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Marcia Avello, Pola Fernández, Marcos Fernández, Berta Schulz, Marta De Diego, Sigrid Mennickent, Pedro Novoa, Edgar Pastene
INTRODUCTION: Pediculosis capitis is a public health problem with a high prevalence. The emergence of parasite resistance to conventional pediculicide is of great concern worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To develop alternatives pediculicide, effective and safe, based on the essential oil of Eucaliptus globulus. METHOD: Through bioassays active concentrations ranges of the essential oil were established, and proceeded to develop a standardized, stable, pharmaceutical form, evaluating its effects on our population...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
João Peres Ribeiro, Estela Domingos Vicente, Célia Alves, Xavier Querol, Fulvio Amato, Luís A C Tarelho
Combustion of residual forest biomass (RFB) derived from eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus), pine (Pinus pinaster) and golden wattle (Acacia longifolia) was evaluated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor (BFBR). During the combustion experiments, monitoring of temperature, pressure and exhaust gas composition has been made. Ash samples were collected at several locations along the furnace and flue gas treatment devices (cyclone and bag filter) after each combustion experiment and were analysed for their unburnt carbon content and chemical composition...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Christina L Borzak, Brad M Potts, Karen M Barry, Elizabeth A Pinkard, Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
Defoliation may initiate physiological recovery and chemical defence mechanisms that allow a plant to improve fitness after damage. Such responses may result in changes in plant resource allocation that influence growth and foliar chemistry. In this study, we investigated the nature and stability of the defoliation response of juvenile plants from three divergent populations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. A partial defoliation treatment that removed all upper crown leaves and the apical buds was applied to plants sourced from eight families from each of three populations representing contrasting chemical resistance to mammalian herbivory...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
Yukari Ohta, Ryoichi Hasegawa, Kanako Kurosawa, Toshio Koizumi, Allyn H Maeda, Hiroshi Nishimura, Hitomi Okada, Chen Qu, Kaori Saito, Takashi Watanabe, Yuji Hatada
Enzymatic catalysis is an eco-friendly strategy for the production of high-value low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds from lignin. Although well-definable aromatic monomers have been obtained from synthetic lignin-model dimers, enzymatic-selective production of platform monomers from natural lignin has not been accomplished. In this study, we successfully achieved highly specific production of aromatic monomers with a phenylpropane structure directly from natural lignin using a cascade reaction of ß-O-4 cleaving bacterial enzymes in one pot...
November 22, 2016: ChemSusChem
Abhishek Sharma, Sasireka Rajendran, Ankit Srivastava, Satyawati Sharma, Bishwajit Kundu
The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Davide Immediato, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Roberta Iatta, Antonio Camarda, Rafaela Lira Nogueira de Luna, Annunziata Giangaspero, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho, Domenico Otranto, Claudia Cafarchia
Essential oils (EOs) and entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana (Bb) strains have the potential to be used as alternative insecticides and acaricides for controlling ectoparasites as Dermanyssus gallinae. These compounds have some limitations in their use: the acaricidal effect of EOs is rapid, but short-lived, whilst that of Bb is delayed, but long-lived. To evaluate the effect of both compounds combined against D. gallinae, the non-toxic dose of Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia caryophyllata essential oils were firstly calculated for "native" strains of Bb...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Kaori Saito, Atsushi Kaiho, Ryo Sakai, Hiroshi Nishimura, Hitomi Okada, Takashi Watanabe
Acid-catalyzed degradation of lignin in toluene containing methanol selectively yields C6-C2 lignin monomers and releases lignin oligomers, a potential raw feedstock for epoxy resins. We herein characterized the structures of the lignin oligomers by focusing on the changes in the interunit linkage types during solvolysis. The oligomeric lignin products were analyzed via thioacidolysis and 2D HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignin oligomers ranging from monomers to tetramers are released through considerable cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Linda van Roij, Appy Sluijs, Jelmer J Laks, Gert-Jan Reichart
RATIONALE: Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13) C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to samples containing at least several µg of carbon. METHODS: Here we present a setup combining laser ablation, nano combustion gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LA/nC/GC/IRMS)...
October 21, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
A G Quentin, T Rodemann, M-F Doutreleau, M Moreau, N W Davies
Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is frequently used for the assessment of key nutrients of forage or crops but remains underused in ecological and physiological studies, especially to quantify non-structural carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to develop calibration models to assess the content in soluble sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) and starch in foliar material of Eucalyptus globulus A partial least squares (PLS) regression was used on the sample spectral data and was compared to the contents measured using standard wet chemistry methods...
September 26, 2016: Tree Physiology
Ernesto Deus, Joaquim S Silva, Filipe X Catry, Miguel Rocha, Francisco Moreira
Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Antonio José Barotto, María Elena Fernandez, Javier Gyenge, Ariel Meyra, Alejandro Martinez-Meier, Silvia Monteoliva
The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (ks) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning...
September 10, 2016: Tree Physiology
Chisato Kitazawa, Tsubasa Fujii, Yuji Egusa, Miéko Komatsu, Akira Yamanaka
Embryos of temnopleurid sea urchins exhibit species-specific morphologies. While Temnopleurus toreumaticus has a wrinkled blastula and then invaginates continuously at gastrulation, others have a smooth blastula and their invagination is stepwise. We studied blastula and gastrula formation in four temnopleurids using light and scanning electron microscopy to clarify the mechanisms producing these differences. Unlike T. toreumaticus, blastomeres of mid-blastulae in T. reevesii, T. hardwickii and Mespilia globulus formed pseudopods...
November 15, 2016: Biology Open
Susana Peleteiro, Valentín Santos, Juan C Parajó
Ionic liquids are valuable tools for biorefineries. This study provides an experimental assessment on the utilization of an acidic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) as a catalyst for furfural production in water/solvent media. The substrates employed in experiments were commercial xylose (employed as a reference compound) or hemicellulosic saccharides obtained by hydrothermal processing of Eucalyptus globulus wood (which were employed as produced, after membrane concentration or after freeze-drying)...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jean-Marc Gion, Corey J Hudson, Isabelle Lesur, René E Vaillancourt, Brad M Potts, Jules S Freeman
BACKGROUND: Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process. It not only generates diversity, but influences the efficacy of natural selection and genome evolution. There can be significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between species, however this variation is not well understood outside of a few model taxa, particularly in forest trees. Eucalypts are forest trees of global economic importance, and dominate many Australian ecosystems. We studied recombination rate in Eucalyptus globulus using genetic linkage maps constructed in 10 unrelated individuals, and markers anchored to the Eucalyptus reference genome...
2016: BMC Genomics
Anton C de Groot, Erich Schmidt
Data on the chemistry of essential oils which have caused contact allergy are provided. The largest group of chemicals found in essential oils consists of terpenes. The number of identified components usually ranges from 100 to 250, but in some oils (lavender, geranium, rosemary) 450 to 500 chemicals have been found. Many chemicals are present in a large number of oils, up to 98% for β-caryophyllene and 97% for limonene. Chemicals that are important constituents of >20 oils are limonene, linalool, and α-pinene...
July 2016: Dermatitis
Matthew J Larcombe, João Costa E Silva, Paul Tilyard, Peter Gore, Brad M Potts
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many previous studies conclude that pre-zygotic barriers such as mechanical isolation account for most reproductive isolation between pairs of taxa. However, the inheritance and persistence of barriers such as these after the first generation of hybridization is rarely quantified, even though it is a vital consideration in understanding gene flow potential. There is an asymmetrical pre-zygotic mechanical barrier to hybridization between Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus, which completely prevents small-flowered E...
September 2016: Annals of Botany
Roman Borovec, Hélène Perrin
Chiloneus globulus sp. nov. and C. tenietensis sp. nov. from Algeria are described, illustrated and compared with closely related species. The following new combinations are proposed: Chiloneus barbaricus (González, 1970) from Desbrochersella, Chiloneus innotatus (Pic, 1927) from Sciaphilus, Desbrochersella diversepubens (Pic, 1904) and Desbrochersella microps (Desbrochers des Loges, 1897) from Chiloneus, Myochlamys convexiceps (Desbrochers des Loges, 1896), Polydrusus (Leucodrusus) henoni (Allard, 1869) and Sericopholus murinus (Desbrochers des Loges, 1896) from Chiloneus...
2016: Zootaxa
Joon-Woo Park, Mitchell Wendt, Gang-Joon Heo
The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size...
June 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
Miroslava Císarová, Dana Tančinová, Juraj Medo, Miroslava Kačániová
The aim of the present study was to assess the antifungal and anti-toxinogenic activity of 15 essential oils (EOs) against three fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. parasiticus KMi-227-LR, A. parasiticus KMi-220-LR and A. flavus KMi-202-LR). The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of the tested essential oils and their antifungal activity were determined using the micro-atmosphere method. The original commercial essential oil samples of Jasminum officinale L., Thymus vulgaris L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Rosmarinus officinalis L...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Raquel Rodríguez-Solana, Laura Vázquez-Araújo, José Manuel Salgado, José Manuel Domínguez, Sandra Cortés-Diéguez
BACKGROUND: Herbal liqueurs are alcoholic beverages produced by maceration or distillation of aromatic and medicinal plants, highly valued by their medicinal properties, in alcohol. The process conditions, the number and quantity of plant employed will have a great influence in the quality of the liqueur obtained. The aim of this research was to optimize these important variables. RESULTS: A Box-Benhken experimental design was used to evaluate the independent variables: alcohol content, amount of plant and time during the experimental maceration of plants in grape marc distillate...
May 28, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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