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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936738/vascular-calcification-regulation-by-exosomes-in-the-vascular-wall
#1
Marcel Liberman, Luciana Cavalheiro Marti
Vascular calcification is a tightly regulated process that increases during ageing and occurs mainly in patients with diabetes and chronic renal failure. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are synthesized in a particular population of endosomes, also called multivesicular bodies, by inside budding into the lumen of the compartment. After fusion of exosome with the plasma membrane, these internal vesicles are secreted. Exosomes have a defined set of membrane and cytosolic proteins. The physiological function of exosomes is still a matter of debate...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931474/could-circulating-fetuin-a-be-a-biomarker-of-aortic-valve-stenosis
#2
Alessandro Di Minno, Marco Zanobini, Veronika A Myasoedova, Vincenza Valerio, Paola Songia, Matteo Saccocci, Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno, Elena Tremoli, Paolo Poggio
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is a multifactorial-progressive pathological process. In the past decades, many studies have focus their attention on circulating biomarkers able to identify AVS and/or to predict its progression. One of the many biomarkers studied is the fetuin A. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the correlation between fetuin A levels and end-stage AVS. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic search was performed in three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus), looking for studies that compared control subjects with AVS patients and that have measured fetuin A circulating levels in both groups...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923552/fetuin-a-in-aortic-stenosis-the-pathophysiology-crystallizes
#3
EDITORIAL
Björn Redfors, Philippe Généreux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912366/lower-plasma-fetuin-a-levels-are-associated-with-a-higher-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Xuechen Chen, Yuan Zhang, Qian Chen, Qing Li, Yanping Li, Wenhua Ling
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the association of circulating fetuin-A with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured plasma fetuin-A in 1620 patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The patients were members of the Guangdong coronary artery disease cohort and were recruited between October 2008 and December 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma fetuin-A and the risk of mortality...
September 14, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902191/polyoxometalates-as-sialidase-mimics-selective-and-non-destructive-removal-of-sialic-acid-from-a-glycoprotein-promoted-by-phosphotungstic-acid
#5
Laura Sofia Van Rompuy, Tatjana N Parac-Vogt
The selective hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond between the terminal sialic acid and the penultimate sugar has been achieved in the alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (Fetuin-A) in the presence of H3PW12O40, a Keggin type polyoxometalate. A controlled liberation of sialic acid from the glycoprotein could be achieved at pH 3.0 and 37 °C without the destruction of the protein backbone.
September 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899951/lowering-interleukin-12-activity-improves-myocardial-and-vascular-function-compared-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-a-antagonism-or-cyclosporine-in-psoriasis
#6
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Evangelia Papadavid, George Makavos, Ioanna Andreadou, Maria Varoudi, Kostas Gravanis, Kostas Theodoropoulos, George Pavlidis, Helen Triantafyllidi, Paraskevi Moutsatsou, Christina Panagiotou, John Parissis, Efstathios Iliodromitis, John Lekakis, Dimitrios Rigopoulos
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 activity is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and acute coronary syndromes. We investigated the effects of IL-12 inhibition on vascular and left ventricular (LV) function in psoriasis. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred fifty psoriasis patients were randomized to receive an anti-IL-12/23 (ustekinumab, n=50), anti-tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α; etanercept, n=50), or cyclosporine treatment (n=50). At baseline and 4 months post-treatment, we measured (1) LV global longitudinal strain, twisting, and percent difference between peak twisting and untwisting at mitral valve opening (%untwMVO) using speckle-tracking echocardiography, (2) coronary flow reserve, (3) pulse wave velocity and augmentation index, (4) circulating NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, malondialdehyde, and fetuin-a...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898202/toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-aging
#7
Amiya K Ghosh, Martin O'Brien, Theresa Mau, Raymond Yung
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is a central mechanism for metabolic dysfunction in both diet-induced obesity and age-associated obesity. Studies in diet-induced obesity have characterized the role of Fetuin A (Fet A) in Free Fatty Acids (FFA)-mediated TLR4 activation and adipose tissue inflammation. However, the role of Fet A & TLR4 in aging-related adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. In the current study, analysis of epidymymal fat pads of C57/Bl6 male mice, we found that, in contrast to data from diet-induced obesity models, adipose tissue from aged mice have normal Fet A and TLR4 expression...
September 7, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882110/serum-osteoprotegerin-in-prevalent-hemodialysis-patients-associations-with-mortality-atherosclerosis-and-cardiac-function
#8
Sílvia Collado, Elisabeth Coll, Carlos Nicolau, Manel Azqueta, Mercedes Pons, Josep M Cruzado, Bernat de la Torre, Ramón Deulofeu, Sergi Mojal, Julio Pascual, Aleix Cases
BACKGROUND: To assess whether serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and/or fetuin-A predict mortality and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Multicenter, observational, prospective study that included 220 hemodialysis patients followed up for up to 6 years. Serum OPG and fetuin-A levels were measured at baseline and their possible association with clinical characteristics, CV risk biomarkers, carotid ultrasonographic findings, as well as their association with overall and CV mortality and CV events were assessed...
September 7, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878382/pleomorphic-bacteria-like-structures-in-human-blood-represent-non-living-membrane-vesicles-and-protein-particles
#9
Jan Martel, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Pei-Rong Huang, Wei-Yun Cheng, John D Young
Although human blood is believed to be a sterile environment, recent studies suggest that pleomorphic bacteria exist in the blood of healthy humans. These studies have led to the development of "live-blood analysis," a technique used by alternative medicine practitioners to diagnose various human conditions, including allergies, cancer, cardiovascular disease and septicemia. We show here that bacteria-like vesicles and refringent particles form in healthy human blood observed under dark-field microscopy. These structures gradually increase in number during incubation and show morphologies reminiscent of cells undergoing division...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858873/circulating-triglycerides-and-the-association-of-triglycerides-with-dietary-intake-are-altered-by-alpha-2-heremans-schmid-glycoprotein-polymorphisms
#10
Katie N Robinson, Itzel Vazquez-Vidal, Courtney Marques, Flavia Cristina Drumond Andrade, Celia Aradillas-Garcia, Margarita Teran-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Circulating fetuin-A (FetA) inhibits insulin receptor signaling and activates the toll-like receptor 4 proinflammatory cascade; thus, it may contribute to metabolic syndrome. Polymorphisms in alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG), the gene which codes FetA, may influence metabolic syndrome progression in higher-risk ethnic groups. We aimed to identify whether individual variation in AHSG influences biomarkers of metabolic disease and obesity in young Mexican adults. METHODS: The participants were Mexican college applicants (18-25 years, n = 641)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844316/identifying-early-pathogenic-events-during-vascular-calcification-in-uremic-rats
#11
Luis Hortells, Cecilia Sosa, Natalia Guillén, Susana Lucea, Ángel Millán, Víctor Sorribas
Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease is a very complex process traditionally explained in multifactorial terms. Here we sought to clarify relevance of the diverse agents acting on vascular calcification in uremic rats and distinguish between initiating and complicating factors. After 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were fed a 1.2% phosphorus diet and analyzed at different time points. The earliest changes observed in the aortic wall were noticed 11 weeks after nephrectomy: increased Wnt inhibitor Dkk1 mRNA expression and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) expression and activity...
August 23, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797566/palmitate-induced-fetuin-a-secretion-from-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-adversely-affects-its-function-and-elicits-inflammation
#12
Alpana Mukhuty, Chandrani Fouzder, Sandip Mukherjee, Chandan Malick, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Samir Bhattacharya, Rakesh Kundu
Islets of type 2 diabetes patients display inflammation, elevated levels of cytokines and macrophages. The master regulator of inflammation in the islets is free fatty acids (FFA). It has already been reported that FFA and TLR4 stimulation induces pro-inflammatory factors in the islets. In this report we demonstrate that excess lipid triggers Fetuin-A (FetA) secretion from the pancreatic β-cells. Palmitate treatment to MIN6 cells showed significantly elevated FetA levels in respect to their controls. Fatty acid induces the FetA gene and protein expression in the pancreatic β-cells via TLR4 and over-expression of NF-κB...
August 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791439/metabolic-crosstalk-between-fatty-pancreas-and-fatty-liver-effects-on-local-inflammation-and-insulin-secretion
#13
Felicia Gerst, Robert Wagner, Gabriele Kaiser, Madhura Panse, Martin Heni, Jürgen Machann, Malte N Bongers, Tina Sartorius, Bence Sipos, Falko Fend, Christian Thiel, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Susanne Ullrich, Dorothea Siegel-Axel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity-linked ectopic fat accumulation is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Whether pancreatic and liver steatosis impairs insulin secretion is controversial. We examined the crosstalk of human pancreatic fat cells with islets and the role of diabetogenic factors, i.e. palmitate and fetuin-A, a hepatokine released from fatty liver. METHODS: Human pancreatic resections were immunohistochemically stained for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and the macrophage/monocyte marker CD68...
August 8, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783890/reduction-of-side-effects-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-with-thymoquinone-treatment-in-rats
#14
Ali Erdal Gunes, Orhan Gozeneli, Muhammed Emin Guldur
INTRODUCTION: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) treatment results in elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to cellular damage. Thymoquinone (TQ) is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity and may suppress the generation of free radicals. The goal of this study is reduction of side effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy with thymoquinone treatment. METHODS: 30 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 10 per group)...
July 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770230/effects-of-exercise-training-and-weight-loss-on-plasma-fetuin-a-levels-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-overweight-older-men
#15
Jacob B Blumenthal, Anna Gitterman, Alice S Ryan, Steven J Prior
Aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL) improves insulin sensitivity in overweight adults; however, the underlying pathways are incompletely understood. Fetuin-A, a hepatokine that inhibits insulin signaling, may be involved in the salutary effects of AEX+WL. Therefore, we examined the effects of 6-month AEX+WL on plasma fetuin-A levels (36-48 hours after the last bout of exercise), aerobic capacity (VO2max), body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity (M) in 16 sedentary, overweight-obese older men (age = 60 ± 2 years, BMI = 31 ± 1 kg/m(2)) with no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761091/a-novel-pharmacodynamic-assay-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-crystallization-inhibitors-on-calcium-phosphate-crystallization-in-human-plasma
#16
M D Ferrer, M M Pérez, M M Cànaves, J M Buades, C Salcedo, J Perelló
Cardiovascular calcification (CVC) is a progressive complication of chronic kidney disease and a predictor of CV events and mortality. The use of biomarkers to predict CV risk and activities of potential or current treatment drugs in these patients could have a crucial impact on therapeutic approaches. Our aim was to develop a novel assay for measurement of the rate of calcium phosphate crystallization in human plasma and provide a tool to evaluate the effects of crystallization inhibitors. The efficacy of inhibitors was determined by adding inhibitory compounds (polyphosphates, fetuin-A, sodium thiosulfate or citrate) to control samples...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750433/effect-of-a-12-week-aerobic-exercise-training-on-serum-fetuin-a-and-adipocytokine-levels-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Ling-Yun Zhang, Tao Liu, Ya-Qin Teng, Xiao-Yan Yao, Tian-Tian Zhao, Liang-Yan Lin, Qing-Song Jin, Yong-Jun Jin
Objective We aimed to evaluate the effect of 12-week aerobic exercise training on fetuin-A levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus and examine the relationships between fetuin-A and adipocytokine levels and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods The study included 32 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were assigned to an exercise or a control group. The exercise group underwent 12 weeks of exercise (consisting of a 5-min warm-up, 60-min aerobic bicycle training performed at 70% of the maximal heart rate, a cool-down period, 5 times/week)...
July 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747359/coupling-between-phosphate-and-calcium-homeostasis-a-mathematical-model
#18
David Granjon, Olivier Bonny, Aurélie Edwards
We developed a mathematical model of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) homeostasis in the rat to elucidate the hormonal mechanisms that underlie the regulation of Ca and PO4 balance. The model represents the exchanges of Ca and PO4 between the intestine, plasma, kidneys, bone, and the intracellular compartment, and the formation of Ca-PO4-fetuin A complexes. It accounts for the regulation of these fluxes by parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D3, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and Ca2+-sensing receptors...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713076/prospective-relation-of-circulating-adipokines-to-incident-metabolic-syndrome-the-framingham-heart-study
#19
Justin P Zachariah, Rene Quiroz, Kerrie P Nelson, Zhaoyang Teng, John F Keaney, Lisa M Sullivan, Ramachandran S Vasan
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are elaborated by adipose tissue and are associated with glycemic, lipid, and vascular traits. We hypothesized that in a cross-sectional analysis circulating adipokines are altered among subsets of obesity stratified by presence versus absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prospectively predict the incidence of MetS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants in the community-based Framingham Third Generation Cohort who attended examination cycle 1 were included in the study (2002-2005; N=3777, mean age, 40 years; 59% women)...
July 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713075/association-of-parental-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus-with-circulating-adipokines-in-nonobese-nondiabetic-offspring
#20
Justin P Zachariah, Rene Quiroz, Danielle Enserro, Charlotte Andersson, John F Keaney, Lisa M Sullivan, Ramachandran S Vasan
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are implicated in the development of obesity-related traits. We hypothesized that nonobese participants without diabetes mellitus (DM) whose parents were obese or had DM would have altered circulating adipokines compared with those without parental history of these conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants in the community-based Framingham Third Generation cohort who were not obese (body mass index <30) and not diabetic with both parents in the Framingham Offspring cohort were included in this analysis (n=2034, mean age 40 years, 54% women)...
July 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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