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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352548/prediction-of-psychosis-across-protocols-and-risk-cohorts-using-automated-language-analysis
#1
Cheryl M Corcoran, Facundo Carrillo, Diego Fernández-Slezak, Gillinder Bedi, Casimir Klim, Daniel C Javitt, Carrie E Bearden, Guillermo A Cecchi
Language and speech are the primary source of data for psychiatrists to diagnose and treat mental disorders. In psychosis, the very structure of language can be disturbed, including semantic coherence (e.g., derailment and tangentiality) and syntactic complexity (e.g., concreteness). Subtle disturbances in language are evident in schizophrenia even prior to first psychosis onset, during prodromal stages. Using computer-based natural language processing analyses, we previously showed that, among English-speaking clinical (e...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352291/correction-shared-acoustic-codes-underlie-emotional-communication-in-music-and-speech-evidence-from-deep-transfer-learning
#2
Eduardo Coutinho, Björn Schuller
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179289.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352208/abnormal-speech-motor-control-in-individuals-with-16p11-2-deletions
#3
Carly Demopoulos, Hardik Kothare, Danielle Mizuiri, Jennifer Henderson-Sabes, Brieana Fregeau, Jennifer Tjernagel, John F Houde, Elliott H Sherr, Srikantan S Nagarajan
Speech and motor deficits are highly prevalent (>70%) in individuals with the 600 kb BP4-BP5 16p11.2 deletion; however, the mechanisms that drive these deficits are unclear, limiting our ability to target interventions and advance treatment. This study examined fundamental aspects of speech motor control in participants with the 16p11.2 deletion. To assess capacity for control of voice, we examined how accurately and quickly subjects changed the pitch of their voice within a trial to correct for a transient perturbation of the pitch of their auditory feedback...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351881/phonotactic-processing-deficit-following-left-hemisphere-stroke
#4
Maryam Ghaleh, Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Shihui Xing, Elizabeth Lacey, Iain DeWitt, Andrew DeMarco, Peter Turkeltaub
The neural basis of speech processing is still a matter of great debate. Phonotactic knowledge-knowledge of the allowable sound combinations in a language-remains particularly understudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain regions crucial to phonotactic knowledge in left-hemisphere stroke survivors. Results were compared to areas in which gray matter anatomy related to phonotactic knowledge in healthy controls. 44 patients with chronic left-hemisphere stroke, and 32 controls performed an English-likeness rating task on 60 auditory non-words of varying phonotactic regularities...
December 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351584/the-roles-of-left-versus-right-anterior-temporal-lobes-in-semantic-memory-a-neuropsychological-comparison-of-postsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#5
Grace E Rice, Helen Caswell, Perry Moore, Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The presence and degree of specialization between the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) is a key issue in debates about the neural architecture of semantic memory. Here, we comprehensively assessed multiple aspects of semantic cognition in a large group of postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with left versus right anterior temporal lobectomy (n = 40). Both subgroups showed deficits in expressive and receptive verbal semantic tasks, word and object recognition, naming and recognition of famous faces and perception of faces and emotions...
January 17, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351499/graduate-speech-language-pathology-students-initial-self-perceptions-of-skills-critical-for-interprofessional-practice
#6
Courtney Karasinski, Janine L Schmedding-Bartley
Interprofessional collaborative practice is critical for quality service delivery. Given the limited research on speech-language pathology (SLP) students' interprofessional knowledge and skills, this investigation assessed graduate SLP students' self-perceived interprofessional competence and their perceptions of roles of other professionals. Fifty-eight SLP students completed two validated surveys at the beginning of the first or second semester of graduate school. Collectively, the students rated themselves positively on communication, teamwork, attitudes toward interprofessional learning, and professional relationships...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351354/the-effects-of-intensive-speech-treatment-on-conversational-intelligibility-in-spanish-speakers-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Gemma Moya-Galé, Alireza Goudarzi, Àngels Bayés, Megan McAuliffe, Bram Bulté, Erika S Levy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intensive speech treatment on the conversational intelligibility of Castilian Spanish speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as on the speakers' self-perceptions of disability. Method: Fifteen speakers with a medical diagnosis of PD participated in this study. Speech recordings were completed twice before treatment, immediately posttreatment, and at a 1-month follow-up session. Conversational intelligibility was assessed in 2 ways-transcription accuracy scores and intelligibility ratings on a 9-point Likert scale...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351319/speech-stone-tool-making-and-the-evolution-of-language
#8
Dana Michelle Cataldo, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Lucio Vinicius
The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351289/the-rumour-spectrum
#9
Nicolas Turenne
Rumour is an old social phenomenon used in politics and other public spaces. It has been studied for only hundred years by sociologists and psychologists by qualitative means. Social media platforms open new opportunities to improve quantitative analyses. We scanned all scientific literature to find relevant features. We made a quantitative screening of some specific rumours (in French and in English). Firstly, we identified some sources of information to find them. Secondly, we compiled different reference, rumouring and event datasets...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351276/static-length-changes-of-cochlear-outer-hair-cells-can-tune-low-frequency-hearing
#10
Nikola Ciganović, Rebecca L Warren, Batu Keçeli, Stefan Jacob, Anders Fridberger, Tobias Reichenbach
The cochlea not only transduces sound-induced vibration into neural spikes, it also amplifies weak sound to boost its detection. Actuators of this active process are sensory outer hair cells in the organ of Corti, whereas the inner hair cells transduce the resulting motion into electric signals that propagate via the auditory nerve to the brain. However, how the outer hair cells modulate the stimulus to the inner hair cells remains unclear. Here, we combine theoretical modeling and experimental measurements near the cochlear apex to study the way in which length changes of the outer hair cells deform the organ of Corti...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351181/cleft-palate-repair-description-of-an-approach-its-evolution-and-analysis-of-post-operative-fistulas
#11
Raymond W Tse, Babette Siebold
BACKGROUND: Fistulas following cleft palate repair impair speech, health, and hygiene and occur in up to 35% cases. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the evolution of a surgical approach to cleft palate repair; (2) assess the rates, causes, and predictive factors of fistulas; (3) assess the temporal association of modifications to fistula rates during six years of a single surgeon experience. METHODS: Consecutive patients (N=146) undergoing cleft palate repair were included...
January 12, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351033/closing-the-loop-on-centralization-of-cleft-care-in-the-united-kingdom
#12
Andrew R Ness, Andrew R Wills, Andrea Waylen, Jackie Smallridge, Amanda J Hall, Debbie Sell, Jonathan R Sandy
OBJECTIVE: We highlight a major study that investigated the impact of reconfigured cleft care in the United Kingdom some 15 years after centralization. We argue that centralization as an intervention has a major impact on outcomes. SETTING: Audit clinics held in Cleft Centers in the United Kingdom. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Five-year-olds born between April 1, 2005, and March 31, 2007, with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. INTERVENTIONS: Centralization of cleft care...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351032/speech-and-language-performance-of-us-born-and-internationally-adopted-toddlers-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#13
Vioj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351026/the-influences-of-child-intelligibility-and-rate-on-caregiver-responses-to-toddlers-with-and-without-cleft-palate
#14
Jennifer R Frey, Ann P Kaiser, Nancy J Scherer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of child speech intelligibility and rate on caregivers' linguistic responses. DESIGN: This study compared the language use of children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CP±L) and their caregivers' responses. Descriptive analyses of children's language and caregivers' responses and a multilevel analysis of caregiver responsivity were conducted to determine whether there were differences in children's productive language and caregivers' responses to different types of child utterances...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350583/author-accepted-manuscript-morphological-structure-mediates-notional-meaning-of-gender-marking-evidence-from-the-gender-congruency-effect-in-speech-production-in-hebrew
#15
Avital Deutsch, Maya Dank
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350350/biochemical-changes-and-clinical-outcomes-in-34-patients-with-classic-galactosemia
#16
Tatiana Yuzyuk, Krista Viau, Ashley Andrews, Marzia Pasquali, Nicola Longo
Impaired activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) causes galactosemia, an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism. Early initiation of a galactose-restricted diet can prevent or resolve neonatal complications. Despite therapy, patients often experience long-term complications including speech impairment, learning disabilities, and premature ovarian insufficiency in females. This study evaluates clinical outcomes in 34 galactosemia patients with markedly reduced GALT activity and compares outcomes between patients with different levels of mean galactose-1-phosphate in red blood cells (GAL1P) using logistic regression: group 1 (n = 13) GAL1P ≤1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350087/segmentation-of-tongue-shapes-during-vowel-production-in-magnetic-resonance-images-based-on-statistical-modelling
#17
Jessica C Delmoral, Sandra M Rua Ventura, João Manuel Rs Tavares
Quantification of the anatomic and functional aspects of the tongue is pertinent to analyse the mechanisms involved in speech production. Speech requires dynamic and complex articulation of the vocal tract organs, and the tongue is one of the main articulators during speech production. Magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used in speech-related studies. Moreover, the segmentation of such images of speech organs is required to extract reliable statistical data. However, standard solutions to analyse a large set of articulatory images have not yet been established...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349881/speech-and-language-therapists-perspectives-of-therapeutic-alliance-construction-and-maintenance-in-aphasia-rehabilitation-post-stroke
#18
Michelle Lawton, Karen Sage, Gillian Haddock, Paul Conroy, Laura Serrant
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic alliance refers to the interactional and relational processes operating during therapeutic interventions. It has been shown to be a strong determinant of treatment efficacy in psychotherapy, and evidence is emerging from a range of healthcare and medical disciplines to suggest that the construct of therapeutic alliance may in fact be a variable component of treatment outcome, engagement and satisfaction. Although this construct appears to be highly relevant to aphasia rehabilitation, no research to date has attempted to explore this phenomenon and thus consider its potential utility as a mechanism for change...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349696/assessing-priming-for-prosodic-representations-speaking-rate-intonational-phrase-boundaries-and-pitch-accenting
#19
Kristen M Tooley, Agnieszka E Konopka, Duane G Watson
Recent work in the literature on prosody presents a puzzle: Some aspects of prosody can be primed in production (e.g., speech rate), but others cannot (e.g., intonational phrase boundaries, or IPBs). In three experiments we aimed to replicate these effects and identify the source of this dissociation. In Experiment 1 we investigated how speaking rate and the presence of an intonational boundary in a prime sentence presented auditorily affect the production of these aspects of prosody in a target sentence presented visually...
January 18, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348611/prediction-is-production-the-missing-link-between-language-production-and-comprehension
#20
Clara D Martin, Francesca M Branzi, Moshe Bar
Language comprehension often involves the generation of predictions. It has been hypothesized that such prediction-for-comprehension entails actual language production. Recent studies provided evidence that the production system is recruited during language comprehension, but the link between production and prediction during comprehension remains hypothetical. Here, we tested this hypothesis by comparing prediction during sentence comprehension (primary task) in participants having the production system either available or not (non-verbal versus verbal secondary task)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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