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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922244/fibular-graft-effective-panorama-for-prosthetic-rehabilitation-of-resected-mandible
#1
Pankaj Kharade, Saidul Islam, Mahesh Verma, Swati Sharma, Ranjeet Bodh
Surgical management of extensive tumors in the mandibular region leads to massive disfigurement of the face. Also the prosthetic outcome of such patients rehabilitated with free soft tissue flaps is very poor. Reconstruction of extensive defects to overcome the disfigurement is a challenging procedure and can be achieved with free fibula flap. Free fibula graft provides sufficient length of bone for the reconstruction of the postsurgical defects. Excellent vascularity of fibula flap allows for easy uptake of the graft and osseointegration of the dental implants...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922239/cleft-lip-and-palate-an-experience-of-a-developing-center-in-egypt
#2
Tarek A Abulezz
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and palate is the most common congenital anomaly in the head and neck region. These clefts are not just a distortion of the normal appearance, but they may impose a major influence on the whole patient's life, both functionally and psychologically. Clefts affect feeding, teething, hearing, speech, and social communication. The incidence of cleft lip and palate is variable in different countries and different communities. The surgical correction of cleft lip and palate went through many evolutions, but still there is no single universal protocol of repair; however, many European countries have adopted national protocols and have established cleft centers for the management and follow up of affected population...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922047/long-term-average-speech-spectra-of-turkish
#3
Mustafa Yüksel, Bülent Gündüz
Long-term average speech spectra (LTASS) are a voice analysis method that is recommended to be used in various areas, such as hearing aid fittings, automatic speaker recognition and voice disorders. Evaluations of LTASS in different languages have been published; however, this analysis has not been conducted for the Turkish. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to conduct this analysis, generate normative values and compare the obtained LTASS curve for the Turkish with those obtained for other languages reported in the literature...
September 18, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920522/constraint-and-multimodal-approaches-to-therapy-for-chronic-aphasia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
John E Pierce, Maya Menahemi-Falkov, Robyn O'Halloran, Leanne Togher, Miranda L Rose
Aphasia is a significant cause of disability and reduced quality of life. Two speech pathology treatment approaches appear efficacious: multimodal and constraint-induced aphasia therapies. In constraint-induced therapies, non-verbal actions (e.g., gesture, drawing) are believed to interfere with treatment and patients are therefore constrained to speech. In contrast, multimodal therapies employ non-verbal modalities to cue word retrieval. Given the clinical and theoretical implications, a comparison of these two divergent treatments was pursued...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919553/social-evaluative-threat-with-verbal-performance-feedback-alters-neuroendocrine-response-to-stress
#5
Jenny M Phan, Ekaterina Schneider, Jeremy Peres, Olga Miocevic, Vanessa Meyer, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff
Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women...
September 15, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919431/neurocircuitry-of-impaired-affective-sound-processing-a-clinical-disorders-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Sascha Frühholz, Matthias Staib
Decoding affective meaning from sensory information is central to accurate and adaptive behavior in many natural and social contexts. Human vocalizations (speech and non-speech), environmental sounds (e.g. thunder, noise, or animal sounds) and human-produced sounds (e.g. technical sounds or music) can carry a wealth of important aversive, threatening, appealing, or pleasurable affective information that sometimes implicitly influences and guides our behavior. Deficits in processing such affective information is detrimental to adaptive environmental behavior, psychological well-being, and social interactive abilities...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919105/airflow-error-measurement-due-to-pneumotachograph-mask-rim-leaks
#7
Nicholas A May, Ronald C Scherer
Airflow during speech production is recorded using a pneumotachograph system wherein typically a mask is placed upon the face. Accurate measures of airflow require mask calibration and a complete seal of the mask rim to the face. Literature frequently cites mask rim leaks as causing flow measurement inaccuracies, but quantitative studies of the inaccuracies are needed. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of inaccuracy of flow measurement using a Glottal Enterprises aerodynamic system for a variety of mask rim leak conditions...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918706/speech-intelligibility-benefits-of-frequency-lowering-algorithms-in-adult-hearing-aid-users-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Andrea Simpson, Alicia Bond, Michelle Loeliger, Sandy Clarke
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of two frequency-lowering schemes, non-linear frequency compression and frequency transposition, at improving speech intelligibility for adult hearing-impaired populations. DESIGN: A systematic search of 10 electronic databases was carried out using pre-defined inclusion criteria. Accepted articles were then critically appraised using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Critical Appraisal Tool...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918643/speech-language-pathology-telehealth-in-rural-and-remote-schools-the-experience-of-school-executive-and-therapy-assistants
#9
Glenn C Fairweather, Michelle A Lincoln, Robyn Ramsden
INTRODUCTION: Difficulties in accessing allied health services, especially in rural and remote areas, appear to be driving the use of telehealth services to children in schools. The objectives of this study were to investigate the experiences and views of school executive staff and therapy assistants regarding the feasibility and acceptability of a speech-language pathology telehealth program for children attending schools in rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. The program, called Come N See, provided therapy interventions remotely via low-bandwidth videoconferencing, with email follow-up...
July 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918504/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-disease-modeling-using-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Anita Brito, Fabiele Baldino Russo, Alysson Renato Muotri, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a variety of disorders characterized as complex lifelong neurodevelopment disabilities, which may affect the ability of communication and socialization, including typical comportments like repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Other comorbidities are usually present, such as echolalia, hypotonia, intellectual disability and difficulties in processing figured speech. Furthermore, some ASD individuals may present certain abilities, such as eidetic memory, outstanding musical or painting talents and special mathematical skills, among others...
September 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918257/pathways-of-the-inferior-frontal-occipital-fasciculus-in-overt-speech-and-reading
#11
Claire Rollans, Kulpreet Cheema, George K Georgiou, Jacqueline Cummine
In this study, we examined the relationship between tractography-based measures of white matter integrity (ex. fractional anisotropy [FA]) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and five reading-related tasks, including rapid automatized naming (RAN) of letters, digits, and objects, and reading of real words and nonwords. Twenty university students with no reported history of reading difficulties were tested on all five tasks and their performance was correlated with diffusion measures extracted through DTI tractography...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917659/sonification-of-scalp-recorded-frequency-following-responses-ffrs-offers-improved-response-detection-over-conventional-statistical-metrics
#12
Gavin M Bidelman
BACKGROUND: The human frequency-following response (FFR) is a neurophonic potential used to examine the brain's encoding of complex sounds (e.g., speech) and monitor neuroplastic changes in auditory processing. Given the FFR's low amplitude (order of nanovolts), current conventions in literature recommend collecting several thousand trials to obtain a robust evoked response with adequate signal-to-noise ratio. NEW METHOD: By exploiting the spectrotemporal fidelity of the response, we examined whether auditory playbacks (i...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917133/waiting-for-lexical-access-cochlear-implants-or-severely-degraded-input-lead-listeners-to-process-speech-less-incrementally
#13
Bob McMurray, Ashley Farris-Trimble, Hannah Rigler
Spoken language unfolds over time. Consequently, there are brief periods of ambiguity, when incomplete input can match many possible words. Typical listeners solve this problem by immediately activating multiple candidates which compete for recognition. In two experiments using the visual world paradigm, we examined real-time lexical competition in prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users, and normal hearing (NH) adults listening to severely degraded speech. In Experiment 1, adolescent CI users and NH controls matched spoken words to arrays of pictures including pictures of the target word and phonological competitors...
September 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916222/estimating-vocal-effort-from-the-aerodynamics-of-labial-fricatives-a-feasibility-study
#14
Yohann Meynadier, Anita El Hajj, Michel Pitermann, Thierry Legou, Antoine Giovanni
OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESIS: Vocal effort in loud voice is produced with increased subglottal pressure during vowels and increased supraglottal pressure during consonants. In the paper, our main objective is to check whether it was supported by a parallel increase in the airflow resistance of the laryngeal articulator and of the supralaryngeal articulator, here the lips. STUDY DESIGN AND METHOD: For this comparison, our choice fell on the fricative consonants, as their production allows perfectly synchronous air pressure and airflow measurements...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915903/a-quantitative-assessment-of-the-evolution-of-cerebellar-syndrome-in-children-with-phosphomannomutase-deficiency-pmm2-cdg
#15
Natalia Lourdes Serrano, Victor De Diego, Daniel Cuadras, Antonio F Martinez Monseny, Ramón Velázquez-Fragua, Laura López, Ana Felipe, Luis G Gutiérrez-Solana, Alfons Macaya, Belén Pérez-Dueñas, Mercedes Serrano
BACKGROUND: We aim to delineate the progression of cerebellar syndrome in children with phosphomannomutase-deficiency (PMM2-CDG) using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). We sought correlation between cerebellar volumetry and clinical situation. We prospectively evaluated PMM2-CDG patients aged from 5 to 18 years through ICARS at two different time points set apart by at least 20 months. We reviewed available MRIs and performed volumetric analysis when it was possible...
September 15, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915784/the-role-of-fundamental-frequency-and-temporal-envelope-in-processing-sentences-with-temporary-syntactic-ambiguities
#16
Victoria Sharpe, Daniel Fogerty, Dirk-Bart den Ouden
Previous experiments have demonstrated the impact of speech prosody on syntactic processing. The present study was designed to examine how listeners use specific acoustic properties of prosody for grammatical interpretation. We investigated the independent contributions of two acoustic properties associated with the pitch and rhythmic properties of speech; the fundamental frequency and temporal envelope, respectively. The effect of degrading these prosodic components was examined by testing listeners' ability to parse early-closure garden-path sentences...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915783/prediction-of-agreement-and-phonetic-overlap-shape-sublexical-identification
#17
Andrea E Martin, Philip J Monahan, Arthur G Samuel
The mapping between the physical speech signal and our internal representations is rarely straightforward. When faced with uncertainty, higher-order information is used to parse the signal and because of this, the lexicon and some aspects of sentential context have been shown to modulate the identification of ambiguous phonetic segments. Here, using a phoneme identification task (i.e., participants judged whether they heard [o] or [a] at the end of an adjective in a noun-adjective sequence), we asked whether grammatical gender cues influence phonetic identification and if this influence is shaped by the phonetic properties of the agreeing elements...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915782/voicing-assimilation-in-czech-and-slovak-speakers-of-english-interactions-of-segmental-context-language-and-strength-of-foreign-accent
#18
Radek Skarnitzl, Pavel Šturm
This study focuses on voicing assimilation across word boundaries in the speech of second language (L2) users. We compare native speakers of British English to speakers of two West Slavic languages, Czech and Slovak, which, despite their many similarities, differ with respect to voicing assimilation rules. Word-final voicing was analysed in 30 speakers, using the static value of voicing percentage and the voicing profile method. The results of linear mixed-effects modelling suggest an effect of first language (L1) transfer in all L2 English speaker groups, with the tendency to assimilate being correlated with the strength of foreign accent...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915780/cognitive-load-reduces-perceived-linguistic-convergence-between-dyads
#19
Jennifer Abel, Molly Babel
Speech convergence is the tendency of talkers to become more similar to someone they are listening or talking to, whether that person is a conversational partner or merely a voice heard repeating words. To elucidate the nature of the mechanisms underlying convergence, this study uses different levels of task difficulty on speech convergence within dyads collaborating on a task. Dyad members had to build identical LEGO® constructions without being able to see each other's construction, and with each member having half of the instructions required to complete the construction...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915779/relative-salience-of-speech-rhythm-and-speech-rate-on-perceived-foreign-accent-in-a-second-language
#20
Leona Polyanskaya, Mikhail Ordin, Maria Grazia Busa
We investigated the independent contribution of speech rate and speech rhythm to perceived foreign accent. To address this issue we used a resynthesis technique that allows neutralizing segmental and tonal idiosyncrasies between identical sentences produced by French learners of English at different proficiency levels and maintaining the idiosyncrasies pertaining to prosodic timing patterns. We created stimuli that (1) preserved the idiosyncrasies in speech rhythm while controlling for the differences in speech rate between the utterances; (2) preserved the idiosyncrasies in speech rate while controlling for the differences in speech rhythm between the utterances; and (3) preserved the idiosyncrasies both in speech rate and speech rhythm...
September 2017: Language and Speech
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