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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817826/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-s1-temozolomide-regimen-in-patients-with-metastatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#1
Jiuda Zhao, Hong Zhao, Yihebali Chi
<br><br>Purpose Both capecitabine alone and capecitabine in combination with temozolomide have activities against neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). However, the role of S-1 in NETs is still unknown. We performed a study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the S-1 plus temozolomide (STEM) regimen in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NETs. Methods A retrospective review was conducted in 20 patients with locally advanced or metastatic NETs treated with the STEM regimen. Of the patients, 15 (75...
August 17, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816986/efficacy-and-safety-of-endocrine-monotherapy-as-first-line-treatment-for-hormone-sensitive-advanced-breast-cancer-a-network-meta-analysis
#2
Jingwen Zhang, Yanhong Huang, Changyi Wang, Yuanfang He, Shukai Zheng, Kusheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Endocrine therapy was recommended as the preferred first-line treatment for hormone receptor-positive (HR+, i.e., ER+ and/or PgR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2-) postmenopausal advanced breast cancer (ABC), but which endocrine monotherapy is optimal lacks consensus. We aimed to identify the optimal endocrine monotherapy with a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a network meta-analysis for a comprehensive analysis of 6 first-line endocrine monotherapies (letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane, tamoxifen, fulvestrant 250 mg and 500 mg) for HR+ HER2- metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815561/early-segregation-of-the-adrenal-cortex-and-gonad-in-chicken-embryos
#3
Daisuke Saito, Koji Tamura, Yoshiko Takahashi
The adrenal gland is an endocrine organ that plays essential roles in stress responses. This organ consists of two types of tissues, adrenomedulla and adrenocortex, deriving from different embryonic origins. Whereas it is well accepted that the adrenomedulla derives from neural crest cells, the origin of the adrenocortex remains elusive. In addition, the adrenocortex and gonads, two major steroid hormone-producing tissues, have been thought to share the same origin, although the experimental evidence is lacking...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815517/autophagy-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#4
Zhipeng Tao, Longhua Liu, Louise D Zheng, Zhiyong Cheng
Adipose tissue regulates metabolic homeostasis by acting as an endocrine organ and energy reservoir. Adipose tissue development and functional maintenance are dependent on adipocyte differentiation, in which autophagy plays an important role. It has been shown that autophagy deficiency dampens adipocyte differentiation, compromises adipose tissue development, dysregulates adipocytokine secretion, and even causes sudden death in young animals. Therefore, accurate assessment of autophagy in adipocyte is critical for the study of adipose biology or pathology of metabolic diseases...
August 17, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815484/diagnostic-performance-of-a-newly-developed-salivary-cortisol-and-cortisone-measurement-using-an-lc-ms-ms-method-with-simple-and-rapid-sample-preparation
#5
K Mészáros, G Karvaly, Z Márta, B Magda, J Tőke, N Szücs, M Tóth, K Rácz, A Patócs
BACKGROUND: Late-night salivary cortisol level is one of the first-line tests recommended by the Endocrine Society for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism. Most routine laboratories measure cortisol levels using immunoassay tests which fail to determine low cortisol levels accurately due to the numerous interfering substances. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with simple and rapid sample preparation was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cortisol and cortisone and its performance in the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism was evaluated...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815409/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-pathway-targeting-in-cancer-role-of-the-igf-axis-and-opportunities-for-future-combination-studies
#6
Aaron Simpson, Wilfride Petnga, Valentine M Macaulay, Ulrike Weyer-Czernilofsky, Thomas Bogenrieder
Despite a strong preclinical rationale for targeting the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in cancer, clinical studies of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R)-targeted monotherapies have been largely disappointing, and any potential success has been limited by the lack of validated predictive biomarkers for patient enrichment. A large body of preclinical evidence suggests that the key role of the IGF axis in cancer is in driving treatment resistance, via general proliferative/survival mechanisms, interactions with other mitogenic signaling networks, and class-specific mechanisms such as DNA damage repair...
August 16, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814496/cardiometabolic-features-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-role-of-androgens
#7
REVIEW
Licy L Yanes Cardozo, Damian G Romero, Jane F Reckelhoff
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects reproductive-age women. Hyperandrogenemia is present in a significant fraction (~80%) of women with PCOS. Increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is frequently observed in PCOS women. The present review aims to highlight the key role of androgens in mediating the negative cardiometabolic profile observed in PCOS women.
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814452/medical-ovariectomy-in-menopausal-breast-cancer-patients-with-high-testosterone-levels
#8
Giorgio Secreto, Paola Muti, Milena Sant, Elisabetta Meneghini, Vittorio Krogh
Five years of adjuvant therapy with anti-estrogens reduce the incidence of disease progression by about 50% in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients, but late relapse can still occur after that anti-estrogens have been discontinued. In these patients, excessive androgen production may account for renewed excessive estrogen formation and increased risk of late relapse. In the 50% of patients who do not benefit with anti-estrogens, the effect of therapy is limited by de novo or acquired resistance to treatment...
August 16, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814390/the-physiological-and-metabolic-differences-between-visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissues-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#9
Ya-Wen Wang, Ji-Lei Zhang, Jian-Gang Jiao, Xiao-Xia Du, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Fang Qiao, Mei-Ling Zhang, Dong-Liang Li, Zhen-Yu Du
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) have different structures and metabolic functions, and play different roles in the regulation of mammal systemic endocrine. However, little is known about morphology and physiological and metabolic functions between VAT and SCAT in fish. METHODS: We compared the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of VAT and SCAT in Nile Tilapia and measured their functions in energy intake flux, lipolytic ability, and gene expression patterns...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814270/transcriptional-analysis-of-abdominal-fat-in-chickens-divergently-selected-on-bodyweight-at-two-ages-reveals-novel-mechanisms-controlling-adiposity-validating-visceral-adipose-tissue-as-a-dynamic-endocrine-and-metabolic-organ
#10
C W Resnyk, W Carré, X Wang, T E Porter, J Simon, E Le Bihan-Duval, M J Duclos, S E Aggrey, L A Cogburn
BACKGROUND: Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens...
August 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814178/hematologic-biochemical-and-endocrine-parameters-in-horses-with-tooth-resorption-and-hypercementosis
#11
Edward T Earley, Jennifer R Rawlinson, Robert M Baratt, Stephen S Galloway, Rebecca C Smedley, Janet M Scarlett, Kent R Refsal, Allison R Dotzel, Victor S Cox, Gillian A Perkins
BACKGROUND: Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a frequently diagnosed condition in adult horses. The underlying etiology is still unknown. Hematologic, biochemical, and endocrine values have not been reported in EOTRH-affected horses. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to describe the hematologic, biochemical, and endocrine parameters in horses with EOTRH. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study of client-owned animals with EOTRH...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#12
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813693/thyrotoxicity-of-arsenate-and-arsenite-on-juvenile-mice-at-organism-subcellular-and-gene-levels-under-low-exposure
#13
Hong-Jie Sun, Shi-Wei Li, Chao Li, Wen-Qian Wang, Hong-Bo Li, Lena Q Ma
Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a worldwide issue, posing threat to human health. Arsenic is an endocrine system disruptor, however, limited information is available regarding its long-term effects on thyroid endocrine system at low exposure. In this study, we assessed the thyroid toxicity of arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII) at 10-100 μg L(-1) in juvenile mice after 8-week of exposure via drinking water. After 1-2 week, AsV and AsIII had little influence on thyroxine (T4) level (56.3-64.7 μg L(-1)) in mouse blood compared to control mice at 57...
August 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813439/comparative-ecophysiology-of-a-critically-endangered-cr-ectotherm-implications-for-conservation-management
#14
Andrea F T Currylow, Angelo Mandimbihasina, Paul Gibbons, Ernest Bekarany, Craig B Stanford, Edward E Louis, Daniel E Crocker
Captive breeding is a vital conservation tool for many endangered species programs. It is often a last resort when wild animal population numbers drop to below critical minimums for natural reproduction. However, critical ecophysiological information of wild counterparts may not be well documented or understood, leading to years of minimal breeding successes. We collected endocrine and associated ecological data on a critically endangered ectotherm concurrently in the wild and in captivity over several years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813430/reprogramming-human-gallbladder-cells-into-insulin-producing-%C3%AE-like-cells
#15
Feorillo Galivo, Eric Benedetti, Yuhan Wang, Carl Pelz, Jonathan Schug, Klaus H Kaestner, Markus Grompe
The gallbladder and cystic duct (GBCs) are parts of the extrahepatic biliary tree and share a common developmental origin with the ventral pancreas. Here, we report on the very first genetic reprogramming of patient-derived human GBCs to β-like cells for potential autologous cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes. We developed a robust method for large-scale expansion of human GBCs ex vivo. GBCs were reprogrammed into insulin-producing pancreatic β-like cells by a combined adenoviral-mediated expression of hallmark pancreatic endocrine transcription factors PDX1, MAFA, NEUROG3, and PAX6 and differentiation culture in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813312/neuroendocrine-and-neuroimmune-markers-in-ptsd-pre-peri-and-post-trauma-glucocorticoid-and-inflammatory-dysregulation
#16
REVIEW
Miranda Olff, Mirjam van Zuiden
We review current knowledge on how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with dysregulation of the most commonly studied markers of the endocrine and immune systems pre-, peri- and post-trauma. Lower basal cortisol output, enhanced glucocorticoid receptor function, and a proinflammatory state have been most consistently found in PTSD, with considerable variability among studies and participants. Longitudinal research is scarce, but there is converging evidence that biological dysregulation is present before PTSD onset...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813249/neuroendocrine-mechanisms-for-parental-sensitivity-overview-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
James E Swain, Shao-Hsuan Shaun Ho
Early parent-infant relationships play important roles in infants' development. New parents adapt to the developing relationship with their infants to coordinate parenting behaviors in the milieu of infant needs, hormones, moods, and stress. This review highlights research from the past two years, using non-invasive brain-imaging techniques and naturalistic tasks in mothers and fathers in relation to psychological, and endocrine measures. Recent work also connects parental brain physiology with parental sensitive behavior, parent/child outcomes and parent psychotherapy...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813095/evaluation-of-cell-proliferation-and-endometrial-thickness-of-bitches-in-different-periods-of-diestrus
#18
Vanessa S A Gossler, Francislaine A G Santos, Aline R DE Azevedo, Priscila C Gonçalves, Hugo A Rigolo, Cleonice Trevisan, Ana Paula B Masseno, Ana Paula M M Cardoso, Paula C Papa, Caliê Castilho, Ines C Giometti
This study aimed to determine the histological features of the endometrium of bitches, as well as the cell proliferation at specific moments of diestrus, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days post ovulation, correlating the endometrial thickness with the uterine cell proliferation and the metabolic state (weight, blood glucose and plasma cholesterol) of the animals. Therefore, the right and left uterine horns of 26 clinically healthy bitches submitted to ovariohysterectomy were histologically analyzed 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days post ovulation...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812527/cytokine-concentrations-measured-by-multiplex-assays-in-canine-peripheral-blood-samples
#19
Kristen R Richter, Amirah N Nasr, Angela M Mexas
Cytokines are known to play important roles in a wide range of pathologic conditions spanning all organ systems in every species studied. As our knowledge of the physiology of individual cytokines expands and our ability to measure multiple cytokines in smaller biological samples increases, we gain more insight into the significance and function of each cytokine and the importance of cytokine networks. Previous studies that reported measurements of cytokine concentrations from serum or plasma in dogs with infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, endocrine, and neoplastic diseases yield an appreciation for the complexity of cytokine control and potential applications for cytokine measurements in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of a variety of disease conditions...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812269/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-early-life-of-mammals-link-to-neurodevelopmental-disorders-associated-with-asd
#20
Françoise Muscatelli, Michel G Desarménien, Valery Matarazzo, Valery Grinevich
Oxytocin plays a role in various functions including endocrine and immune functions but also parent-infant bonding and social interactions. It might be considered as a main neuropeptide involved in mediating the regulation of adaptive interactions between an individual and his/her environment. Recently, a critical role of oxytocin in early life has been revealed in sensory processing and multi-modal integration that are essential for normal postnatal neurodevelopment. An early alteration in the oxytocin-system may disturb its maturation and may have short-term and long-term pathological consequences such as autism spectrum disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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