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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326117/impaired-social-and-role-function-in-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-schizophrenia-its-relations-with-negative-symptoms
#1
So Jung Lee, Kyung Ran Kim, Su Young Lee, Suk Kyoon An
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial dysfunction was a nettlesome of schizophrenia even in their prodromal phase as well as first episode and its relations with psychopathology were not determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the social and role function impairment was found in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals as well as first-episode schizophrenia patients and to explore its relations with psychopathology. METHODS: Thirty-seven normal controls, 63 UHR participants and 28 young, first-episode schizophrenia patients were recruited...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325573/brain-network-characteristics-separating-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-into-normality-or-psychosis
#2
Soo-Hee Choi, Sunghyon Kyeong, Kang Ik K Cho, Je-Yeon Yun, Tae Young Lee, Hye Yoon Park, Sung Nyun Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
We aimed to separate individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) state into subgroups according to neurobiological characteristics using structural and functional network constructs and examine their clinical characteristics. Structural diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed in 61 healthy controls (HC), 57 individuals at CHR and 29 patients with schizophrenia (SZ). The main outcome was a likelihood ratio calculated from measures of structural and functional network efficiencies, coupling strength of structural and functional networks, and a disease-specific data analysis, resulting in the most probable classification of CHR into HC or SZ...
March 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325158/-clinical-application-of-rom-in-psychosis
#3
M Tasma, M Swart, G Wolters, E J Liemburg, R Bruggemans, H Knegtering, S Castelein
AIM: The use of 'routine outcome monitoring' (ROM) in mental health care has increased widely during the past decade. However, little is known about the use of ROM outcome in daily clinical practice. We investigated to what extent ROM results were reflected in psychotic patients' treatment plans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: The ROM-Phamous, a ROM-protocol for patients with psychotic disorders in which data is collected on the basis of interviews, questionnaires and physical examination was implemented in the northern Netherlands...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323286/erythrocyte-glutathione-levels-as-long-term-predictor-of-transition-to-psychosis
#4
S Lavoie, M Berger, M Schlögelhofer, M R Schäfer, S Rice, S-W Kim, J Hesse, P D McGorry, S Smesny, G P Amminger
A high proportion of individuals deemed at elevated risk for psychosis will actually never progress to develop the illness. Pharmaceutical intervention may not be necessary in these cases, and may in fact be damaging depending on the invasiveness of the treatment strategy. This highlights the need for biomarkers that are better able to reliably differentiate between at-risk individuals who will subsequently transition to psychosis and those who will not. Low glutathione (GSH) levels have been observed in schizophrenia and in patients with first-episode psychosis...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321200/the-importance-of-metamemory-functioning-to-the-pathogenesis-of-psychosis
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Eisenacher, Mathias Zink
Many studies up to date have implied that biases in the metacognition of memory, so called metamemory, contribute to the development and maintenance of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. However, no study exists which has longitudinally followed patients experiencing positive symptoms. The present article therefore reviews cross-sectional studies on retrospective metamemory abilities in participants within different stages of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, with heterogeneous symptom severities, creating a pseudo-longitudinal overview...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321193/early-psychosis-and-trauma-related-disorders-clinical-practice-guidelines-and-future-directions
#6
Casey A Cragin, Martha B Straus, Dawn Blacker, Laura M Tully, Tara A Niendam
Despite high rates of trauma-related disorders among individuals with early psychosis, no clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of comorbid early psychosis and trauma-related disorders exist to date. Indeed, the routine exclusion of individuals with past and current psychosis from participation in trauma research and practice has limited the accumulation of research that could support such clinical practice guidelines. While preliminary research evidence suggests that traditional, evidence-based treatments for trauma-related disorders can be safely and effectively employed to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress and chronic psychosis, it remains unclear whether such treatments are appropriate for individuals in the early stages of psychotic illness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320226/functional-neuroimaging-predictors-of-self-reported-psychotic-symptoms-in-adolescents
#7
Josiane Bourque, Philip A Spechler, Stéphane Potvin, Robert Whelan, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Sarah C McEwen, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Nora C Vetter, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Hugh Garavan, Patricia J Conrod
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the neural correlates of psychotic-like experiences in youths during tasks involving inhibitory control, reward anticipation, and emotion processing. A secondary aim was to test whether these neurofunctional correlates of risk were predictive of psychotic symptoms 2 years later. METHOD: Functional imaging responses to three paradigms-the stop-signal, monetary incentive delay, and faces tasks-were collected in youths at age 14, as part of the IMAGEN study...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318842/ethnic-density-urbanicity-and-psychosis-risk-for-migrant-groups-a-population-cohort-study
#8
Peter Schofield, Malene Thygesen, Jay Das-Munshi, Laia Becares, Elizabeth Cantor-Graae, Carsten Pedersen, Esben Agerbo
BACKGROUND: Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. METHOD: Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years)...
March 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318838/do-paranoid-delusions-exist-on-a-continuum-with-subclinical-paranoia-a-multi-method-taxometric-study
#9
A Elahi, G Perez Algorta, F Varese, J C McIntyre, R P Bentall
BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in whether psychosis exists on a continuum with healthy functioning. Previous research has implied that paranoia, a common symptom of psychosis, exists on a continuum but this has not been investigated using samples including both patients and non-patients and up-to-date taxometric methods. AIM: To assess the latent structure of paranoia in a diverse sample using taxometric methods. METHOD: We obtained data from 2836 participants, including the general population as well as at-risk mental state and psychotic patients using the P-scale of the Paranoia and Deservedness Scale...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315846/risk-factors-for-early-psychosis-in-pd-insights-from-the-parkinson-s-progression-markers-initiative
#10
Dominic H Ffytche, Joana B Pereira, Clive Ballard, K Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) psychosis refers to the spectrum of illusions, formed hallucinations and delusions that occur in PD. Visual hallucinations and illusions are thought to be caused by specific cognitive and higher visual function deficits and patients who develop such symptoms early in the disease course have greater rates of cognitive decline and progression to dementia. To date, no studies have investigated whether such deficits are found prior to the onset of PD psychosis...
April 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314681/duration-and-frequency-mismatch-negativity-shows-no-progressive-reduction-in-early-stages-of-psychosis
#11
Daisuke Koshiyama, Kenji Kirihara, Mariko Tada, Tatsuya Nagai, Shinsuke Koike, Motomu Suga, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kiyoto Kasai
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of event-related potentials, which is being increasingly recognized as a candidate biomarker for early stages of psychosis. Although previous cross-sectional studies have demonstrated small MMN amplitude in early stages of psychosis, it remains unknown whether small MMN amplitude is due to progressive reduction during the early course. In this study, we investigated longitudinal changes of MMN in early stages of psychosis. Participant included 14 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 16 individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR), and 16 healthy control subjects (HC)...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314460/schizophrenia-and-psychosis-diagnosis-current-research-trends-and-model-treatment-approaches-with-implications-for-transitional-age-youth
#12
REVIEW
Vivien Chan
This article reviews the current state of diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia, describing the recent proliferation of research in high-risk psychosis spectrum conditions, which are different from childhood-onset and early onset schizophrenia, and findings of psychotic-like experiences in the normal population. Taken from adult and childhood literature, clinical quandaries in accurate diagnosis, and treatment gaps in co-occurring, or sometimes confounding, conditions are discussed. Thoughts on the impact of schizophrenia on an emerging adulthood trajectory are offered...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304340/neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-psychosis-and-psychosis-risk
#13
REVIEW
Henry Barron, Sina Hafizi, Ana C Andreazza, Romina Mizrahi
Although our understanding of psychotic disorders has advanced substantially in the past few decades, very little has changed in the standard of care for these illnesses since the development of atypical anti-psychotics in the 1990s. Here, we integrate new insights into the pathophysiology with the increasing interest in early detection and prevention. First, we explore the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in a subpopulation of cortical parvalbumin-containing interneurons (PVIs). Postmortem and preclinical data has implicated these neurons in the positive and negative symptoms, as well as the cognitive dysfunction present in schizophrenia...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301828/steeper-discounting-of-delayed-rewards-in-schizophrenia-but-not-first-degree-relatives
#14
Linda Q Yu, Sangil Lee, Natalie Katchmar, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Joseph W Kable, Daniel H Wolf
Excessive discounting of future rewards has been related to a variety of risky behaviors and adverse clinical conditions. Prior work examining delay discounting in schizophrenia suggests an elevated discount rate. However, it remains uncertain whether this reflects the disease process itself or an underlying genetic vulnerability, whether it is selective for delay discounting or reflects pervasive changes in decision-making, and whether it is driven by specific clinical dimensions such as cognitive impairment...
March 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294477/identifying-neurocognitive-markers-for-outcome-prediction-of-global-functioning-in-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-psychosis
#15
Kingo Sawada, Akiko Kanehara, Satoshi Eguchi, Mariko Tada, Yoshihiro Satomura, Motomu Suga, Shinsuke Koike, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: There is an increasing need for identifying neurocognitive predictors of global functional outcome in early psychosis toward optimizing early intervention strategy. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal observational study to investigate an association between neurocognitive assessments at baseline and global functional outcome at an average of one-year follow-up. Participants included ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals who had not converted to psychosis during the follow-up period (UHR-NP), and those with first-episode psychosis (FEP) individuals...
March 14, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288547/neuropsychological-correlates-of-schizotypy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cross-sectional-studies
#16
Sara Siddi, Donatella Rita Petretto, Antonio Preti
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive deficits can precede the onset of psychotic episodes and predict the onset of the illness in individuals with schizotypy traits. In some studies, high levels of schizotypy were associated with impairments in memory, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. This review provides a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive impairments related to schizoytpy. METHODS:  A systematic review of "schizotypy and neuropsychological measures" was conducted, and it retrieved 67 studies...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288440/schizophrenia-spectrum-personality-disorders-in-psychometrically-identified-schizotypes-at-two-year-follow-up
#17
P Kevin Bolinskey, Elizabeth A Smith, Kelly M Schuder, Dianna Cooper-Bolinskey, Kevin R Myers, Daniel V Hudak, Alison V James, Helen K Hunter, Jonathan H Novi, Janice P Guidi, Yelena Gonzalez, Erin F McTiernan, Kaitlin M Arnold, Carina A Iati, Irving I Gottesman
Earlier (Bolinskey et al., 2015), we reported that psychometrically identified schizotypes displayed greater symptom levels and higher incidences of schizophrenia spectrum (schizotypal, schizoid, paranoid, and avoidant) personality disorders (PDs). In this study, 49 schizotypes and 39 matched controls participated in follow-up assessments after two years. Participants were previously identified as schizotypes or controls based on scores on the Chapman Psychosis Proneness Scales (CPPS), and were interviewed at baseline and follow-up with the Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV (PDI-IV)...
March 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277564/analysis-of-shared-haplotypes-amongst-palauans-maps-loci-for-psychotic-disorders-to-4q28-and-5q23-q31
#18
Corneliu A Bodea, Frank A Middleton, Nadine M Melhem, Lambertus Klei, Youeun Song, Josepha Tiobech, Pearl Marumoto, Victor Yano, Stephen V Faraone, Kathryn Roeder, Marina Myles-Worsley, Bernie Devlin, William Byerley
To localize genetic variation affecting risk for psychotic disorders in the population of Palau, we genotyped DNA samples from 203 Palauan individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders, broadly defined, and 125 control subjects using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism array. Palau has unique features advantageous for this study: due to its population history, Palauans are substantially interrelated; affected individuals often, but not always, cluster in families; and we have essentially complete ascertainment of affected individuals...
February 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277310/antipsychotic-medication-and-remission-of-psychotic-symptoms-10years-after-a-first-episode-psychosis
#19
Regitze Sølling Wils, Ditte Resendal Gotfredsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Stephen F Austin, Nikolai Albert, Rikke Gry Secher, Anne Amalie Elgaard Thorup, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft
BACKGROUND: Several national guidelines recommend continuous use of antipsychotic medication after a psychotic episode in order to minimize the risk of relapse. However some studies have identified a subgroup of patients who obtain remission of psychotic symptoms while not being on antipsychotic medication for a period of time. This study investigated the long-term outcome and characteristics of patients in remission of psychotic symptoms with no use of antipsychotic medication at the 10-year follow-up...
October 27, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276873/the-hidden-niemann-pick-type-c-patient-clinical-niches-for-a-rare-inherited-metabolic-disease
#20
Christian J Hendriksz, Mathieu Anheim, Peter Bauer, Olivier Bonnot, Anupam Chakrapani, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Tom J de Koning, Anna Degtyareva, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Sarah Doss, Thomas Duning, Paola Giunti, Rosa Iodice, Tracy Johnston, Dierdre Kelly, Hans-Hermann Klünemann, Stefan Lorenzl, Alessandro Padovani, Miguel Pocovi, Matthis Synofzik, Alta Terblanche, Florian Then Bergh, Meral Topçu, Christine Tranchant, Mark Walterfang, Christian Velten, Stefan A Kolb
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disease of impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. Clinical symptoms are highly heterogeneous, including neurological, visceral, or psychiatric manifestations. The incidence of NP-C is under-estimated due to under-recognition or misdiagnosis across a wide range of medical fields. New screening and diagnostic methods provide an opportunity to improve detection of unrecognized cases in clinical sub-populations associated with a higher risk of NP-C...
March 2, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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