu-Ping Yan
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a new class of multifunctional crystalline organic polymer constructed with organic monomers via robust covalent bonds. The unique properties such as convenient modification, low densities, large specific surface areas, good stability and permanent porosity make COFs great potential in separation science. This review shows the state-of-the art for the application of COFs and their composites in analytical separation science. COFs and their composites have been explored as promising sorbents for solid phase extraction, potential coatings for solid phase microextraction, and novel stationary phases for gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Eileen A Hebets, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Pawl Tisdale, Trish Wonch Hill
Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event- Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE )-which encompasses more than twenty modular activities...
February 26, 2018: Insects
Ian Piper, Martin Shaw, Christopher Hawthorne, John Kinsella, Laura Moss
OBJECTIVE: Technology in neurointensive care units can collect and store vast amounts of complex patient data. The CHART-ADAPT project is aimed at developing technology that will allow for the collection, analysis and use of these big data at the patient's bedside in neurointensive care units. A requirement of this project is to automatically extract and transfer high-frequency waveform data (e.g. ICP) from monitoring equipment to high performance computing infrastructure for analysis...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Gautami Subhadra Penmetsa, Loda Princee Mani, Gadde Praveen, Chini Dorai Dwarakanath, S Suresh
Background: Dentistry, dealing with teeth and supporting tissues in the oral cavity is not only an ever-evolving science but also an art combined with good eye-hand coordination. It not only encompasses clinical and theoretical skills which play a crucial role in the success of therapy but also a lot of intrinsic work is accomplished in dentistry. In a journey to fulfill the above accomplishments and for facilitating early diagnosis of pathologies which usually go unnoticed, a clearer and magnified field of vision are also essential...
September 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Charlotte R Pennington, Linda K Kaye, Adam W Qureshi, Derek Heim
Research points to the positive impact that gender-segregated schooling and classroom initiatives exert on academic attainment. An evaluation of these studies which reveal positive effects highlights, however, that students are typically selectively assigned to single- or mixed-gender instructional settings, presenting a methodological confound. The current study controls for students' prior attainment to appraise the efficacy of a single-gender classroom initiative implemented in a co-educational high school in the United Kingdom...
2018: Sex Roles
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