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Elderly + generation

Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Mirza A Hammad, Rana Adnan Tahir, Hafiza Nisha Akram, Faheem Ahmad
BACKGROUND: As the number of elderly persons increases, neurodegenerative diseases are becoming ubiquitous. There is currently a great need for knowledge concerning management of old-age neurodegenerative diseases; the most important of which are: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the potential of computationally predicted molecules and targets against neurodegenerative diseases...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Gianluca U Sorrento, Philippe S Archambault, Joyce Fung
BACKGROUND: Developing rehabilitation strategies to improve functional walking and postural control in patients is a priority for rehabilitation clinicians and researchers alike. One possible strategy is the use of sensory modalities to elicit adaptive locomotor gait patterns. This study aimed to explore to what extent haptic inputs, in the form of forward-leading tensile forces delivered to the hand, compared to no force, may lead to adaptation and post-adaptation effects on gait parameters, during and after the haptic exposure, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Richard Njouom, Isabelle Siffert, Gaëtan Texier, Guillaume Lachenal, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem, Jacques Pépin, Arnaud Fontanet
Cameroon is thought to have one of the highest prevalences of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the world (4·9% among adults). A marked cohort effect exists in several communities where ≈50% of the elderly are infected. Better assessment of HCV distribution is needed for planning treatment programs. We tested for HCV antibodies 14150 capillary blood samples collected during the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey, whose participants were representative of the Cameroonian population aged 15-49 (both genders) and 50-59 years (men only)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Shiva Shanker Reddy Mukku, P T Sivakumar, Mathew Varghese
Clozapine is the first second generation antipsychotic with different receptor profile of action. Clozapine is the most efficacious drug for the treatment of psychotic disorder and is the drug of choice in treatment resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is used in elderly patients infrequently owing to its adverse effects profile and tolerability. There is paucity of literature with respect to clozapine use in late life. In this narrative review, we discuss clozapine use in elderly and challenges associated with its use...
March 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
R Guerrero, C Qin, O Oktay, C Bowles, L Chen, R Joules, R Wolz, M C Valdés-Hernández, D A Dickie, J Wardlaw, D Rueckert
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a feature of sporadic small vessel disease also frequently observed in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of healthy elderly subjects. The accurate assessment of WMH burden is of crucial importance for epidemiological studies to determine association between WMHs, cognitive and clinical data; their causes, and the effects of new treatments in randomized trials. The manual delineation of WMHs is a very tedious, costly and time consuming process, that needs to be carried out by an expert annotator (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Anita Annese, Caterina Manzari, Claudia Lionetti, Ernesto Picardi, David S Horner, Matteo Chiara, Mariano Francesco Caratozzolo, Apollonia Tullo, Bruno Fosso, Graziano Pesole, Anna Maria D'Erchia
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia affecting the elderly population worldwide. We have performed a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of Late-Onset AD (LOAD) patients using second generation sequencing technologies, identifying 2,064 genes, 47 lncRNAs and 4 miRNAs whose expression is specifically deregulated in the hippocampal region of LOAD patients. Moreover, analyzing the hippocampal, temporal and frontal regions from the same LOAD patients, we identify specific sets of deregulated miRNAs for each region, and we confirm that the miR-132/212 cluster is deregulated in each of these regions in LOAD patients, consistent with these miRNAs playing a role in AD pathogenesis...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susan L Baldwin, Fan-Chi Hsu, Neal Van Hoeven, Emily Gage, Brian Granger, Jeffrey A Guderian, Sasha E Larsen, Erica C Lorenzo, Laura Haynes, Steven G Reed, Rhea N Coler
Elderly people are at high risk for influenza-related morbidity and mortality due to progressive immunosenescence. While toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist containing adjuvants, and other adjuvants, have been shown to enhance influenza vaccine-induced protective responses, the mechanisms underlying how these adjuvanted vaccines could benefit the elderly remain elusive. Here, we show that a split H1N1 influenza vaccine (sH1N1) combined with a TLR4 agonist, glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant formulated in a stable oil-in-water emulsion (GLA-SE), boosts IgG2c:IgG1 ratios, enhances hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers, and increases protection in aged mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chi Ching Goh, Maximilien Evrard, Shu Zhen Chong, Yingrou Tan, Leonard De Li Tan, Karen Wei Weng Teng, Wolfgang Weninger, David Laurence Becker, Hong Liang Tey, Evan William Newell, Bin Liu, Lai Guan Ng
Pressure ulcers are a chronic problem for patients or the elderly who require extended periods of bed rest. The formation of ulcers is due to repeated cycles of ischemia-reperfusion (IR), which initiates an inflammatory response. Advanced ulcers disrupt the skin barrier, resulting in further complications. To date, the immunological aspect of skin IR has been understudied, partly due to the complexity of the skin immune cells. Through a combination of mass cytometry, confocal imaging and intravital multiphoton imaging, this study establishes a workflow for multidimensionality single cell analysis of skin myeloid responses in the context of IR injury with high spatiotemporal resolution...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Peter Sifuna, Lucas Otieno, Sheila Ogwang, Bernhards Ogutu, Ben Andagalu, John Owuoth, Valentine Singoei, Jessica Cowden, Walter Otieno
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of deaths in the health and Kombewa demographic surveillance system (HDSS) study area are not registered and reported through official systems of vital registration. As a result, few data are available regarding causes of death in this population. OBJECTIVES: To describe causes of death among residents of all ages in the Kombewa HDSS, located in rural Western Kenya. METHODS: Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews at the site were conducted using the modified 2007 and later 2012 standardized WHO questionnaires...
2018: Global Health Action
Yoshinari Niimi, Seiichiro Murata, Yumi Mitou, Yusuke Ohno
We developed a novel open cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system, a drainage flow servo-controlled CPB system (DS-CPB), in which rotational speed of the main roller pump is servo-controlled to generate the same amount of flow as the systemic venous drainage. It was designed to safely decrease the priming volume while maintaining a constant reservoir level, even during fluctuations of the drainage flow. We report a successful use of a novel DS-CPB system in an elderly Jehovah's Witness patient with dehydration who underwent mitral valve replacement...
March 1, 2018: Perfusion
Chaïma Ahaddour, Bert Broeckaert, Stef Van den Branden
This study aims to elicit the beliefs and attitudes of middle-aged and elderly Moroccan Muslim women toward dying, death and the afterlife; to identify whether differences are observable between middle-aged and elderly participants and to document how the actual attitudes of our participants relate to normative Islamic literature. Interviews were conducted with middle-aged and elderly Moroccan women living in Belgium (n = 30) and with experts in the field (n = 15). This study reveals that the belief in an omnipotent and omniscient God and in an afterlife strongly marks the attitudes of first and second generation Muslims in Belgium towards life and death...
February 26, 2018: Death Studies
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Ippei Nojima
To investigate the effects of aging on coordination of plantar flexor muscles during bipedal and unipedal stances, we examined a relationship between the center of pressure sway and electromyographic activity of these muscles, and also the common neural input, using a coherence analysis. Healthy young and elderly adults were asked to perform bipedal and unipedal standing. The electromyograms were recorded unilaterally from the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) and soleus (SL) muscles, and the common input was analyzed for MG-LG, MG-SL, and LG-SL pairs in two frequency bands: a delta band, that is associated with force variability, and a beta band, that could reflect the corticospinal drive...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Tania-Marisa Freitas-Simoes, Montserrat Cofán, Maria A Blasco, Nora Soberón, Miguel Foronda, Dolores Corella, Eva M Asensio, Mercè Serra-Mir, Irene Roth, Carlos Calvo, Cinta Valls-Pedret, Ricardo P Casaroli-Marano, Mónica Doménech, Sujatha Rajaram, Joan Sabaté, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Shortening of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of aging. Epidemiologic studies of LTL in relation to dietary fatty acids have reported conflicting results. The red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid status is a valid objective biomarker of long-term dietary intake of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3). In healthy older individuals, we investigated whether LTL relates to the RBC proportions of the main dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and to the RBC proportion of arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), a fatty acid that can generate pro-inflammatory lipid mediators once released from cell membranes...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Susana Carmona, John Hardy, Rita Guerreiro
Alzheimer disease (AD), a progressive and neurodegenerative disease, is the most common form of dementia with high incidence in elderly people. Neuropathologically the disease is defined by the combined presence of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of phosphorylated tau protein. Genetically, the first clues were provided by genetic linkage studies that led to the identification of APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations as the main causes of autosomal-dominant early-onset AD...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Grace Wellington, Dawn Elder, Angela Campbell
Wellington G, Elder D, Campbell A. 24 - hour oxygen saturation recordings in preterm infants: editing artefact. AIM: To create editing guidelines for artefact removal in preterm infant pulse oximetry recordings. METHODS: 38 preterm infants ready for discharge home from the neonatal intensive care unit underwent 24-hour pulse oximetry recording using the Masimo® Rad-8 device. An expert panel determined editing rules based on clinical protocols. For each recording three reports were generated, 'raw' no editing, 'auto' using the software editing feature and 'manual' reviewed and edited according to the rules...
February 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Guido Grassi, Nicolàs R Robles, Gino Seravalle, Francesco Fici
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), particularly dihydropyridine-CCBs, (DHP-CCBs), have an established role in antihypertensive therapy, either as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. Two hundred and fifty-one papers published in PubMed in English between January 1, 1990, and October 31, 2016, were identified using the keyword "lercanidipine." Lercanidipine is a lipophilic third-generation DHP-CCB, characterized by high vascular selectivity and persistence in the smooth muscle cell membranes...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
Zeng Xiao-Jun, Jiang Wei-Sheng, Xie Shu-Ying, Ge Jun, Li Zhao-Jun, Hang Chun-Qin, Liu Yue-Min, Yi Fang-Yu, Chen Hong-Gen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Jiangxi Province from 1989 to 2014, so as to provide the evidence for generating the strategy of soil-transmitted nematode prevention and control. METHODS: The data of three epidemiological surveys on human parasitic diseases (in 1989, 2002 and 2014) were classified and analyzed. The stool examination by Kato-Katz's thick smear method was adopted for the investigation of soil-transmitted nematode infections...
December 5, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Aline F Ferreira, George A Calin, Virgínia Picanço-Castro, Simone Kashima, Dimas T Covas, Fabiola A de Castro
Although hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) therapy for hematological diseases can lead to a good outcome from the clinical point of view, the limited number of ideal donors, the comorbidity of patients and the increasing number of elderly patients may limit the application of this therapy. HSCs can be generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which requires the understanding of the bone marrow and liver niches components and function in vivo iPSCs have been extensively applied in several studies involving disease models, drug screening and cellular replacement therapies...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Maryam Dadar, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Sandip Chakraborty, Youcef Shahali, Kuldeep Dhama
Candida albicans is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen representing an important source of invasive disease in humans and generating high healthcare costs worldwide. This fungus is frequently found in different anatomical sites of healthy persons and could induce systemic and superficial infections under optimal environmental conditions. Invasive candidiasis (IC) is an important nosocomial infection with high morbidity and mortality rates in hospitalized children. It represents a major source of prolonged infections in intensive care unit (ICU), particularly in immunosuppressed or elderly patients...
February 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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