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Ares element in trypanosomatids

Philippe Holzmuller, Anne Geiger, Romaric Nzoumbou-Boko, Joana Pissarra, Sarra Hamrouni, Valérie Rodrigues, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy, Jean-Loup Lemesre, Philippe Vincendeau, Rachel Bras-Gonçalves
Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages) are among the first host cells to face intra- and extracellular protozoan parasites such as trypanosomatids, and significant expansion of macrophages has been observed in infected hosts. They play essential roles in the outcome of infections caused by trypanosomatids, as they can not only exert a powerful antimicrobial activity but also promote parasite proliferation. These varied functions, linked to their phenotypic and metabolic plasticity, are exerted via distinct activation states, in which l-arginine metabolism plays a pivotal role...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Céline Ronin, David Mendes Costa, Joana Tavares, Joana Faria, Fabrice Ciesielski, Paola Ciapetti, Terry K Smith, Jane MacDougall, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Iain K Pemberton
The de novo crystal structure of the Leishmania infantum Silent Information Regulator 2 related protein 1 (LiSir2rp1) has been solved at 1.99Å in complex with an acetyl-lysine peptide substrate. The structure is broadly commensurate with Hst2/SIRT2 proteins of yeast and human origin, reproducing many of the structural features common to these sirtuin deacetylases, including the characteristic small zinc-binding domain, and the larger Rossmann-fold domain involved in NAD+-binding interactions. The two domains are linked via a cofactor binding loop ordered in open conformation...
2018: PloS One
Francisco Macías, Raquel Afonso-Lehmann, Manuel C López, Inmaculada Gómez, M Carmen Thomas
Introduction: An important portion of the Trypanosoma cruzi genome is composed of mobile genetic elements, which are interspersed with genes on all chromosomes. The L1Tc non-LTR retrotransposon and its truncated version NARTc are the most highly represented and best studied of these elements. L1Tc is actively transcribed in all three forms of the Trypanosoma parasite and encodes the proteins that enable it to autonomously mobilize. This mini review discusses the enzymatic properties of L1Tc that enable its mobilization and possibly the mobilization of other non-autonomous retrotransposons in Trypanosoma...
February 2018: Current Genomics
Paola A Nocua, Cesar A Ramirez, José M Requena, Concepción J Puerta
BACKGROUND: The study of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) is of great relevance for understanding processes like post-transcriptional control of gene expression. The post-transcriptional mechanisms are particularly important in Leishmania parasites and related trypanosomatids since transcriptional regulation is almost absent in them. Thus, RBPs should be essential during the development of these parasites and for survival strategies against the adverse conditions that they face during their life-cycle...
December 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Alexei Y Kostygov, Anzhelika Butenko, Anna Nenarokova, Daria Tashyreva, Pavel Flegontov, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
We have sequenced, annotated, and analyzed the genome of Ca . Pandoraea novymonadis, a recently described bacterial endosymbiont of the trypanosomatid Novymonas esmeraldas. When compared with genomes of its free-living relatives, it has all the hallmarks of the endosymbionts' genomes, such as significantly reduced size, extensive gene loss, low GC content, numerous gene rearrangements, and low codon usage bias. In addition, Ca . P. novymonadis lacks mobile elements, has a strikingly low number of pseudogenes, and almost all genes are single copied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Felipe Freitas Castro, Patricia C Ruy, Karina Nogueira Zeviani, Ramon Freitas Santos, Juliano Simões Toledo, Angela Kaysel Cruz
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulatory elements present in a wide range of organisms, including trypanosomatids. ncRNAs transcribed from the untranslated regions (UTRs) of coding genes have been described in the transcriptomes of several eukaryotes, including Trypanosoma brucei. To uncover novel putative ncRNAs in two Leishmania species, we examined a L. major cDNA library and a L. donovani non-polysomal RNA library. Using a combination of computational analysis and experimental approaches, we classified 26 putative ncRNA in L...
June 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Vahid H Gazestani, Chun Wai Yip, Najmeh Nikpour, Natasha Berghuis, Reza Salavati
Trypanosomatid parasites cause serious infections in humans and production losses in livestock. Due to the high divergence from other eukaryotes, such as humans and model organisms, the functional roles of many trypanosomatid proteins cannot be predicted by homology-based methods, rendering a significant portion of their proteins as uncharacterized. Recent technological advances have led to the availability of multiple systematic and genome-wide datasets on trypanosomatid parasites that are informative regarding the biological role(s) of their proteins...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Adriana Ludwig, Marco Aurelio Krieger
Transposable elements are important residents of eukaryotic genomes and eventually the host can domesticate them to serve cellular functions. We reported here a possible domestication event of the vestigial interposed retroelement (VIPER) in trypanosomatids. We found a large gene in a syntenic location in Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, Leptomanas pyrrhocoris, and Crithidia fasciculata whose products share similarity in the C-terminal portion with the third protein of VIPER. No remnants of other VIPER regions surrounding the gene sequence were found...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Sanofar Abdeen, Nilshad Salim, Najiba Mammadova, Corey M Summers, Karen Goldsmith-Pestana, Diane McMahon-Pratt, Peter G Schultz, Arthur L Horwich, Eli Chapman, Steven M Johnson
Trypanosoma brucei are protozoan parasites that cause African sleeping sickness in humans (also known as Human African Trypanosomiasis-HAT). Without treatment, T. brucei infections are fatal. There is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies as current drugs are toxic, have complex treatment regimens, and are becoming less effective owing to rising antibiotic resistance in parasites. We hypothesize that targeting the HSP60/10 chaperonin systems in T. brucei is a viable anti-trypanosomal strategy as parasites rely on these stress response elements for their development and survival...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Dapeng Zhang, A Maxwell Burroughs, Newton D Vidal, Lakshminarayan M Iyer, L Aravind
Enzymatic effectors targeting nucleic acids, proteins and other cellular components are the mainstay of conflicts across life forms. Using comparative genomics we identify a large class of eukaryotic proteins, which include effectors from oomycetes, fungi and other parasites. The majority of these proteins have a characteristic domain architecture with one of several N-terminal 'Header' domains, which are predicted to play a role in trafficking of these effectors, including a novel version of the Ubiquitin fold...
May 5, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Mariana Bonilla, Erika Krull, Florencia Irigoín, Gustavo Salinas, Marcelo A Comini
The trace element selenium is found in polypeptides as selenocysteine, the 21(st) amino acid that is co-translationally inserted into proteins at a UGA codon. In proteins, selenocysteine usually plays a role as an efficient redox catalyst. Trypanosomatids previously examined harbor a full set of genes encoding the machinery needed for selenocysteine biosynthesis and incorporation into three selenoproteins: SelK, SelT and, the parasite-specific, Seltryp. We investigated the selenoproteome of kinetoplastid species in recently sequenced genomes and assessed the in vivo relevance of selenoproteins for African trypanosomes...
March 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Francisco Macías, Manuel Carlos López, M Carmen Thomas
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatid genomes are highly colonized by non-LTR retroelements that make up to 5% of the nuclear genome. These elements are mainly accumulated in the strand switch regions (SSRs) where polycistronic transcription is initiated and have a 77 nt-long sequence--Pr77--at their 5' ends. L1Tc is the best represented retrotransposon in the Trypanosoma cruzi genome and is a potentially functional autonomous element that encodes its own retrotransposition machinery. The Pr77 of the T...
February 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
Bhaskar Anand Jha, Vahid H Gazestani, Chun Wai Yip, Reza Salavati
DRBD13 RNA-binding protein (RBP) regulates the abundance of AU-rich element (ARE)-containing transcripts in trypanosomes. Here we show that DRBD13 regulates RBP6, the developmentally critical protein in trypanosomatids. We also show DRBD13-specific regulation of transcripts encoding cell surface coat proteins including GPEET2, variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) and invariant surface glycoprotein (ISG). Accordingly, alteration in DRBD13 levels leads to changes in the target mRNA abundance and parasite morphology...
July 8, 2015: FEBS Letters
Jennifer M Holden, Ludek Koreny, Steven Kelly, Brian T Chait, Michael P Rout, Mark C Field, Samson O Obado
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the sole mediator of bidirectional nucleo-cytoplasmic transport and is also an important scaffold for chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation. Proteomic studies of numerous diverse eukaryotic species initially characterized the NPC as built with a number of remarkably similar structural features, suggesting its status as an ancient and conserved eukaryotic cell component. However, further detailed analyses now suggest that several key specific NPC features have a more convoluted evolutionary history than initially assumed...
July 2014: Nucleus
Jeziel D Damasceno, Stephen M Beverley, Luiz R O Tosi
The ability of transposable elements to mobilize across genomes and affect the expression of genes makes them exceptional tools for genetic manipulation methodologies. Several transposon-based systems have been modified and incorporated into shuttle mutagenesis approaches in a variety of organisms. We have found that the Mos1 element, a DNA transposon from Drosophila mauritiana, is suitable and readily adaptable to a variety of strategies to the study of trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa. Trypanosomatids are the causative agents of a wide range of neglected diseases in underdeveloped regions of the globe...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Frédéric Bringaud, Matthew Rogers, Elodie Ghedin
Transposable elements (TE), defined as discrete pieces of DNA that can move from one site to another site in genomes, represent significant components of eukaryotic genomes, including trypanosomatids. Up to 5% of the trypanosomatid genome content is composed of retroposons of the ingi clade, further divided into subclades and subfamilies ranging from short extinct truncated elements (SIDER) to long active elements (ingi). Important differences in ingi-related retroposon content have been reported between trypanosomatid species...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jennifer M Holden, Ludek Koreny, Steven Kelly, Brian T Chait, Michael P Rout, Mark C Field, Samson O Obado
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the sole mediator of bidirectional nucleo-cytoplasmic transport and is also an important scaffold for chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation. Proteomic studies of numerous diverse eukaryotic species initially characterized the NPC as built with a number of remarkably similar structural features, suggesting its status as an ancient and conserved eukaryotic cell component. However, further detailed analyses now suggest that several key specific NPC features have a more convoluted evolutionary history than initially assumed...
July 31, 2014: Nucleus
Esteban D Erben, Abeer Fadda, Smiths Lueong, Jörg D Hoheisel, Christine Clayton
In trypanosomatids, gene expression is regulated mainly by post-transcriptional mechanisms, which affect mRNA processing, translation and degradation. Currently, our understanding of factors that regulate either mRNA stability or translation is rather limited. We know that often, the regulators are proteins that bind to the 3'-untranslated region; they presumably interact with ribonucleases and translation factors. However, very few such proteins have been characterized in any detail. Here we describe a genome-wide screen to find proteins implicated in post-transcriptional regulation in Trypanosoma brucei...
June 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Francisco José Sánchez-Luque, Manuel Carlos López, Patricia Eugenia Carreira, Carlos Alonso, María Carmen Thomas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV)-like ribozymes have recently been found in many mobile elements in which they take part in a mechanism that releases intermediate RNAs from cellular co-transcripts. L1Tc in Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the elements in which such a ribozyme is located. It lies in the so-called Pr77-hallmark, a conserved region shared by retrotransposons belonging to the trypanosomatid L1Tc/ingi clade. The wide distribution of the Pr77-hallmark detected in trypanosomatid retrotransposons renders the potential catalytic activity of these elements worthy of study: their distribution might contribute to host genetic regulation at the mRNA level...
2014: BMC Genomics
Vahid H Gazestani, Zhiquan Lu, Reza Salavati
Morphological and metabolic changes in the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei are accomplished by precise regulation of hundreds of genes. In the absence of transcriptional control, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) shape the structure of gene regulatory maps in this organism, but our knowledge about their target RNAs, binding sites, and mechanisms of action is far from complete. Although recent technological advances have revolutionized the RBP-based approaches, the main framework for the RNA regulatory element (RRE)-based approaches has not changed over the last two decades in T...
May 2014: Trends in Parasitology
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