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Hajime Ohno, Hirokazu Sato, Yasuhiro Fukushima
To achieve the goals of Paris Agreement, global society is directing much effort in substantially reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition to energy-related efforts, prevention of carbon release into the atmosphere with carbon capture and storage (CCS) and/or utilization of biomass resources is considered indispensable to achieving the global objective. In this study, considering carbon-containing goods as carbon reservoirs in our society similar to forests and reservoirs enabling CCS, the flow of materially utilized carbon was quantified by input-output-based material flow analysis (IO-MFA)...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Joshu J Mountjoy, Jamie D Howarth, Alan R Orpin, Philip M Barnes, David A Bowden, Ashley A Rowden, Alexandre C G Schimel, Caroline Holden, Huw J Horgan, Scott D Nodder, Jason R Patton, Geoffroy Lamarche, Matthew Gerstenberger, Aaron Micallef, Arne Pallentin, Tim Kane
Although the global flux of sediment and carbon from land to the coastal ocean is well known, the volume of material that reaches the deep ocean-the ultimate sink-and the mechanisms by which it is transferred are poorly documented. Using a globally unique data set of repeat seafloor measurements and samples, we show that the moment magnitude ( M w ) 7.8 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake (New Zealand) triggered widespread landslides in a submarine canyon, causing a powerful "canyon flushing" event and turbidity current that traveled >680 km along one of the world's longest deep-sea channels...
March 2018: Science Advances
Hemant K Mehta
The purpose is to present a new refined surgical technique for mild-to-severe acquired myogenic ptosis correction under local anaesthesia (LA) as day cases with resection of myotarsal (MT) flap and demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the technique. MT flap consists of 2 mm tarsal strip with attached levator complex - levator muscle, its aponeurosis, and Müller muscle. This is a retrospective personal series of 400+ patients, who underwent surgical correction with MT flap resection of 8-24 mm under LA mostly as day cases...
March 15, 2018: Orbit
F Nici, G Oliviero, A P Falanga, S D'Errico, M Marzano, D Musumeci, D Montesarchio, S Noppen, C Pannecouque, G Piccialli, N Borbone
By combining the ability of short G-rich oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing the sequence 5'CGGA3' to form higher order G-quadruplex (G4) complexes with the tetra-end-linked (TEL) concept to produce aptamers targeting the HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), three new TEL-ODNs (1-3) having the sequence 5'CGGAGG3' were synthesized with the aim of studying the effect of G4 dimerization on their anti-HIV activity. Furthermore, in order to investigate the effect of the groups at the 5' position, the 5' ends of 1-3 were left uncapped (1) or capped with either the lipophilic dimethoxytrityl (DMT) (2) or the hydrophilic glucosyl-4-phosphate (3) moieties...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Yongteng Zhao, Dafei Li, Jun-Wei Xu, Peng Zhao, Tao Li, Huixian Ma, Xuya Yu
In this study, melatonin (MT) promoted lipid accumulation in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 under nitrogen deficiency conditions. The lipid accumulation increased 1.22- and 1.36-fold compared with a nitrogen-starved medium and a normal BG-11 medium, respectively. The maximum lipid content was 51.38%. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the presence of melatonin was lower than that in the control group, likely because of the high antioxidant activities. The application of melatonin upregulated the gibberellin acid (GA) production and rbcL and accD expression levels but downregulated the abscisic acid (ABA) content and pepc expression levels...
March 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sabrina Pitzalis, Francesca Strappini, Alessandro Bultrini, Francesco Di Russo
Neuroimaging studies have identified so far, several color-sensitive visual areas in the human brain, and the temporal dynamics of these activities have been separately investigated using the visual-evoked potentials (VEPs). In the present study, we combined electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods to determine a detailed spatiotemporal profile of chromatic VEP and to localize its neural generators. The accuracy of the present co-registration study was obtained by combining standard fMRI data with retinotopic and motion mapping data at the individual level...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Thomas K F Foo, Evangelos Laskaris, Mark Vermilyea, Minfeng Xu, Paul Thompson, Gene Conte, Christopher Van Epps, Christopher Immer, Seung-Kyun Lee, Ek T Tan, Dominic Graziani, Jean-Baptise Mathieu, Christopher J Hardy, John F Schenck, Eric Fiveland, Wolfgang Stautner, Justin Ricci, Joseph Piel, Keith Park, Yihe Hua, Ye Bai, Alex Kagan, David Stanley, Paul T Weavers, Erin Gray, Yunhong Shu, Matthew A Frick, Norbert G Campeau, Joshua Trzasko, John Huston, Matt A Bernstein
PURPOSE: To build and evaluate a small-footprint, lightweight, high-performance 3T MRI scanner for advanced brain imaging with image quality that is equal to or better than conventional whole-body clinical 3T MRI scanners, while achieving substantial reductions in installation costs. METHODS: A conduction-cooled magnet was developed that uses less than 12 liters of liquid helium in a gas-charged sealed system, and standard NbTi wire, and weighs approximately 2000 kg...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Xiujuan Zhang, Yuanmei Zhu, Hao Hu, Senyan Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Huihui Chong, Jinsheng He, Xinquan Wang, Yuxian He
The deep hydrophobic pocket of HIV-1 gp41 has been considered a drug target, but short-peptides targeting this site usually lack potent antiviral activity. By applying the M-T hook structure, we previously generated highly potent short-peptide fusion inhibitors that specifically targeted the pocket site, such as MT-SC22EK, HP23L, and LP-11. Here, the crystal structures of HP23L and LP-11 bound to the target mimic peptide N36 demonstrated the critical intrahelical and interhelical interactions, especially verifying that the hook-like conformation was finely adopted while the methionine residue was replaced by the oxidation-less prone residue leucine, and that addition of an extra glutamic acid significantly enhanced the binding and inhibitory activities...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yicheng Yu, Aimin Wang, Xiang Li, Meng Kou, Wenjun Wang, Xianyang Chen, Tao Xu, Mingku Zhu, Daifu Ma, Zongyun Li, Jian Sun
Melatonin (MT) is a multifunctional molecule in animals and plants and is involved in defense against salinity stress in various plant species. In this study, MT pretreatment was simultaneously applied to the roots and leaves of sweet potato seedlings [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], which is an important food and industry crop worldwide, followed by treatment of 150 mM NaCl. The roles of MT in mediating K+ /Na+ homeostasis and lipid metabolism in salinized sweet potato were investigated. Exogenous MT enhanced the resistance to NaCl and improved K+ /Na+ homeostasis in sweet potato seedlings as indicated by the low reduced K+ content in tissues and low accumulation of Na+ content in the shoot...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Frederick Hakelberg, Philip Kiefer, Matthias Wittemer, Tobias Schaetz, Ulrich Warring
Well controlled and highly stable magnetic fields are desired for a wide range of applications in physical research, including quantum metrology, sensing, information processing, and simulation. Here we introduce a low-cost hybrid assembly of rare-earth magnets and magnetic field coils to generate a field strength of [Formula: see text]10.9 mT with a calculated spatial variation of less than 10-6 within a diameter of spherical volume of 150 μm. We characterise its tuneability and stability performance using a single Mg+ atom confined in a radio-frequency surface-electrode trap under ultra-high vacuum conditions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Coralie Fassier, Amélie Fréal, Laïla Gasmi, Christian Delphin, Daniel Ten Martin, Stéphanie De Gois, Monica Tambalo, Christophe Bosc, Philippe Mailly, Céline Revenu, Leticia Peris, Susanne Bolte, Sylvie Schneider-Maunoury, Corinne Houart, Fatiha Nothias, Jean-Christophe Larcher, Annie Andrieux, Jamilé Hazan
During neural circuit assembly, extrinsic signals are integrated into changes in growth cone (GC) cytoskeleton underlying axon guidance decisions. Microtubules (MTs) were shown to play an instructive role in GC steering. However, the numerous actors required for MT remodeling during axon navigation and their precise mode of action are far from being deciphered. Using loss- and gain-of-function analyses during zebrafish development, we identify in this study the meiotic clade adenosine triphosphatase Fidgetin-like 1 (Fignl1) as a key GC-enriched MT-interacting protein in motor circuit wiring and larval locomotion...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Wen Dun, Peter Danilo, Peter J Mohler, Penelope A Boyden
Cardiac Na+ channel remodeling provides a critical substrate for generation of reentrant arrhythmias in border zones of the infarcted canine heart. Recent studies show that Nav1.5 cytoskeletal- and endosomal-based membrane trafficking and function are linked to tubulin, microtubular (MT) networks, and Eps15 homology domain containing proteins like EHD4. AIM: Our objective is to understand the relation of tubulin and EHD4 to Nav 1.5 channel protein remodeling observed in border zone cells (IZs) when arrhythmias are known to occur; that is, 3-h, 48-h and 5-day post coronary occlusion...
March 10, 2018: Life Sciences
Nabeel Quryshi, Laura E Norwood Toro, Karima Ait-Aissa, Amanda Kong, Andreas M Beyer
Although chemotherapeutics can be highly effective at targeting malignancies, their ability to trigger cardiovascular morbidity is clinically significant. Chemotherapy can adversely affect cardiovascular physiology, resulting in the development of cardiomyopathy, heart failure and microvascular defects. Specifically, anthracyclines are known to cause an excessive buildup of free radical species and mitochondrial DNA damage (mt DNA) that can lead to oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular apoptosis. Therefore, oncologists and cardiologists maintain a network of communication when dealing with patients during treatment in order to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular damage; however, there is a need to discover more accurate biomarkers and therapeutics to combat and predict the onset of cardiovascular side effects...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Valessa F Carvalho, Priscilla Bf Soares, Crisnicaw Verissimo, Roberto S Pessoa, Antheunis Versluis, Carlos J Soares
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mouthguard shock absorption ability, strain, and stress generation during impact on dental implants placed in the anterior maxilla. The mouthguard material was also characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty experimental models were created and divided into six groups (n = 10): implant type, external hexagon (EH) and Morse taper (MT); without and with two mouthguards (MTG), EVA custom-fitted (Ct-MTG) and standard self-adapted (St-MTG)...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Fatih Seker, Markus A Möhlenbruch, Simon Nagel, Christian Ulfert, Silvia Schönenberger, Johannes Pfaff, Peter A Ringleb, Thorsten Steiner, Martin Bendszus, Christian Herweh
Background Many tertiary care hospitals cannot provide a continuous thrombectomy service due to the lack of a neurointerventionalist. Aims In this study, we present procedural and clinical results of a new concept in which neuroradiologists of a university hospital provide neurointerventional stroke service to a remote hospital ("drive the doctor"). Methods All consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation treated with mechanical thrombectomy after hours at a remote hospital (distance of about 100 km) between 2012 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Wen-Tai Chiu, Heng-Ai Chang, Yi-Hsin Lin, Yu-Shan Lin, Hsiao-Tzu Chang, Hsi-Hui Lin, Soon-Cen Huang, Ming-Jer Tang, Meng-Ru Shen
Ca2+ plays a significant role in linking the induction of apoptosis. The key anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, has been reported to regulate the movement of Ca2+ across the ER membrane, but the exact effect of Bcl-2 on Ca2+ levels remains controversial. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), a major mode of Ca2+ uptake in non-excitable cells, is activated by depletion of Ca2+ in the ER. Depletion of Ca2+ in the ER causes translocation of the SOC channel activator, STIM1, to the plasma membrane. Thereafter, STIM1 binds to Orai1 or/and TRPC1 channels, forcing them to open and thereby allow Ca2+ entry...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Ejeong Baik, Daniel L Sanchez, Peter A Turner, Katharine J Mach, Christopher B Field, Sally M Benson
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a negative-emissions technology that may play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. BECCS relies on the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) following bioenergy production to remove and reliably sequester atmospheric CO2 Previous BECCS deployment assessments have largely overlooked the potential lack of spatial colocation of suitable storage basins and biomass availability, in the absence of long-distance biomass and CO2 transport. These conditions could constrain the near-term technical deployment potential of BECCS due to social and economic barriers that exist for biomass and CO2 transport...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Linda I Suleiman, Kenneth A Weber, Brett D Rosenthal, Surabhi A Bhatt, Jason W Savage, Wellington K Hsu, Alpesh A Patel, Todd B Parrish
Magnetization transfer (MT) contrast has been established as a marker of myelin integrity, and cervical spondylotic myelopathy is known to cause demyelination. Ten patients with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestations of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were compared to the MRIs of seven historic healthy controls, using the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and Nurick scores as the primary metrics. Transverse slices through the intervertebral discs of the cervical spine were acquired using a gradient echo sequence (MEDIC) with and without an MT saturation pulse on a 3 Tesla Siemens Prisma scanner (TR = 300 ms, TEeff  = 17 ms, flip angle = 30°, in-plane resolution = 0...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Luciana Fernandes de Oliveira, Caroline Santos, Wagner Ezequiel Risso, Claudia Bueno Dos Reis Martinez
Metal bioaccumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers were determined in Prochilodus lineatus, in order to understand the effects of short-term exposure to a triple-mixture of Zn, Mn and Fe. Three independent tests were carried out, in which fish were exposed to three concentrations of Zn (0.18, 1.0 and 5.0 mg L-1 ), Mn (0.1, 0.5 and 5.0 mg L-1 ) and in the Mix test to Fe (5.0 mg L-1 ) and a mixture of Zn (1.0 mg L-1 ) + Mn (0.5 mg L-1 ), with and without Fe. After exposure for 96 h, tissues were removed for metal bioaccumulation analysis and oxidative stress biomarkers were determined in liver and DNA damage in blood cells...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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