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Liver in sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028772/heme-oxygenase-1-protects-the-liver-from-septic-injury-by-modulating-tlr4-mediated-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-mice
#1
Jin-Sook Park, Hyo-Sun Choi, So-Yeon Yim, Sun-Mee Lee
Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Mitochondrial quality control (QC) is characterized by self-recovering mitochondrial damage through mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and fission/fusion. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 acts as a signaling molecule to modulate inflammation. The present study elucidated the cytoprotective mechanisms of HO-1 in sepsis, particularly focusing on toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated mitochondrial QC. Mice were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025780/cryptococcus-neoformans-osteomyelitis-and-intramuscular-abscess-in-a-liver-transplant-patient
#2
Sonia Maria Poenaru, Rymon Rofaiel, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important pathogen that can cause severe illness and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We highlight here the case of a 53-year-old man presenting to hospital 4 years postliver transplant with fever, acute renal failure and a medial thigh lesion. Initially treated as bacterial sepsis, the patient failed to improve on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Further investigations revealed disseminated cryptococcemia complicated by patellar osteomyelitis and an intramuscular abscess. Unfortunately, although the patient initially showed signs of clinical improvement after starting standard antifungal agents, he deteriorated and died secondary to acute renal failure...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023360/honokiol-increases-cd4-t-cell-activation-and-decreases-tnf-but-fails-to-improve-survival-following-sepsis
#3
Nathan J Klingensmith, Ching-Wen Chen, Zhe Liang, Eileen M Burd, Alton B Farris, Jack L Arbiser, Mandy L Ford, Craig M Coopersmith
Honokiol is a biphenolic isolate extracted from the bark of the magnolia tree that has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine, and has more recently been investigated for its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Honokiol has previously been demonstrated to improve survival in sepsis models that have rapid 100% lethality. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Honokiol on the host response in a model of sepsis that more closely approximates human disease. Male and female C57BL/6 mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce polymicrobial intraabdominal sepsis...
October 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993270/reduced-silent-information-regulator-1-signaling-exacerbates-sepsis-induced-myocardial-injury-and-mitigates-the-protective-effect-of-a-liver-x-receptor-agonist
#4
Dong Han, Xiang Li, Shuang Li, Tao Su, Wen-Si Fan, Hong-Yu Qiao, Jiang-Wei Chen, Miao-Miao Fan, Xiu-Juan Li, Ya-Bin Wang, Sai Ma, Ya Qiu, Zu-Hong Tian, Feng Cao
Myocardial injury and dysfunction are critical manifestations of sepsis. Previous studies have reported that liver X receptor (LXR) activation is protective during sepsis. However, whether LXR activation protects against septic heart injury and its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. This study was designed to determine the role of LXR activation in the septic heart with a focus on SIRT1 (silent information regulator 1) signaling. Male cardiac-specific SIRT1 knockout mice (SIRT1-/-) and their wild-type littermates were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in the presence or absence of LXR agonist T0901317...
October 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989997/diaphragmatic-hernia-following-liver-resection-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Francesco Esposito, Chetana Lim, Chady Salloum, Michael Osseis, Eylon Lahat, Philippe Compagnon, Daniel Azoulay
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Postoperative diaphragmatic hernia, following liver resection, is a rare complication. METHODS: Data of patients who underwent major hepatectomy for liver tumors, between 2011 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The literature was searched for studies reporting the occurrence of diaphragmatic hernia following liver resection. RESULTS: Diaphragmatic hernia developed in 2.3% of patients (3/131) with a median delay of 14 months (4-31 months)...
August 2017: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989567/conjugated-hyperbilirubinemia-presenting-in-first-fourteen-days-in-term-neonates
#6
Fang Kuan Chiou, Christina Ong, Kong Boo Phua, Fares Chedid, Ajmal Kader
AIM: To describe the etiology and characteristics of early-onset conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (ECHB) presenting within 14 d of life in term neonates. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of term infants up to 28-d-old who presented with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (CHB) at a tertiary center over a 5-year period from January 2010 to December 2014. CHB is defined as conjugated bilirubin (CB) fraction greater than 15% of total bilirubin and CB greater or equal to 25 μmol/L...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984672/cholangitis-lenta-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-28-cases
#7
Vanda F Torous, A Laura De La Cruz, Bita V Naini, Hanlin L Wang
Cholangitis lenta, also known as ductular cholestasis, cholangiolar cholestasis, or subacute nonsuppurative cholangitis, is an uncommon type of cholangitis characterized by ductular reaction with inspissated bile in dilated ductules. The literature on this unique entity has been limited to only a few studies based on a very limited number of cases, which importantly suggest an association with sepsis and/or intra-abdominal infection. The clinical, laboratory, and histologic features of 28 cases of cholangitis lenta are herein investigated...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979774/early-detection-of-acute-cisplatin-nephrotoxicity-interest-of-urinary-monitoring-of-proximal-tubular-biomarkers
#8
Valérian Bunel, Yasmina Tournay, Thomas Baudoux, Eric De Prez, Marie Marchand, Zita Mekinda, Raphaël Maréchal, Thierry Roumeguère, Marie-Hélène Antoine, Joëlle L Nortier
BACKGROUND: Renal toxicity induced by cisplatin (CisPt) is a clinical issue in patients with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proximal tubular injury can result in acute kidney injury (AKI), which may compromise the course of chemotherapy and the prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of urinary markers of acute tubulotoxicity and to assess the usefulness of such monitoring in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: This work is an open prospective pilot study carried out among 23 patients receiving a platinum-based chemotherapy...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979533/alcoholic-liver-disease-on-the-intensive-care-unit-outcomes-and-prognostication
#9
James I Beck, Anca Staicu, Simon M Everett, Phil Jackson
BACKGROUND: Hospital admissions with decompensated chronic alcoholic liver disease have been increasing, leading to increased pressure on intensive care unit services. We aimed to determine the outcome and prognostic factors for patients with alcoholic liver disease requiring admission to intensive care unit. METHODS: This was a retrospective study over 5 years (January 2006-December 2010) of all intensive care unit admissions with alcoholic liver disease to either of the two Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust general intensive care units...
February 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977843/orphan-nuclear-receptor-nur77-inhibits-poly-i-c-triggered-acute-liver-inflammation-by-inducing-the-ubiquitin-editing-enzyme-a20
#10
Xiu-Ming Li, Tian-Yu Yang, Xiao-Shun He, Jing-Ru Wang, Wen-Juan Gan, Shen Zhang, Jian-Ming Li, Hua Wu
Inflammation is a key contributor to various types of acute and chronic liver disease. We recently reported that lack of Nur77, an orphan nuclear receptor, contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and sepsis. However, whether Nur77 plays a critical role in liver inflammation remains to be fully understood. Employing in vivo acute liver inflammation model in wild-type (Nur77(+/+)) and Nur77(-/-) mice, we here found that Nur77 deficiency dramatically increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and accelerated liver injury induced by poly (I:C)/D-GalN in Nur77(-/-) mice...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974562/autophagy-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-impairment-contributes-to-age-dependent-liver-injury-in-experimental-sepsis-dysregulation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-pathway
#11
Yu Inata, Satoshi Kikuchi, Ravi S Samraj, Paul W Hake, Michael O'Connor, John R Ledford, James O'Connor, Patrick Lahni, Vivian Wolfe, Giovanna Piraino, Basilia Zingarelli
Age is an independent risk factor of multiple organ failure in patients with sepsis. However, the age-related mechanisms of injury are not known. AMPK is a crucial regulator of energy homeostasis, which controls mitochondrial biogenesis by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-α (PGC-1α) and disposal of defective organelles by autophagy. We investigated whether AMPK dysregulation might contribute to age-dependent liver injury in young (2-3 mo) and mature male mice (11-13 mo) subjected to sepsis...
October 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971026/intensive-care-unit-issues-in-eclampsia-and-hellp-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Melissa Teresa Chu Lam, Elizabeth Dierking
Preeclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome are life-threatening hypertensive conditions and common causes of ICU admission among obstetric patients The diagnostic criteria of preeclampsia include: 1) systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg on two occasions at least 4 hours apart and 2) proteinuria ≥300 mg/day in a woman with a gestational age of >20 weeks with previously normal blood pressures. Eclampsia is defined as a convulsive episode or altered level of consciousness occurring in the setting of preeclampsia, provided that there is no other cause of seizures...
July 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969938/dose-dependent-effects-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-on-systemic-inflammation-after-haemorrhagic-shock
#13
Luxu Yin, Daniel Busch, Zhi Qiao, Martijn van Griensven, Michel Teuben, Frank Hildebrand, Hans-Christoph Pape, Roman Pfeifer
INTRODUCTION: PPARβ/δ agonists are known to modulate the systemic inflammatory response after sepsis. In this study, inflammation modulation effects of PPARβ/δ are investigated using the selective PPARβ/δ agonist (GW0742) in a model of haemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced sterile systemic inflammation. METHODS: Blood pressure-controlled (35±5mmHg) HS was performed in C57/BL6 mice for 90min. Low-dose GW0742 (0.03mg/kg/BW) and high-dose GW0742 (0.3mg/kg/BW) were then administered at the beginning of resuscitation...
September 29, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966500/chromobacterium-violaceum-induced-sepsis-and-multiorgan-dysfunction-resembling-melioidosis-in-an-elderly-diabetic-patient-a-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#14
Sagar Khadanga, Tadepalli Karuna, Dharmendra Dugar, Shakti Prasad Satapathy
An elderly diabetic farmer presented with chronic nonhealing ulcer over the left foot, multiple liver abscesses, and right-sided pleural effusion. The patient developed septicemia and multiorgan failure. The pus grew pigment producing Chromobacterium violaceum. He was treated successfully with ciprofloxacin for a total duration of 15 days. This case is reported for its rare clinical presentation and resemblance with melioidosis. Of the 200 C. violaceum cases reported across the globe, this is the 14(th) case from India and the oldest in the literature...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955042/acid-sphingomyelinase-inhibition-prevents-development-of-sepsis-sequelae-in-the-murine-liver
#15
Ha-Yeun Chung, C Julius Witt, Nayla Jbeily, Jorge Hurtado-Oliveros, Benjamin Giszas, Amelie Lupp, Markus H Gräler, Tony Bruns, Andreas Stallmach, Falk A Gonnert, Ralf A Claus
The molecular mechanisms of maladaptive response in liver tissue with respect to the acute and post-acute phase of sepsis are not yet fully understood. Long-term sepsis survivors might develop hepatocellular/hepatobiliary injury and fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate that acid sphingomyelinase, an important regulator of hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, is linked to the promotion of liver dysfunction in the acute phase of sepsis as well as to fibrogenesis in the long-term. In both phases, we observed a beneficial effect of partial genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency in heterozygous animals (smpd1(+/-)) on oxidative stress levels, hepatobiliary function, macrophage infiltration and on HSC activation...
September 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948128/raoultella-planticola-bacteremia-and-sepsis-in-a-patient-with-cirrhosis
#16
Michael R Povlow, Jaime Carrizosa, Adriana Jones
This case report describes a 66-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with sepsis and jaundice. He reported that he had been eating seafood at local restaurants for the past two weeks. The medications that he was taking at the time of admission included esomeprazole (proton pump inhibitor (PPI)), which may have contributed to his infection with Raoultella planticola. In addition, the patient had a prior medical history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which may have contributed to the bacteremia based on his immunocompromised status...
July 24, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947732/klebsiella-pneumoniae-liver-abscess-a-case-series-of-six-asian-patients
#17
Katerina G Oikonomou, Myint Aye
BACKGROUND Liver abscesses represent a serious infection of hepatic parenchyma and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of a new hypervirulent variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which can cause serious infections in the Asian population, is under investigation. We report a case series of six Asian patients hospitalized at our institution from January 2013 to November 2015 for liver abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae. CASE REPORT Charts of six Asian patients were retrospectively reviewed...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944329/course-of-sepsis-in-rats-with-thyroid-dysfunction
#18
Halil İbrahim Taşcı, Mehmet Erikoğlu, Hatice Toy, Adnan Karaibrahimoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies show the relationship between sepsis and thyroid hormones. Virtually all these studies investigate changes in post-sepsis thyroid hormones and the relationship between these changes and the progression of the disease. Our aim in this study was to investigate the progression of sepsis in rats with thyroid dysfunction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved four groups, each containing seven female Wistar albino rats: Group 1: Sham, Group 2: Control (Sepsis), Group 3: Hyperthyroidism-Sepsis, and Group 4: Hypothyroidism-Sepsis...
2017: Turk J Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932731/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support-for-refractory-septic-shock-in-liver-transplantation-recipients
#19
Kyo Won Lee, Chan Woo Cho, Nuri Lee, Gyu-Seong Choi, Yang Hyun Cho, Jong Man Kim, Choon Hyuck David Kwon, Jae-Won Joh
PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the outcome of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in liver transplantation (LT) recipients with refractory septic shock and predict the prognosis of those cases. METHODS: From February 2005 to October 2012, ECMO was used in 8 cases of refractory septic shock. Laboratory values including lactate and total bilirubin level just before starting ECMO were obtained and sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACH) II score and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) 3 were calculated...
September 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925474/mitochondrial-protein-ucp1-mediates-liver-injury-induced-by-lps-through-ekr-signaling-pathway
#20
P Liu, J Yang, Z-Y Chen, P Zhang, G-J Shi
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondria are abundant in liver. The roles of mitochondrial protein in liver injury and related signaling pathways are still unclear. UCP1 is a novel mitochondrial transmembrane protein. Its expression pattern and function in liver still needs further investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of liver injury was established by the treatment of LPS. UCP1 expression in the liver tissue was detected by Western blot and qRT-PCR. ERK signaling activity was tested by enzymatic activity kit...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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