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Memory testing

Michael S Pratte
In typical visual working memory tasks, participants report the color of a previously studied item at some probed location. Alternatively, in some recent studies, a color is probed and participants must report the item's location. There is a surprising difference between these tasks: in location reports participants almost never guess randomly as they do when reporting color, but often incorrectly report the locations of non-probed items. This finding has been taken as evidence for feature binding errors in memory, and evidence against discrete capacity models, which predict that pure guessing should occur...
September 21, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Beth S Slomine, Faye S Silverstein, James R Christensen, Kent Page, Richard Holubkov, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler
Importance: Little is known about neuropsychological outcomes of children who survived pediatric cardiac arrest (CA). Objective: To describe the neuropsychological outcomes of CA survivors enrolled in the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest In-Hospital (THAPCA-IH) and Out-of-Hospital (THAPCA-OH) trials and compare the results with the primary outcome measure for these trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of 222 CA survivors aged 1 to 18 years who received chest compressions for 2 minutes or more, remained comatose and required mechanical ventilation after return of circulation, and were enrolled in targeted temperature-management trials from 41 pediatric intensive care units...
September 17, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Ji Won Bang, Yuka Sasaki, Takeo Watanabe, Dobromir Rahnev
Brain activity patterns observed during task performance have been shown to spontaneously reemerge in the following restful awake state. Such "awake reactivation" has been observed across higher-order cortex for complex images or associations. However, it is still unclear whether the reactivation extends to primary sensory areas that encode simple stimulus features. To address this question, we trained human subjects from both sexes on a particular visual feature - Gabor orientation - and tested whether this feature will be reactivated immediately after training...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Eva Åkerman, Ann Langius-Eklöf
OBJECTIVES: To explore the possible effects of intensive care follow-up visits and diaries on patients physical and psychosocial problems at 2, 6, and 12 months after unit discharge as well as the patient' experiences of follow-up visits and diaries. METHODS: A descriptive and explorative cohort design. Patients (n = 441) with a length of ICU stay for ≥24 hours, who responded to the 3-set 4P questionnaire were included. Patients were divided into groups depending on when they responded to the questionnaire and if had or had not a follow-up visit or a diary...
September 18, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Shingo Matsuda, Suguru Tohyama, Akihiro Mizutani
Fear conditioning and extinction is a useful tool for understanding the pathogenesis of fear-related disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for developing treatments for them. To investigate the role of sub-brain regions or molecular mechanisms in fear conditioning and extinction, neuroscientists have been employing an optogenetic or in vivo recording technique, in which placement of an optical fiber or an electrode into the brain region of a free-moving mouse is essential. These methods require isolation rearing (at least one week) from the brain surgery to the behavioral test...
September 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Nicolas Rothen, Anil K Seth, Jamie Ward
Empirical evidence suggests that synesthesia is associated with enhanced sensory processing. A separate body of empirical literature suggests that synesthesia is linked to a specific profile of enhanced episodic and working memory performance. However, whether sensory (iconic) memory performance is also affected by synesthesia remains unknown. Therefore, we tested 22 grapheme-color synesthetes and compared their performance in a partial-report paradigm with 22 individually matched non-synesthete controls. Participants were briefly presented with a circular-letter array and required to report the identity of the letter at a probed target location after various delays...
September 18, 2018: Vision Research
Sue-Jin Lin, Irene Vavasour, Brenda Kosaka, David K B Li, Anthony Traboulsee, Alex MacKay, Martin J McKeown
Graphical network characteristics and nonstationary functional connectivity features, both derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data, have been associated with cognitive performance in healthy subjects. How these features jointly relate to cognition in diseased states has not been investigated. In this study, 46 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis subjects underwent rsfMRI scans and a focused cognitive battery. With a sliding window approach, we examined six dynamic network features that indicated how connectivity changed over time as well as six measures derived from graph theory to reflect static network characteristics...
September 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Michelle C Janelsins, Charles E Heckler, Luke J Peppone, Tim A Ahles, Supriya G Mohile, Karen M Mustian, Oxana Palesh, Ann M O'Mara, Lori M Minasian, Annalynn M Williams, Allison Magnuson, Jodi Geer, Shaker R Dakhil, Judith O Hopkins, Gary R Morrow
PURPOSE: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is an important clinical problem in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Nationwide longitudinal studies are needed to understand the trajectory and severity of CRCI in specific cognitive domains. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The overall objective of this nationwide, prospective, observational study conducted within the National Cancer Institute Community Clinical Oncology Research Program was to assess trajectories in specific cognitive domains in patients with breast cancer (stage I-IIIC) receiving chemotherapy, from pre- (A1) to postchemotherapy (A2) and from prechemotherapy to 6 months postchemotherapy (A3); controls were assessed at the same time-equivalent points...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Daniela J Palombo, Joseph M Di Lascio, Marc W Howard, Mieke Verfaellie
Medial-temporal lobe (MTL) lesions are associated with severe impairments in episodic memory. In the framework of the temporal context model, the hypothesized mechanism for episodic memory is the reinstatement of a prior experienced context (i.e., "jump back in time"), which relies upon the MTL [Howard, M. W., Fotedar, M. S., Datey, A. V., & Hasselmo, M. E. The temporal context model in spatial navigation and relational learning: Toward a common explanation of medial temporal lobe function across domains...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Mingchen Chen, Xingcheng Lin, Wei Lu, Nicholas P Schafer, Jose Nelson Onuchic, Peter G Wolynes
When good structural templates can be identified, template-based modeling is the most reliable way to predict the tertiary structure of proteins. In this study, we combine template-based modeling with a realistic coarse-grained force field, AWSEM, that has been optimized using the principles of energy landscape theory. The Associative memory, Water mediated, Structure and Energy Model (AWSEM) is a coarse-grained force field having both transferable tertiary interactions and knowledge-based local-in-sequence interaction terms...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Florian Bitsch, Philipp Berger, Arne Nagels, Irina Falkenberg, Benjamin Straube
Schizophrenia is associated with impaired and exaggerated Theory of Mind processes, pointing on alterations in generating a representation of another person's mind. Despite recent work on healthy subjects suggesting that a coupling between the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) and the hippocampus is relevant for building representations of others' intentions, the neural basis of related dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. Therefore, we used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging together with a modified prisoner's dilemma game to test the hypotheses, that patients show dysfunctional social updating on behavioral level accompanied by altered rTPJ-hippocampus coupling on a functional and a structural level...
September 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Runar Elle Smelror, Kjetil Nordbø Jørgensen, Vera Lonning, Ian Kelleher, Mary Cannon, Pamela DeRosse, Anil K Malhotra, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Ole A Andreassen, Mathias Lundberg, Tobias Edbom, Neil Cleland, Torill Ueland, Anne Margrethe Myhre, Bjørn Rishovd Rund, Ingrid Agartz
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop standardized scores and scoring tables for test performance in healthy adolescents for the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) for each year from 11 to 19 years of age, by sex, with T scores and percentile ranks. Methods: A total of 502 healthy participants (aged 11-19 years) from 7 cohorts from Ireland, Norway, Sweden, and United States, were included in this multisite study...
September 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Samar M Etman, Yosra S R Elnaggar, Doaa A Abdelmonsif, Ossama Y Abdallah
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that has no cure till now. Piperine (PIP) is an alkaloid characterized by memory-enhancing properties but challenging oral delivery obstacles. The objectives of this study are as follows: preparation of microemulsion (ME) as a proposed oral PIP nanocarrier for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and testing its safety on the brain and other internal organs. This study employs bioactive surfactants in the common safe doses to improve PIP targeting to the brain...
September 20, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Alexandra Huss, Gabriele Ihorst, Sylvia Timme-Bronsert, Annette Hasenburg, Martin K Oehler, Maximilian Klar
BACKGROUND: Despite the complexity of endometrial cancer (EC) tumor biology, treatment decisions are still mainly based on the post-surgical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage. Prediction models considering more prognostic factors may represent a better risk assessment than FIGO stage alone. We tested the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram for the prediction of overall survival (OS) in a German EC population. METHODS: Overall, 454 EC patients (322 type I and 132 type II) who received primary surgical treatment at our department between 1991 and 2011 were included in the analysis with a dataset of 68 covariates...
September 20, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Alice Trentalange, Adolfo Prochet, Daniele Imperiale, Jessica Cusato, Mariacristina Tettoni, Giuseppe Nunnari, Ambra Barco, Stefano Bonora, Giovanni Di Perri, Andrea Calcagno
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been associated with neurological complications including cognitive impairment. WMHs have been often described in HIV positive subjects and they have been linked to neurocognitive impairment, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) residual viral replication and biomarkers of monocyte activation. Aim of this study was to grade WMHs in HIV-positive individuals using a simple visual scale and to explore their severity with clinical, neurocognitive and biomarker characteristics. Brain MRIs were retrospectively evaluated by two reviewers who rated WMHs following the "age-related white matter changes (ARWMC)" scale...
September 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Thao B Nguyen, Erica Abed, Kathy Pezdek
If testing conditions are uncontaminated, confidence at test reliably predicts eyewitness memory accuracy. Unfortunately, information about eyewitness postdictive confidence (at the time of the identification test) is frequently unavailable or not well documented. In cases where postdictive confidence is unavailable, a useful indicator of eyewitness accuracy might be an eyewitness's predictive confidence made shortly after the event. How do the accuracy of predictive and postdictive confidence judgments compare; and do variables reported to affect memory (e...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Yuhuan Shi, Wanying Huang, Yu Wang, Rui Zhang, Lina Hou, Jianrong Xu, Zhuibai Qiu, Qiong Xie, Hongzhuan Chen, Yongfang Zhang, Hao Wang
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative brain disorder, which is the most common form of dementia. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe treatment against AD. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) have been widely used for the treatment of mild to moderate AD. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bis(9)-(-)-Meptazinol (B9M), a novel potential dual-binding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, on learning and memory abilities, as well as the underlying mechanism in the APP/PS1 mouse model of AD...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
R H J M Kurvers, J Drägestein, F Hölker, A Jechow, J Krause, D Bierbach
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a major form of anthropogenic pollution. ALAN is well known to affect different behaviours during nighttime, when changes in light conditions often have immediate consequences for the trade-offs individuals experience. How ALAN affects daytime behaviours, however, has received far less attention. Here we studied how ALAN affected daytime personality traits and learning ability. We exposed Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata, for 10 weeks to different ALAN levels: bright light (24 hrs bright light, ~5,000 lx), dim light (12 hrs bright light; 12 hrs dim light, ~0...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Birgit A Hörmer, Dilip Verma, Elisabeth Gasser, Anna Wieselthaler-Hölzl, Herbert Herzog, Ramon O Tasan
Posttraumatic stress disorder is characterized by contextually inappropriate, dys-regulated and generalized fear expression and often resistant to therapy. The hippocampus integrates contextual information into spatial and emotional memories, but how diverse modulatory neurotransmitters are shaping this process is not known. Neuropeptide Y is a peptide-neurotransmitter, which modulates hippocampal excitability by activating several G-protein-coupled receptors. Postsynaptic Y1 receptors create strong anxiolytic and fear-suppressing behavior, while pre-synaptic Y2 receptors (Y2R) are mainly anxiogenic...
September 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Linda Marjoleine Geven, Nathalie Klein Selle, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Merel Kindt, Bruno Verschuere
The validity of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) to detect recognition of critical details has been demonstrated in hundreds of laboratory studies. These studies, however, lack the factor of deliberate intent to deceive. This disparity between research and practice may affect the generalizability of laboratory based CIT findings. In the current study, 65 out of 174 participants cheated on their own initiative in a trivia quiz. These self-initiated cheaters were compared to 68 participants who were explicitly requested to cheat...
September 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
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