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Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Zamaneh Kassiri, Dickson Leung
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a 72-kDa zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidase with intracellular and extracellular functions ranging from the modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling to cell growth and migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. An upregulation of MMP-2 activity has the potential to deregulate lipid metabolism through the cleavage of numerous metabolic mediators including plasma lipoproteins and cell surface receptors of lipoproteins. Paradoxically, MMP-2 deficiency induces inflammation and deregulates metabolism...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Antonia Lanni, Maria Moreno, Fernando Goglia
The hypermetabolic effects of thyroid hormones (THs), the major endocrine regulators of metabolic rate, are widely recognized. Although, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have been extensively investigated, much has yet to be learned about how TH regulates diverse cellular functions. THs have a profound impact on mitochondria, the organelles responsible for the majority of cellular energy production, and several studies have been devoted to understand the respective importance of the nuclear and mitochondrial pathways for organelle activity...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Paola Sebastiani, Bharat Thyagarajan, Fangui Sun, Lawrence S Honig, Nicole Schupf, Stephanie Cosentino, Mary F Feitosa, Mary Wojczynski, Anne B Newman, Monty Montano, Thomas T Perls
OBJECTIVES: To determine reference values for laboratory tests in individuals aged 85 and older. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: International. PARTICIPANTS: Long Life Family Study (LLFS) participants (N~5,000, age: range 25-110, median 67, 45% male). MEASUREMENTS: Serum biomarkers were selected based on association with aging-related diseases and included complete blood count, lipids (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, vitamin D epi-isomer, diabetes mellitus-related biomarkers (adiponectin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproduct), kidney disease-related biomarkers (albumin, creatinine, cystatin), endocrine biomarkers (dehydroepiandrosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone), markers of inflammation (interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide), ferritin, and transferrin...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Salem A Beshyah, Ibrahim H Sherif, Farida Chentli, Amir Hamrahian, Aly B Khalil, Hussein Raef, Mohamed El-Fikki, Selim Jambart
BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the commonest functional tumors of the pituitary gland. There are still controversies regarding medical therapy in specific clinical situations. Patients may be managed by different specialists in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and no data exist on patterns of clinical management. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to prolactinomas among relevant professionals from the MENA region. METHODS: An online survey of a large sample of physicians was conducted...
October 25, 2016: Pituitary
Donatella Paola Provvisiero, Claudia Pivonello, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Mariarosaria Negri, Cristina de Angelis, Chiara Simeoli, Rosario Pivonello, Annamaria Colao
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
Francielle Graus-Nunes, Thatiany de Souza Marinho, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
Obesity leads to adverse endocrine pancreas remodelling, reduced islet lifespan and early type 2 diabetes onset. AT1R blockade shows beneficial pleiotropic effects. This study sought to compare the effects of losartan and telmisartan on pancreatic islets remodelling and glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice. High-fat diet yielded overweight, insulin resistance, islet apoptosis and hypertrophy. Suitable insulin levels and preserved endocrine pancreas structure were correlated to adequate AKT-FOXO1 pathway functioning in losartan-treated animals...
October 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
P G Calò, G Conzo, M Raffaelli, F Medas, C Gambardella, C De Crea, L Gordini, R Patrone, L Sessa, E Erdas, E Tartaglia, C P Lombardi
BACKGROUND: Central neck dissection (CND) remains controversial in clinically node-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to determine the rate of central neck metastases, the morbidity and the rate of recurrence in patients treated with total thyroidectomy (TT) alone or in combination with bilateral or ipsilateral CND. METHODS: The clinical records of 163 clinically node-negative consecutive DTC patients treated between January 2008 and December 2010 in three endocrine surgery referral units were retrospectively evaluated...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Katarzyna Chojnowska, Joanna Czerwinska, Tadeusz Kaminski, Barbara Kaminska, Aleksandra Kurzynska, Iwona Bogacka
The European beaver (Castor fiber) is the largest seasonal free-living rodent in Eurasia. Since the physiology and endocrine system of this species remains unknown, the present study aimed to determine plasma leptin concentrations and the expression of the leptin gene and protein in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPG and HPA) axes of beavers during breeding (April), postbreeding (July), and prebreeding (November) seasons. Leptin plasma concentrations did not change in females, whereas in males, leptin plasma concentrations were higher in July than those in April...
September 9, 2016: Theriogenology
R Dorajoo, R T-H Ong, X Sim, L Wang, W Liu, E S Tai, J Liu, S-M Saw
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 103 adult obesity risk loci; however, it is unclear if these findings are relevant to East-Asian childhood body mass index (BMI) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated for paediatric obesity associations at these risk loci utilizing genome-wide data from Chinese childhood subjects in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study (N = 1006). A weighted gene-risk score of all adult obesity risk loci in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study showed strong associations with BMI at age 9 (p-value = 3...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Xuesong Zhao, Xin Ren, Baixiang Ren, Zhouying Luo, Rong Zhu
2,2,4',4'-Tetrabromodi-phenyl ether (BDE-47) is predominantly concentrated in humans and wildlife and disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the thyroid endocrine disruption induced by life-cycle exposure to BDE-47 in adults and offspring of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish embryos at the blastula stage to different concentrations of BDE-47 (1, 5, and 10μg/L). Exposure duration was 180days until fish reached adulthood. In F0 larvae, exposure decreased survival and increased malformations at 4 dpf...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
J S Milligan-Saville, B M Graham
Fear extinction is the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. Recent findings have revealed that estradiol is necessary to the consolidation of extinction memories in females. These findings are based on studies conducted using virgin rats and young women whose reproductive history is unknown. We hypothesized that motherhood, which results in extensive endocrinological, neurobiological and behavioral changes, may lead to alterations in fear extinction in females. We used a cross-species translational approach to investigate the impact of reproductive experience on fear extinction and fear relapse in female rats (n=116) and women (n=64)...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
P S Phadke, A R Gandhi, S A More, R P Joshirao
A-21-year old male admitted with fever and piriformis syndrome, typically associated with gluteal region pain radiating down the thigh, was evaluated and found to have pyomyositis involving piriformis and osteomyelitis with sacroiliac joint affection on radiological imaging. Salmonella serotype typhi was isolated from blood culture. He was treated with intravenous Ceftriaxone for 6 weeks with signs of recovery documented clinically as well as on imaging studies. Salmonella pyomyositis with osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient with no previous hematological or endocrine disorder makes this case an unusual presentation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
A Sen, C Das, M Mukhopadhyay, S Mukhopadhyay, S Deb, B Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Tumors of the pituitary gland and sellar region represent approximately 10-15% of all brain tumors. Pituitary adenoma (PA), the most common pathology of the pituitary gland, can be effectively subclassified only with the help of immunohistochemistry (IHC). This is important and needed for individual patient management. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyze the importance of intraoperative imprint smear cytology and correlating with final histopathological diagnosis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Angelos Kyriacou, Kanna Gnanalingham, Tara Kearney
PURPOSE: We set out to describe the modern day management of Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH) with respect to its diagnosis, treatment and long-term endocrine and visual outcomes. We deliberately included patients with a clinical diagnosis of LH and compared them with those with a histological diagnosis following surgery. METHODS: A multi-centre observational study was performed. Twenty-two patients were included and studied over a mean follow-up period of 8.6 years (range 4-26 years)...
October 24, 2016: Pituitary
O Nemes, N Kovacs, Sz Szujo, B Bodis, L Bajnok, A Buki, T Doczi, E Czeiter, E Mezosi
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic hypopituitarism is a major complication after severe head trauma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible role of early clinical parameters in the development of endocrine deficits. METHODS: Data on endocrine function, on-admission clinical-, laboratory-, and ICU-monitored parameters were available in 63 patients of the surviving 86 severe head injury patients (post-resuscitation GCS under 8) treated at one neurosurgical center during a 10-year period...
October 25, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Alain Chichom-Mefire, Victor Mbome Njie, Vincent Verla, Julius Atashili
BACKGROUND: Surgery-related conditions account for the majority of admissions in primary referral hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. The role of surgery in the reduction of global disease burden is well recognized, but there is a great qualitative and quantitative disparity in the delivery of surgical and anaesthetic services between countries. This study aims at estimating the nature and volume of surgery delivered in an entire administrative division of Cameroon. METHODS: In this retrospective survey conducted during the year 2013, we used a standard tool to analyse the infrastructure and human resources involved in the delivery of surgical and anaesthetic services in the Fako division in the south-west region of Cameroon...
October 24, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Moon Bae Ahn, Sung Eun Kim, Won Kyoung Cho, Min Ho Jung, Byung Kyu Suh
Cystinosis is a rare disease characterized by abnormal lysosomal cystine accumulation of cystine due to impaired lysosomal transport. We previously reported the first case of cystinosis in Korea in a 12-year-old boy with short stature, general weakness, and photophobia. The diagnosis was confirmed based on ophthalmic findings and biochemical analyses (serum leukocyte cystine measurement). Major endocrine manifestations at diagnosis included hypothyroidism, growth retardation, and hypogonadism. Despite oral cysteamine administration and renal replacement therapy, multiple complications including both endocrine and nonendocrine disorders developed during and after adolescence...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Chong Kun Cheon
The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a human imprinting disorder resulting from genomic alterations that inactivate imprinted, paternally expressed genes in human chromosome region 15q11-q13. This genetic condition appears to be a contiguous gene syndrome caused by the loss of at least 2 of a number of genes expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, including SNRPN, MKRN3, MAGEL2, NDN and several snoRNAs, but it is not yet well known which specific genes in this region are associated with this syndrome...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
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