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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929113/predicting-suicidal-behaviour-after-first-episode-of-non-affective-psychosis-the-role-of-neurocognitive-functioning
#1
M Canal-Rivero, J D López-Moríñigo, E Setién-Suero, M Ruiz-Veguilla, J L Ayuso-Mateos, R Ayesa-Arriola, B Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Suicide has been recognised as one of the major causes of premature death in psychosis. However, predicting suicidal behaviour (SB) is still challenging in the clinical setting and the association of neurocognition with SB in psychosis remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of neurocognitive performance as predictor of SB. Also, we sought to explore differences in the evolution of clinical and neurocognitive functioning between participants with/without history of suicide attempts (SA) over follow-up period...
June 18, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929055/beneficial-effects-of-a-daytime-nap-on-verbal-memory-in-adolescents
#2
Esther Yuet Ying Lau, Susan McAteer, Cecilia Nga Wing Leung, Matthew A Tucker, Cheng Li
This study aimed to examine the sleep-dependent memory consolidation of verbal declarative memory in Chinese adolescents in a naturalistic experimental setting. Thirty-nine healthy boarding school students (ages 15-18, 70% female) were randomized to either a one-hour afternoon nap or wake group between the baseline and the retest sessions of three verbal declarative memory tasks: a Prose Stories Recall task, a Word Pair Associates task, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results showed that the nap group performed better than the no-nap group on both the Prose Stories Recall task and the Word Pair Associates task, but not on list learning...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928907/episodic-and-working-memory-function-in-primary-progressive-aphasia-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Willem S Eikelboom, Nikki Janssen, Lize C Jiskoot, Esther van den Berg, Ardi Roelofs, Roy P C Kessels
OBJECTIVE: The distinction between Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) variants remains challenging for clinicians, especially for the non-fluent (nfv-PPA) and the logopenic variants (lv-PPA). Previous research suggests that memory tests might aid this differentiation. This meta-analysis compares memory function among PPA variants. METHOD: Effects sizes were extracted from 41 studies (N = 849). Random-effects models were used to compare performance on episodic and working memory tests among PPA patients and healthy controls, and between the PPA variants...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928657/aging-related-cognitive-changes-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-down-syndrome
#4
Nicholas C Firth, Carla M Startin, Rosalyn Hithersay, Sarah Hamburg, Peter A Wijeratne, Kin Y Mok, John Hardy, Daniel C Alexander, André Strydom
Objective: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an extremely high genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, the course of cognitive decline associated with progression to dementia is ill-defined. Data-driven methods can estimate long-term trends from cross-sectional data while adjusting for variability in baseline ability, which complicates dementia assessment in those with DS. Methods: We applied an event-based model to cognitive test data and informant-rated questionnaire data from 283 adults with DS (the largest study of cognitive functioning in DS to date) to estimate the sequence of cognitive decline and individuals' disease stage...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928651/cognitive-and-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#5
Sirio Cocozza, Teresa Costabile, Enrico Tedeschi, Filomena Abate, Camilla Russo, Agnese Liguori, Walter Del Vecchio, Francesca Paciello, Mario Quarantelli, Alessandro Filla, Arturo Brunetti, Francesco Saccà
Objective: The aim of this study was to perform the first resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) analysis in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients to assess possible brain functional connectivity (FC) differences in these patients, and test their correlations with neuropsychological performances. Methods: In total, 24 FRDA patients (M/F: 15/9, mean age 31.3 ± 15.0) and 24 healthy controls (HC; M/F: 15/9, mean age 30.7 ± 15.5) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928633/evaluation-of-electroencephalogram-signals-of-the-professional-pianists-during-iconic-memory-and-working-memory-tests-using-spectral-coherence
#6
Seyedeh Yasamin Boutorabi, Ali Sheikhani
Background: Today, the neuroscience has growth in many aspects, and the effects of different factors on memory obtained many achievements. Several scientific and experimental studies evaluated effects of music on style and behavior of people; in this study, we evaluated memory between two groups of people, the professional pianists and normal people, through processing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals using the coherence measure. Methods: In this study, EEG signals from 17 subjects during two memory tasks were recorded...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928594/speech-on-speech-masking-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#7
Chao Wu, Chuanyue Wang, Liang Li
People with schizophrenia have impairments of target-speech recognition (TSR) in noisy environments with multiple people talking. This study investigated whether the TSR impairment in schizophrenia is associated with their impaired auditory working memory or certain psychotic symptoms. Thirty participants with schizophrenia (mean age = 35.2 ± 12.7 years) and 30 demographics-matched healthy controls (mean age = 32.9 ± 10.9 years) were tested for their TSR against a two-talker-speech masker...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928289/severity-of-depressive-symptoms-and-volume-of-superior-temporal-gyrus-in-people-who-visit-a-memory-clinic-unaccompanied
#8
Taiki Kambe, Asako Yasuda, Setsuo Kinoshita, Masahiro Shigeta, Toru Kinoshita
Background/Aims: Depression and cognitive decline are reported to be interrelated. Depression of older adults with memory complaints who seek medical help have not been well documented. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that a relatively high level of depressive symptoms associated with brain structure is characteristic of people who visited a memory clinic unaccompanied (UA). Method: We retrospectively compared Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, for evaluation of depressive symptoms) scores of UA subjects ( n = 21) with those of people who were accompanied ( n = 75)...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928246/do-chinese-children-with-math-difficulties-have-a-deficit-in-executive-functioning
#9
Xiaochen Wang, George K Georgiou, Qing Li, Athanasios Tavouktsoglou
Several studies have shown that Executive Functioning (EF) is a unique predictor of mathematics performance. However, whether or not children with mathematics difficulties (MD) experience deficits in EF remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine if Chinese children with MD experience deficits in EF. We assessed 23 children with MD (9 girls, mean age = 10.40 years), 30 children with reading difficulties and MD (RDMD; 12 girls, mean age = 10.82 years), and 31 typically-developing (TD) peers (16 girls, mean age = 10...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927683/walking-through-doorways-causes-forgetting-recall
#10
Kyle A Pettijohn, Gabriel A Radvansky
The aim of the current study was to explore how the location updating effect is affected when people are tested using recall rather than recognition, which is what has been done in prior work. Differences in the memory processes involved with these two tasks lead to predictions for two different patterns of data. In Experiment 1, memory was tested by having participants recall the single object they were carrying or had just put down, whereas in Experiment 2, people sometimes needed to recall both objects. It was found that, unlike recognition test performance, a similar location updating effect was found for both Associated (what was currently being carried) and Dissociated (what was recently set down) objects...
June 21, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927555/assessment-of-topographic-memory-in-mice-in-a-complex-environment-using-the-hamlet-test
#11
Lucie Crouzier, Tangui Maurice
Here we provide instructions to measure topographic memory in mice using the Hamlet test, a complex environment. The apparatus mimics a small hamlet with a central agora and five houses, which are functionalized since mice can drink, eat pellets, hide within a small maze, run in an activity wheel, or interact with a stranger mouse behind a grid. The houses are interconnected through a network of streets in a five-arm star shape, and a video tracking system takes information from the activity in each house or follows a single mouse by trajectometry...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927301/a-functional-promoter-variant-of-the-human-formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase-ftcd-gene-is-associated-with-working-memory-performance-in-young-but-not-older-adults
#12
Pamela M Greenwood, Kevin Schmidt, Ming-Kuan Lin, Robert Lipsky, Raja Parasuraman, Ryan Jankord
OBJECTIVE: The central role of working memory in IQ and the high heritability of working memory performance motivated interest in identifying the specific genes underlying this heritability. The FTCD (formimidoyltransferase cyclodeaminase) gene was identified as a candidate gene for allelic association with working memory in part from genetic mapping studies of mouse Morris water maze performance. METHOD: The present study tested variants of this gene for effects on a delayed match-to-sample task of a large sample of younger and older participants...
June 21, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927271/part-list-cuing-effects-in-younger-and-older-adults-episodic-recall
#13
Alp Aslan, Thomas John
Providing a subset of previously studied items as retrieval cues can both impair and improve memory for the remaining items. Here, we investigated such part-list cuing effects in younger and older adults' episodic recall, using listwise directed forgetting to manipulate study context access at test. When context access was maintained, part-list cuing impaired recall regardless of age. In contrast, when context access was impaired, part-list cuing improved recall in younger but not in older adults. The results are consistent with the proposal that older adults show intact inhibition and blocking of competing information, but reduced capability for episodic context reactivation...
June 21, 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926789/poorer-visual-acuity-is-associated-with-declines-in-cognitive-performance-across-multiple-cognitive-domains-the-maine-syracuse-longitudinal-study
#14
Peter J Dearborn, Merrill F Elias, Kevin J Sullivan, Cara E Sullivan, Michael A Robbins
OBJECTIVES: Prior studies have found associations between visual acuity (VA) and cognitive function. However, these studies used a limited range of cognitive measures and did not control for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RFs) and baseline function. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the associations of VA and cognitive performance using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. METHODS: This study used community-dwelling sample data across the sixth (2001-2006) and seventh (2006-2010) waves of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (n=655)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926732/influence-of-biological-sex-age-and-hiv-status-in-an-in-vitro-primary-cell-model-of-hiv-latency-using-a-cxcr4-tropic-virus
#15
Amanda B Macedo, Rachel S Resop, Laura Jean Martins, Matthew A Szaniawski, Eric S Sorensen, Adam M Spivak, Douglas F Nixon, R Brad Jones, Vicente Planelles, Alberto Bosque
Primary cell models of HIV latency have become tools to both understand the mechanisms involved in the establishment of latency as well as to test pre-clinical strategies towards an HIV-1 cure. These models rely on the infection of CD4 T cells from healthy donors. As such, these models provide an opportunity to explore the role of biological sex, age and HIV status on the establishment and reactivation of latent HIV in vitro. We have used an established primary cell model of latency based on the generation of latently infected central memory CD4 T cells with the CXCR4-strain HIV-1NL4-3 to address whether these variables influence: i) HIV-1NL4-3 replication, ii) establishment of latency, and iii) latency reversal in CD4 T cells...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926672/-reproduction-genotype-identification-and-evaluation-of-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#16
Long Tan, Hai-Qiang Li, Yi-Bo Li, Wei Liu, Wei Pang, Yu-Gang Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To identify the genotype of (APP/PS1) transgenic mice and evaluate the changing of cognitive and behavioral fu nctions, provide an effective animal model for the Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. METHODS: Male APP/PS1 transgenic mice mated with female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and the genotype of their filial mice was identified by PCR. The APP +/PS1 + mice were assigned into AD model group (AD group, n =8), and the APP/PS1 mice were assigned into control group (CT group, n =8)...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926086/assessment-of-neurocognitive-functions-in-7-year-old-children-at-familial-high-risk-for-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder-the-danish-high-risk-and-resilience-study-via-7
#17
Nicoline Hemager, Kerstin J Plessen, Anne Thorup, Camilla Christiani, Ditte Ellersgaard, Katrine Søborg Spang, Birgitte Klee Burton, Maja Gregersen, Anne Søndergaard, Aja Neergaard Greve, Ditte Lou Gantriis, Gry Poulsen, Larry J Seidman, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen
Importance: Children at familial high risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FHR-SZ) or bipolar disorder (FHR-BP) exhibit neurocognitive impairments. Large studies of neurocognition in young children at familial high risk at the same age are important to differentiate the pathophysiology and developmental trajectory of these 2 groups. Objective: To characterize neurocognitive functions in 7-year-old children with FHR-SZ or FHR-BP and a control population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multisite population-based cohort study collected data from January 1, 2013, to January 31, 2016, in the first wave of the Danish High Risk and Resilience Study VIA 7 at 2 university hospital research sites in Copenhagen and Aarhus using Danish registries...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926062/amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-injection-into-medial-septum-impairs-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-and-cognitive-behaviors-in-rats
#18
Mei-Na Wu, Lin-Lin Kong, Jun Zhang, Meng-Ming Hu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Hong-Yan Cai, Jin-Shun Qi
The specific loss of cholinergic neurons and the progressive deficits of cognitive function are the most primary characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the neurotoxicity of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in AD has been investigated extensively, it is still unclear whether the Aβ aggregated in the medial septum (MS), a major cholinergic nucleus projecting to the hippocampus, could affect hippocampal synaptic plasticity and further impair the memory behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of Aβ injection into the MS on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and cognitive behaviors of rats by using Morris water maze (MWM), Y maze and in vivo hippocampal LTP recording...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925565/regulators-of-long-term-memory-revealed-by-mushroom-body-specific-gene-expression-profiling-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Yves F Widmer, Adem Bilican, Rémy Bruggmann, Simon G Sprecher
Memory formation is achieved by genetically tightly controlled molecular pathways that result in a change of synaptic strength and synapse organization. While for short-term memory traces rapidly acting biochemical pathways are in place, the formation of long-lasting memories requires changes in the transcriptional program of a cell. Although many genes involved in learning and memory formation have been identified, little is known about the genetic mechanisms required for changing the transcriptional program during different phases of long-term memory formation...
June 20, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925497/a-newly-designed-mobile-based-computerized-cognitive-addiction-therapy-app-for-the-improvement-of-cognition-impairments-and-risk-decision-making-in-methamphetamine-use-disorder-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Youwei Zhu, Haifeng Jiang, Hang Su, Na Zhong, Runji Li, Xiaotong Li, Tianzhen Chen, Haoye Tan, Jiang Du, Ding Xu, Huan Yan, Dawen Xu, Min Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive rehabilitation therapy has been found to improve cognitive deficits and impulse control problems in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). However, there is limited research regarding this therapy's feasibility when using mobile-based health technologies in supporting recovery from MUD in China. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to test whether 4 weeks of a newly designed computerized cognitive addiction therapy (CCAT) app can improve cognitive impairments, eliminate drug-related attention bias, and attenuate risk decision-making behaviors in participants with MUD...
June 20, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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