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Michael Hanke, Nico Adelhöfer, Daniel Kottke, Vittorio Iacovella, Ayan Sengupta, Falko R Kaule, Roland Nigbur, Alexander Q Waite, Florian Baumgartner, Jörg Stadler
Here we present an update of the studyforrest ( dataset that complements the previously released functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for natural language processing with a new two-hour 3 Tesla fMRI acquisition while 15 of the original participants were shown an audio-visual version of the stimulus motion picture. We demonstrate with two validation analyses that these new data support modeling specific properties of the complex natural stimulus, as well as a substantial within-subject BOLD response congruency in brain areas related to the processing of auditory inputs, speech, and narrative when compared to the existing fMRI data for audio-only stimulation...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
Ursula Christmann, Anne-Louise Göhring
According to the metaphorical framing model, the use of metaphors in discussing an issue influences recipients' understanding and assessment of that issue. In a recent study, participants read a text referring to a city's crime problem either as a beast or a virus and then proposed counter-measures for that problem. Participants' suggestions differed depending on the metaphor they had read. This replication matched the original procedure regarding the content of the rhetorical figures (beast vs virus), the topic under focus (crime) and the measurement of the dependent variable (open-end format to collect participants' proposals)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
Henrik Smeds, Jeremy Wales, Filip Asp, Ulrika Löfkvist, Babak Falahat, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Lena Anmyr, Eva Karltorp
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if cochlear implantation is safe and constitutes an option for hearing rehabilitation of children with x-linked inner ear malformation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective patient review in combination with a multidisciplinary follow-up. SETTING: Tertiary referral hospital and cochlear implant program. PATIENTS: Ten children with severe-profound mixed hearing loss and radiological findings consistent with Incomplete Partition type 3 cochlear malformation received cochlear implants during the years 2007 to 2015...
October 21, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Mariska Stam, Jan H Smit, Jos W R Twisk, Ulrike Lemke, Cas Smits, Joost M Festen, Sophia E Kramer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the longitudinal relationship between hearing ability in noise and psychosocial health outcomes (i.e., loneliness, anxiety, depression, distress, and somatization) in adults aged 18 to 70 years. An additional objective was to determine whether a change in hearing ability in noise over a period of 5 years was associated with a change in psychosocial functioning. Subgroup effects for a range of factors were investigated. DESIGN: Longitudinal data of the web-based Netherlands Longitudinal Study on Hearing (NL-SH) (N = 508) were analyzed...
November 2016: Ear and Hearing
Suzanne J O'Gara, Helen E Cullington, Mary L Grasmeder, Maria Adamou, Emily S Matthews
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors preimplantation associated with postimplantation speech perception improvement in the adult congenitally deaf population. DESIGN: Forty-four adult cochlear implant (CI) patients who had a severe to profound hearing loss from birth were identified from this centre's database. Eight preimplantation factors, speech intelligibility, preimplantation hearing levels, communication mode, preimplantation speech perception scores, progression of hearing loss, age at implantation, hearing aid use preimplantation, and gender, were recorded during the CI assessment process...
November 2016: Ear and Hearing
Margaret Mealings, Jacinta Douglas, John Olver
PURPOSE: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have a key role in supporting educational participation for secondary and tertiary students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This article aims to (i) explore issues identified by students with TBI that affect educational participation beyond their academic performance, (ii) offer a framework based on research evidence to guide the practice of SLPs and (iii) explore strategies that may expand the traditional roles of SLPs to support students beyond academic performance...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Pelle Söderström, Merle Horne, Johan Frid, Mikael Roll
We describe an event-related potential (ERP) effect termed the "pre-activation negativity" (PrAN), which is proposed to index the degree of pre-activation of upcoming word-internal morphemes in speech processing. Using lexical competition measures based on word-initial speech fragments (WIFs), as well as statistical analyses of ERP data from three experiments, it is shown that the PrAN is sensitive to lexical competition and that it reflects the degree of predictive certainty: the negativity is larger when there are fewer upcoming lexical competitors...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shantanu Dixit, Chaithra Kalkur, Atul P Sattur, Michael M Bornstein, Fred Melton
BACKGROUND: Scleroderma is a chronic connective tissue disorder with unknown etiology. It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the connective tissues causing vascular disturbances which can result in tissue hypoxia. These changes are manifested as atrophy of the skin and/or mucosa, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, and internal organs. Such changes can be classified into two types, namely, morphea (localized) and diffuse (systemic). Morphea can manifest itself as hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome) although this remains debatable...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Martina Christina Marion Schäfer, Dean Sutherland, Laurie McLay, Donna Achmadi, Larah van der Meer, Jeff Sigafoos, Giulio E Lancioni, Mark F O'Reilly, Ralf W Schlosser, Peter B Marschik
The social validity of different communication modalities is a potentially important variable to consider when designing augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions. To assess the social validity of three AAC modes (i.e., manual signing, picture exchange, and an iPad(®)-based speech-generating device), we asked 59 undergraduate students (pre-service teachers) and 43 teachers to watch a video explaining each mode. They were then asked to nominate the mode they perceived to be easiest to learn as well as the most intelligible, effective, and preferred...
October 25, 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
Shelley Gray
In this editorial, the Editor of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS) describes important changes coming to LSHSS and all ASHA journals and calls for readers to voice their opinion regarding important topics and formats they would like to see included in future LSHSS volumes.
October 24, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Simon Spalthoff, Rüdiger Zimmerer, Philipp Jehn, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Jörg Handschel, Gertrud Krüskemper
PURPOSE: In this study of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, the authors sought to clarify the functional and psychosocial harms of neck dissection (ND), which lessens quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included questionnaire responses from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,652) and clinicians (n = 1,489), as collected in the DÖSAK Rehab Study. Psychosocial and functional factors were assessed. Functional and psychosocial outcomes in patients who did not receive ND were compared with those in patients who underwent selective supraomohyoid ND (SND), modified radical ND (MND), and radical ND (RND)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Thayse Bienert Goetze, Pricila Sleifer, Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa, Alessandra Pawelec da Silva, Carla Graziadio, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola Zen
Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS), also known as Goldenhar syndrome, is considered a condition associated to failing of embryogenesis involving the first and second branchial arches, leading to structural abnormalities arising from it. The aim of this study is to verify the hearing features presented by patients with OAVS and provide additional information that may contribute to improvement of speech therapy. The sample consisted of 10 individuals diagnosed with OAVS and cared for by the Clinical Genetics Service...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Yuri A Zarate, Jennifer L Fish
The SATB2-associated syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability with absent or limited speech development, craniofacial abnormalities, behavioral problems, dysmorphic features, and palatal and dental abnormalities. Alterations of the SATB2 gene can result from a variety of different mechanisms that include contiguous deletions, intragenic deletions and duplications, translocations with secondary gene disruption, and point mutations. The multisystemic nature of this syndrome demands a multisystemic approach and we propose evaluation and management guidelines...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Christian Young, Hasantha Gunasekera, Kelvin Kong, Alison Purcell, Sumithra Muthayya, Frank Vincent, Darryl Wright, Raylene Gordon, Jennifer Bell, Guy Gillor, Julie Booker, Peter Fernando, Deanna Kalucy, Simone Sherriff, Allison Tong, Carmen Parter, Sandra Bailey, Sally Redman, Emily Banks, Jonathan C Craig
OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate Hearing EAr health and Language Services (HEALS), a New South Wales (NSW) health initiative implemented in 2013 and 2014 as a model for enhanced clinical services arising from Aboriginal health research. METHODS: A case-study involving a mixed-methods evaluation of the origins and outcomes of HEALS, a collaboration among five NSW Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS), the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network, NSW Health, the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council, and local service providers...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Gail B Murrow, Richard Murrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Robert Mark Simpson
Murrow and Murrow offer a novel account of dehumanization, by synthesizing data which suggest that where subject S has a dehumanized view of group G, S's neural mechanisms of empathy show a dampened response to the suffering of members of G, and S's judgments about the humanity of members of G are largely non-conscious. Here I examine Murrow and Murrow's suggestions about how identity-based hate speech bears responsibility for dehumanization in the first place. I identify a distinction between (i) accounts of the nature of the harm effected by identity prejudice, and (ii) accounts of how hate speech contributes to the harms of identity prejudice...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Alexandra B Roginsky, Alexander Tsesis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Joachim Richter, Roya Ostovar
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Andéol Évain, Ferran Argelaguet, Géry Casiez, Nicolas Roussel, Anatole Lécuyer
Gaze-based interfaces and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) allow for hands-free human-computer interaction. In this paper, we investigate the combination of gaze and BCIs. We propose a novel selection technique for 2D target acquisition based on input fusion. This new approach combines the probabilistic models for each input, in order to better estimate the intent of the user. We evaluated its performance against the existing gaze and brain-computer interaction techniques. Twelve participants took part in our study, in which they had to search and select 2D targets with each of the evaluated techniques...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
April Jacobs, Melinda Fricke, Judith F Kroll
Three groups of native English speakers named words aloud in Spanish, their second language (L2). Intermediate proficiency learners in a classroom setting (Experiment 1) and in a domestic immersion program (Experiment 2) were compared to a group of highly proficient English-Spanish speakers. All three groups named cognate words more quickly and accurately than matched noncognates, indicating that all speakers experienced cross-language activation during speech planning. However, only the classroom learners exhibited effects of cross-language activation in their articulation: Cognate words were named with shorter overall durations, but longer (more English-like) voice onset times...
2016: Language Learning
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