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Liver in sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450703/utilization-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-positive-grafts-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#1
Visagh Puthumana Udayakumar, Sudhindran Surendran, Uma Devi Padma
BACKGROUND: Utilization of liver grafts from hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive donors carries the risk of reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in recipients because of post-transplant immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who had received liver grafts from anti-HBc positive live donors between 2006 and 2016 at our institute. RESULTS: Out of 22 recipients [all males, mean age 45.4 years (range 18-64 years)], four patients were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive preoperatively and received entecavir post-transplantation...
February 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445923/inpatient-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-receiving-%C3%AF-3-enriched-lipid-emulsion-smoflipid-an-observational-study
#2
Nalin Choudhary, Kenneth Tan, Atul Malhotra
Neonatal units have started to switch from using conventional soy-based to alternate lipid emulsions, like SMOFlipid. SMOFlipid has been associated with an improvement in biochemical parameters and delays progression of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). This retrospective epoch study aimed to compare clinically relevant neonatal outcomes in preterm infants (< 32 weeks), receiving SMOFlipid versus Intralipid. We compared clinical outcomes in two epochs-epoch 1 (Intralipid, October 2013-June 2015) versus epoch 2 (SMOFlipid, July 2015-March 2017)...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443058/two-photon-intravital-imaging-of-leukocytes-during-the-immune-response-in-lipopolysaccharide-treated-mouse-liver
#3
Sang A Park, Young Ho Choe, Sung Hwan Lee, Young-Min Hyun
Sepsis is a type of severe infection that can cause organ failure and tissue damage. Although the mortality and morbidity rates associated with sepsis are extremely high, no direct treatment or organ-related mechanism has been examined in detail in real time. The liver is the key organ that manages toxins and infections in the human body. Herein, we aimed to perform intravital imaging of mouse liver after induction of endotoxemia in order to track the motility of immune cells, such as neutrophils and liver capsular macrophages (LCMs)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441651/invasive-pneumococcal-infections-in-pediatric-liver-small-bowel-pancreas-transplant-recipients
#4
Hanh D Vo, Diana F Florescu, Cindy R Brown, Heather E Chambers, David F Mercer, Luciano M Vargas, Wendy J Grant, Alan N Langnas, Ruben E Quiros-Tejeira
Children undergoing LSBPTx are at increased risk of IPI due to splenectomy. We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcomes of IPI in pediatric LSBPTx recipients. Between 2008 and 2016, 122 LSBPTx children at our center were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients had 12 episodes of IPI; the median age at first infection was 3.5 years (range: 1.5-7.1 years). The median time from transplant to first infection was 3 years (range: 0.8-5.8 years). Clinical presentation included as follows: pneumonia (n = 1), bacteremia/sepsis (n = 7), pneumonia with sepsis (n = 1), meningitis with sepsis (n = 2), pneumonia and meningitis with sepsis (n = 1)...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432349/the-impact-of-acute-organ-dysfunction-on-long-term-survival-in-sepsis
#5
Alejandro Schuler, David A Wulf, Yun Lu, Theodore J Iwashyna, Gabriel J Escobar, Nigam H Shah, Vincent X Liu
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of each of six types of acute organ dysfunction (hepatic, renal, coagulation, neurologic, cardiac, and respiratory) on long-term mortality after surviving sepsis hospitalization. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective study. SETTINGS: Twenty-one hospitals within an integrated healthcare delivery system in Northern California. PATIENTS: Thirty thousand one hundred sixty-three sepsis patients admitted through the emergency department between 2010 and 2013, with mortality follow-up through April 2015...
February 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429201/-survey-on-the-prevalence-of-continuous-blood-purification-in-chinese-pediatric-critical-care
#6
X Yang, S Y Qian, Y M Zhu, X Xu, C F Liu, F Xu, X X Ren, Y Wang, Y C Zhang, G P Lu
Objective: To investigate the current application status of continuous blood purification (CBP) technology and equipment in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to understand the current popularization of CBP technology and equipment, the management of CBP equipment and consumables, and the application of CBP in different diseases. A questionnaire named Application Status of Continuous Blood Purification Technology was applied. Children's hospitals and polyclinic hospitals with the pediatric qualification (pediatric emergency or critical care unit members of Chinese Medical Association and Chinese Medical Doctor Association) were selected...
February 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419481/noninvasive-whole-body-imaging-of-phosphatidylethanolamine-as-a-cell-death-marker-using-99mtc-duramycin-during-tnf-induced-sirs
#7
Tinneke Delvaeye, Leonie Wyffels, Steven Deleye, Kelly Lemeire, Amanda Gonçalves, Elke Decrock, Steven Staelens, Luc Leybaert, Peter Vandenabeele, Dmitri Krysko
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body. It is associated with the presence of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). TNF has multiple effects and leads to cytokine production, leukocyte infiltration, blood pressure reduction and coagulation, thereby contributing to tissue damage and organ failure. A sterile mouse model of sepsis, TNF-induced SIRS, was used to visualize the temporal and spatial distribution of damage in susceptible tissues during SIRS...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416321/perioperative-outcome-of-elderly-versus-younger-patients-undergoing-major-hepatic-or-pancreatic-surgery
#8
Qiang Lu, Jian-Wen Lu, Zheng Wu, Xue-Min Liu, Jian-Hui Li, Jian Dong, Guo-Zhi Yin, Yi Lv, Xu-Feng Zhang
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the safety of elderly cancer patients (≥70 years) undergoing hepatic resection (HR) or pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in comparison with younger adults (<70 years). Methods: A total of 1,012 consecutive patients undergoing HR or PD were included. The incidence and severity of morbidity were documented within 30 days postoperatively and compared between elderly and younger groups. Risk factors associated with postoperative morbidity were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414649/passive-immunization-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-recombinant-pbp2a-in-sepsis-model-of-mice-comparable-results-with-antibiotic-therapy
#9
Rojin Zeyaei Naghshbandi, Setareh Haghighat, Mehdi Mahdavi
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a representative pathogen that is responsible for a nosocomial infection and considerable yearly mortality rate. Antibiotic resistance provides a great reason for immunotherapy as an alternative strategy to prevent and/or treat the infection. Herein, following the preparation of recombinant penicillin binding protein 2a (r-PBP2a), rabbit polyclonal IgG was purified. Specificity of IgG to r-PBP2a was evaluated by ELISA and western blotting. IgG fraction was prepared by sulfate ammonium precipitation...
January 29, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406423/activator-protein-1-decoy-oligodeoxynucleotide-transfection-is-beneficial-in-reducing-organ-injury-and-mortality-in-septic-mice
#10
Takahiro Imaizumi, Naoyuki Matsuda, Kengo Tomita, Sailesh Palikhe, Wakana Ohashi, Kohshi Hattori, Yuichi Hattori
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation and apoptosis are decisive mechanisms for the development of end-organ injury in sepsis. Activator protein-1 may play a key role in regulating expression of harmful genes responsible for the pathophysiology of septic end-organ injury along with the major transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. We investigated whether in vivo introduction of circular dumbbell activator protein-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides can provide benefits for reducing septic end-organ injury...
February 5, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402878/challenges-with-intestine-and-multivisceral-re-transplantation-importance-of-timing-of-re-transplantation-and-optimal-immunosuppression
#11
Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Catherine Pennington, Jonathan Fridell, Burcin Ekser, Plamen Muhaylov, Richard Mangus
BACKGROUND Patients undergoing re-transplantation often receive high doses of immunosuppression, which may lead to an immunocompromised status of the recipient. This study investigates the outcomes after intestine/multivisceral re-transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical outcomes of 23 patients undergoing 24 re-transplantations at a single intestine transplant center were reviewed. Bone marrow suppression was used as a surrogate marker of immunocompromised status, and was defined as platelet count <50 k/mm3 and absolute lymphocyte count <200/mm³...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399541/cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-and-the-liver
#12
REVIEW
Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Behzad Baradaran
The hepatic vagus branches innervate the liver and serve an important role in liver-brain connection. It appears that brain modulates inflammatory responses by activation of vagal efferent fibers. This activation and subsequent acetylcholine releases from vagus nerve terminals leads to inhibition of inflammatory cytokines through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) which located on the surface of different cell types such as liver Kupffer cells. This protective role of vagus-α7nAChR axis in liver diseases has been shown in several experimental studies...
December 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390512/venous-thromboembolism-related-to-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390386/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-an-adult-kidney-transplant-recipient-successfully-treated-by-plasmapheresis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Christian Nusshag, Christian Morath, Martin Zeier, Markus A Weigand, Uta Merle, Thorsten Brenner
RATIONALE: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease entity primarily described in children, but not less relevant in adults. It is characterized by a misdirected activation of the immune system, resulting in an uncontrolled cytokine release from macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs). Primary HLH relies on a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary HLH develops in the context of infections, malignancies or autoimmune diseases. However, the awareness and therapeutic knowledge for HLH in adulthood is limited...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371734/haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-a-preterm-infant-a-case-report
#15
Na Mi Lee, Dae Yong Yi, Shin Weon Yoon, Soo Ahn Chae, In Seok Lim, Yong Sung Choi
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disease with a sepsis-like progression that leads to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, especially in preterm infants. We present herein a case of HLH in a premature infant presenting with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and liver failure. A male infant, with weight 810g and delivered at the gestational age of 25 weeks and 2 days, was misdiagnosed with tyrosinaemia for several weeks. He presented with anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, persistent DIC, and elevated liver enzymes despite continuous transfusion and broad-spectrum antibiotics...
January 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362881/outcome-of-concomitant-resection-of-the-replaced-right-hepatic-artery-in-pancreaticoduodenectomy-without-reconstruction
#16
Toshimichi Asano, Toru Nakamura, Takehiro Noji, Keisuke Okamura, Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Yoshitsugu Nakanishi, Kimitaka Tanaka, Soichi Murakami, Yuma Ebihara, Yo Kurashima, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
PURPOSE: It has been reported that preoperative embolization or intraoperative reconstruction of the replaced right hepatic artery (rRHA) in order to secure the arterial blood flow to the liver and biliary tract are useful for patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with concomitant rRHA resection. In this study, the feasibility of concomitant resection of rRHA in PD without preoperative embolization or intraoperative reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated with a particular focus on postoperative complications...
January 23, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361813/ruptured-gas-forming-pyogenic-liver-abscess-into-the-peritoneal-cavity-treated-successfully-with-medical-treatment
#17
Kyung Jin Lee, Soo Hyung Ryu
Gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess (GFPLA) is very rare and has a very high mortality in case of rupture into the abdominal cavity, which usually require surgical treatment. We experienced a case of a ruptured GFPLA due to Klebsiella pneumoniae complicated with peritonitis and sepsis in a 68-year-old diabetic woman. Immediate and aggressive medical treatments including intravenous antibiotics, percutaneous drainage, and continuous renal replacement therapy dramatically improved the liver abscess, peritonitis, and metabolic problems...
January 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340327/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-reduces-rates-of-melioidosis-in-high-risk-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Sandawana William Majoni, Jaquelyne T Hughes, Bianca Heron, Bart J Currie
Introduction: Melioidosis causes sepsis and death in the Top End of Northern Australia during the monsoonal wet season. Dialysis-dependent adults suffer higher melioidosis rates compared to low rates among renal transplant patients who routinely receive trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis. Methods: We performed a prospective interventional study to determine the efficacy and safety of daily trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in hemodialysis patients during the wet season, from 1 November 2014 to 30 April 2015...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334530/antegrade-arterial-and-portal-flushing-versus-portal-flushing-only-for-right-lobe-live-donor-liver-transplantation-a-randomized-control-trial
#19
Viniyendra Pamecha, Rommel Sandhyav, Piyush Kumar Sinha, Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya Bharathy, Shridhar Sasturkar
INTRODUCTION: In live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) portal flush only of the graft is done on the bench. There is no data on antegrade arterial flush along with portal flush of the graft. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing elective right lobe LDLT were block-randomized to receive either portal flush only or both portal and antegrade arterial flush. The primary objectives were safety, rate of early allograft dysfunction (EAD), and impact on vascular and biliary complications RESULTS: After randomization there were 40 patients in each group...
January 12, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327522/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-pregnant-patients-with-acute-hev-hepatitis-during-water-borne-epidemic-in-himachal-pradesh-a-hospital-based-study
#20
Asha Ranjan, Surinder Thakur, Jatinder Mokta, Rajesh Bhawani, Varsha Ranjan
Background: Recent outbreak of HEV hepatitis epidemic in Himachal Pradesh in Shimla caused significant morbidity and mortality especially among pregnant patients. Overall mortality is 0.5- 4% in patients developing acute hepatic failure (ALF) and is significantly higher in pregnant patients (20%). Present study conducted to observe clinical profile and outcome in pregnant patients. Methodology: this is a retrospective observational study done on admitted pregnant and post partum patients with acute HEV hepatitis during 3 months periods...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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