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Estrogen dominance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136157/depletion-of-recombination-specific-co-factors-by-the-c-terminal-mutant-of-the-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-causes-the-dominant-negative-effect-on-class-switch-recombination
#1
Azza Al Ismail, Afzal Husain, Maki Kobayashi, Tasuku Honjo, Nasim A Begum
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Studies on in vitro mutagenized AID as well as its mutations in human patients with Hyper-IgM (HIGM)-syndrome type II revealed that C-terminal AID mutations were defective in CSR whereas their DNA cleavage and SHM activities remained intact. The C-terminal mutants of AID were speculated to exert the dominant negative effect on wild type WT AID whereas its mechanism remains unknown...
November 10, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123100/dna-methylation-at-enhancers-identifies-distinct-breast-cancer-lineages
#2
Thomas Fleischer, Xavier Tekpli, Anthony Mathelier, Shixiong Wang, Daniel Nebdal, Hari P Dhakal, Kristine Kleivi Sahlberg, Ellen Schlichting, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Elin Borgen, Bjørn Naume, Ragnhild Eskeland, Arnoldo Frigessi, Jörg Tost, Antoni Hurtado, Vessela N Kristensen
Breast cancers exhibit genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation patterns. To investigate how these affect the transcriptome and which changes are linked to transformation or progression, we apply genome-wide expression-methylation quantitative trait loci (emQTL) analysis between DNA methylation and gene expression. On a whole genome scale, in cis and in trans, DNA methylation and gene expression have remarkably and reproducibly conserved patterns of association in three breast cancer cohorts (n = 104, n = 253 and n = 277)...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109091/transcriptomic-profiling-of-mda-mb-231-cells-exposed-to-boswellia-serrata-and-3-o-acetyl-b-boswellic-acid-er-upr-mediated-programmed-cell-death
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Mazzio, Charles A Lewis, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of hormone receptors (estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) and a relatively poor prognosis due to inefficacy of hormone receptor-based chemotherapies. It is imperative that we continue to explore natural products with potential to impede growth and metastasis of TNBC. In this study, we screened over 1,000 natural products for capacity to induce cell death in TNBC (MDA-MB -231) cells...
November 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105068/activation-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-by-apoptotic-particles-mechanism-for-the-loss-of-immunologic-tolerance-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#4
Mari Ainola, Pauliina Porola, Yuya Takakubo, Beata Przybyla, Vesa-Petteri Kouri, Tuomas Aleksi Tolvanen, Arno Hänninen, Dan Christian Nordström
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common autoimmune disease targeting salivary and lacrimal glands. It is strongly female-dominant characterized by low estrogen levels combined with a local intracrine dihydrotestosterone defect. We hypothesized that these hormonal deficits lead to increased apoptosis of the epithelial cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) mediated pro-inflammatory host responses. Expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9 and cytokine profile was studied in pDCs treated with apoptotic particles collected in consecutive centrifugation steps of media from apoptotic cells...
November 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069288/lesion-development-is-modulated-by-the-natural-estrous-cycle-and-mouse-strain-in-a-minimally-invasive-model-of-endometriosis
#5
Kelsi N Dodds, Elizabeth A H Beckett, Susan F Evans, Mark R Hutchinson
Many rodent models of endometriosis are invasive, involving surgery to implant donor endometrial tissue into recipient animals. Moreover, few studies have compared and contrasted lesions between rodent strains and estrous stages without exogenous hormone manipulation. This is despite extensive data demonstrating that genetic and hormonal factors can influence endometriosis progression. Here, we have refined a minimally-invasive model of endometriosis using naturally cycling mice (donor and recipient matched for cycle phase) to investigate lesion development in two different strains (C57BL/6 and Balb/C), induced in estrous stages of high and low estrogen (proestrus or estrus, respectively), and with varying amounts of donor endometrial tissue (7...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049393/social-hierarchy-modulates-responses-of-fish-exposed-to-contaminants-of-emerging-concern
#6
Jelena Ivanova, Shiju Zhang, Rong-Lin Wang, Heiko L Schoenfuss
Many organisms, including the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a toxicological model organism, establish social hierarchies. The social rank of each male in a population is under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis mainly through regulation of circulating androgen concentrations, which in turn drive the expression of secondary sex characteristics (SSCs). As dominant and subordinate males in an exposure study are initially under different physiological conditions (i.e., differing plasma androgen concentrations), we proposed that they belong to different subpopulations in the context of exposure to compounds that may interact with the HPG axis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029020/the-endometrial-polarity-paradox-differential-regulation-of-polarity-within-secretory-phase-human-endometrium
#7
Sarah Whitby, Lois A Salamonsen, Jemma Evans
A major cause of infertility in normal and assisted reproduction cycles is failure of the endometrium to undergo appropriate changes during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle as it acquires receptivity for an implanting blastocyst. Current dogma states that loss of epithelial polarity in the luminal epithelial cells, the point of first contact between maternal endometrium and blastocyst, may facilitate embryo implantation. Loss of polarity is likely an important change during the secretory phase to overcome mutual repulsion between otherwise polarised epithelial surfaces...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020039/er%C3%AE-36-a-variant-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-is-predominantly-localized-in-mitochondria-of-human-uterine-smooth-muscle-and-leiomyoma-cells
#8
Yitang Yan, Linda Yu, Lysandra Castro, Darlene Dixon
ERα36 is a naturally occurring, membrane-associated, isoform of estrogen receptor α. The expression of ERα36 is due to alternative splicing and different promoter usage. ERα36 is a dominant-negative effector of ERα66-mediated transactivational activities and has the potential to trigger membrane-initiated mitogenic, nongenomic, estrogen signaling; however, the subcellular localization of ERα36 remains controversial. To determine the cellular localization of ERα36 in estrogen-responsive human uterine smooth muscle (ht-UtSMC) and leiomyoma (fibroid; ht-UtLM) cells, we conducted systematic confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation analysis using ERα36 antibodies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963488/synthesis-of-prenylated-flavonols-and-their-potents-as-estrogen-receptor-modulator
#9
Zhenru Tao, Juan Liu, Yueming Jiang, Liang Gong, Bao Yang
Prenylated flavonols are known as phytoestrogen and have good bioactivties. However, their abundances in nature are pretty low. It is required to find an efficient synthesis technique. Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside with low cost. It can be used to synthesize different prenylated flavonols. A combination of cellulase and trifluoacetic acid hydrolysis could effectively remove rhamnose and glucose from icariin. Icaritin, anhydroicaritin and wushanicaritin were the leading prenylated flavonol products...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919786/genetic-variants-in-long-noncoding-rna-h19-contribute-to-the-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-a-southeast-china-han-population
#10
Yuxiang Lin, Fangmeng Fu, Yazhen Chen, Wei Qiu, Songping Lin, Peidong Yang, Meng Huang, Chuan Wang
The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 is a maternally expressed imprinted gene that plays important roles in tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis. However, the association between polymorphisms on H19 and breast cancer (BC) susceptibility has remained obscure. In this case-control study, we assessed the interaction between two lncRNA H19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs217727 C>T, rs2839698 C>T) and the risk of BC in a Chinese Han population. In total, 1,005 BC cases and 1,020 healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911882/aromatase-inhibitors-a-new-approach-for-controlling-ovarian-function-in-cattle
#11
M J Yapura, E M Zwiefelhofer, R A Pierson, G P Adams
Numerous treatments and protocols have been used to control the reproductive cycle in cattle, with varying effectiveness and many involving the administration of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones, such as estradiol, are perceived as having a negative impact on consumer health. This internationally shared opinion has led to a ban on the use of steroid hormones in food producing animals in many countries (i.e., European Union, New Zealand, and Australia). Letrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, inactivates the aromatase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens by reversibly binding to the "heme" group of the P450 subunit...
September 11, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852050/neurotransmitters-and-neuropeptides-in-gonadal-steroid-receptor-expressing-cells-in-medial-preoptic-area-subregions-of-the-male-mouse
#12
Yousuke Tsuneoka, Sachine Yoshida, Kenkichi Takase, Satoko Oda, Masaru Kuroda, Hiromasa Funato
Testosterone is involved in male sexual, parental and aggressive behaviors through the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) α expressed in the brain. Although several studies have demonstrated that ERα and AR in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) are required for exhibiting sexual and aggressive behaviors of male mice, the molecular characteristics of ERα- and AR-expressing cells in the mouse MPOA are largely unknown. Here, we performed in situ hybridization for neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, combined with immunohistochemistry for ERα and AR to quantitate and characterize gonadal steroid receptor-expressing cells in the MPOA subregions of male mice...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816099/sex-differences-of-steroid-receptor-coactivator-1-expression-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#13
Jiayu Xiao, Jiqiang Zhang, Yangang Zhao, Wenjie Huang, Zhikai Guo, Bingyin Su, Qiang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The neural functional recovery of female is often better than that of male after spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidences show that estrogen can attenuate inflammation and promote the neural survival and regeneration after SCI. SRC-1 is an essential initiation factor for the estrogen-regulated target gene transcription and plays a key role in regulating estrogen activity. However, it is not known whether and how SRC-1 mediates the neural regeneration promoted by estrogen after SCI...
August 17, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811844/lsd1-dual-function-in-mediating-epigenetic-corruption-of-the-vitamin-d-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Sebastiano Battaglia, Ellen Karasik, Bryan Gillard, Jennifer Williams, Trisha Winchester, Michael T Moser, Dominic J Smiraglia, Barbara A Foster
BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) is a key regulator of the androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER), and LSD1 levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1 regulates vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity and is a mediator of 1,25(OH)2-D3 (vitamin D) action in prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Athymic nude mice were xenografted with CWR22 cells and monitored weekly after testosterone pellet removal. Expression of LSD1 and VDR (IHC) were correlated with tumor growth using log-rank test...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783591/association-of-gene-polymorphisms-of-estrogen-receptor-follicle-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-and-leptin-with-follicular-cysts-in-large-white-sows
#15
Haotian Wang, Lu Chen, Yanwen Jiang, Shan Gao, Shuxiong Chen, Xue Zheng, Zhuo Liu, Yun Zhao, Hongjiao Li, Jiaxin Yu, Fengge Wang, Yating Liu, Chunjin Li, Xu Zhou
Ovarian follicular cysts are one of leading causes of infertility and financial loss in pig breeding program. This study was carried out to investigate the association between polymorphisms of estrogen receptor (ESR), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β, and leptin genes and follicular cysts in sows. A total of 47 and 120 sows with follicular cysts and normal follicles, respectively, were selected to evaluate whether these candidate loci affect the formation of follicular cysts in sows. The polymorphisms of ESR, FSHβ, FSHβ/HaeIII and leptin genes were tested by PCR and PCR-RFLP methods...
November 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746946/endocrine-factors-determining-immune-polarization-during-perinatal-transition
#16
Barna Vásárhelyi, Tivadar Tulassay
In utero the skewness of the adaptive immune system towards Th2 ('antiinflammatory') direction and low of Th1/Th2 cell ratio defend the fetus against rejection by the maternal immune system. Th2 dominance at birth is also of importance as it prevents uncontrolled inflammatory processes during parturition. This condition should change rapidly after birth. In an extrauterine milieu that is inherent with exposure to microorganisms, Th1 ('proinflammatory') polarization (i. e. increased Th1 cytokine production along with high Th1/Th2 ratio) are required to maintain an efficient immune response...
September 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716668/incomplete-penetrance-in-mitochondrial-optic-neuropathies
#17
Leonardo Caporali, Alessandra Maresca, Mariantonietta Capristo, Valentina Del Dotto, Francesca Tagliavini, Maria Lucia Valentino, Chiara La Morgia, Valerio Carelli
Incomplete penetrance characterizes the two most frequent inherited optic neuropathies, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA), due to genetic errors in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear DNA (nDNA), respectively. For LHON, compelling evidence has accumulated on the complex interplay of mtDNA haplogroups and environmental interacting factors, whereas the nDNA remains essentially non informative. However, a compensatory mechanism of activated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mtDNA copy number, possibly driven by a permissive nDNA background, is documented in LHON; when successful it maintains unaffected the mutation carriers, but in some individuals it might be hampered by tobacco smoking or other environmental factors, resulting in disease onset...
July 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711771/toxicity-of-organic-compounds-from-unresolved-complex-mixtures-ucms-to-primary-fish-hepatocytes
#18
Karina Petersen, Maria T Hultman, Steven J Rowland, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Many environmental matrices contaminated with organic pollutants derived from crude oil or degraded petroleum contain mixtures so complex that they are typically unresolved by conventional analytical techniques such as gas chromatography. The resulting chromatographic features have become known as 'humps' or unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). These UCMs often dominate the organic contaminants of polluted environmental samples: for example, in oil sands produced water up to 150mgL(-1) of 'naphthenic acids' appear as UCMs when examined by gas chromatography as the esters...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687441/de-escalation-of-treatment-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer-determinants-of-response-and-mechanisms-of-resistance
#19
Jamunarani Veeraraghavan, Carmine De Angelis, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Tomás Pascual, Aleix Prat, Mothaffar F Rimawi, C Kent Osborne, Rachel Schiff
Overexpression and/or gene amplification of HER2, a crucial member of the HER family of four receptors, occur in about 15-20% of breast cancers and define an aggressive subtype of the disease. Activated HER homo and heterodimers govern a complex and redundant downstream signaling network that regulates cell survival and metastasis. Despite treatment with effective HER2-targeted therapies, many HER2-positive tumors fail to respond, or initially respond but eventually develop resistance. One of the upfront reasons for this treatment failure is failure to accurately select the tumors that are truly dependent on HER2 for survival and so would benefit the most from HER2-targeted therapy...
August 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640154/vaginal-microbiota-and-genitourinary-menopausal-symptoms-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#20
Caroline M Mitchell, Sujatha Srinivasan, Xiang Zhan, Michael C Wu, Susan D Reed, Katherine A Guthrie, Andrea Z LaCroix, Tina Fiedler, Matthew Munch, Congzhou Liu, Noah G Hoffman, Ian A Blair, Katherine Newton, Ellen W Freeman, Hadine Joffe, Lee Cohen, David N Fredricks
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between the composition of the vaginal microbiota and genitourinary menopausal symptoms, serum estrogen, and vaginal glycogen. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 88 women aged 40 to 62 years, enrolled in a hot flash treatment trial, provided vaginal swabs and a blood sample at enrollment. Bacterial communities were characterized using 16S rRNA PCR and deep sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region. Quantities of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners were measured using qPCR...
October 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
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