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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775885/clinical-correlates-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-measures-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis-and-with-first-episode-psychosis
#1
Javier Labad, Antonio Armario, Roser Nadal, Montse Solé, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Itziar Montalvo, Lorena Moreno-Samaniego, Lourdes Martorell, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations in at-risk mental states (ARMS) resemble those observed in established psychosis but are less consistent. We aimed to explore HPA axis abnormalities in both first-episode psychosis (FEP) and ARMS patients, while controlling for psychopathological symptoms. We studied 21 ARMS, 34 FEP patients and 34 healthy subjects. Clinical assessment included psychopathological symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressive symptoms) and stress measures...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774207/overview-of-social-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-rare-developmental-syndromes-with-psychiatric-phenotype
#2
REVIEW
Aurore Morel, Elodie Peyroux, Arnaud Leleu, Emilie Favre, Nicolas Franck, Caroline Demily
Rare neurodevelopmental syndromes often present social cognitive deficits that may underlie difficulties in social interactions and increase the risk of psychosis or autism spectrum disorders. However, little is known regarding the specificities of social cognitive impairment across syndromes while it remains a major challenge for the care. Our review provides an overview of social cognitive dysfunctions in rare diseases associated with psychiatric symptoms (with a prevalence estimated between 1 in 1,200 and 1 in 25,000 live births: 22q11...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772485/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#3
Wei Zheng, Qing-E Zhang, Dong-Bin Cai, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Findings of neurocognitive dysfunction in subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) have been controversial. This meta-analysis systematically examined studies of neurocognitive functions using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in CHR-P. An independent literature search of both English and Chinese databases was conducted by two reviewers. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated using a random effects model to evaluate the effect size of the meta-analytic results. Six case-control studies (n = 396) comparing neurocognitive functions between CHR-P subjects (n = 197) and healthy controls (n = 199) using the MCCB were identified; 4 (66...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770569/frontal-cortical-thickness-correlates-positively-with-impulsivity-in-early-psychosis-male-patients
#4
Philipp S Baumann, Paul Klauser, Alessandra Griffa, Philippe Golay, Julie Palix, Luis Alameda, Valérie Moulin, Patric Hagmann, Kim Q Do, Philippe Conus
AIM: Impulsive behaviours, which are frequent in young people suffering from psychosis have been linked to risky and violent behaviours and participate to the burden of psychotic illness. Given that morphological brain correlates of impulsivity in schizophrenia have been poorly investigated especially in young adults, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and cortical thickness in early psychosis (EP) patients. METHOD: A total of 17 male subjects in the early phase of psychosis were recruited...
May 17, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768112/-marvin-the-paranoid-android-the-case-of-an-alpha-pvp-user-in-the-expanding-galaxy-of-nps
#5
Simonato Pierluigi, Bulsis Laura, Negri Attilio, Bansal Gurjeet K, Pessa Gloria, Mioni Davide, Giuseppe Borgherini, Martinotti Giovanni, Schifano Fabrizio, Giulia Perini, Corazza Ornella
Alpha-PVP can be defined as a novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-more specifically, a novel synthetic cathinone with unpredictable stimulant effects in humans. "Marvin" arrived at a Dual Diagnosis Unit at Parco dei Tigli, Italy. He underwent a 30-day rehabilitation program to overcome his problematic Alpha-PVP use as a psychonaut. We conducted an online search to understand the properties of Alpha-PVP and its presence in scientific literature, reviewing official reports and the online drug market (e...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767567/impact-of-ntrk2-drd2-and-ace-polymorphisms-on-prolactin-levels-in-antipsychotic-treated-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#6
Patricia Gassó, Sergi Mas, Miquel Bioque, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Salvador Sarró, Anna Mané, Julio Sanjuan, Adrián Llerena, Amalia Lafuente, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Miguel Bernardo
BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotics (APs), which may trigger serious secondary problems and compromise the adherence to treatment which is crucial for prognosis, especially in patients presenting with a first-episode of psychosis (FEP). AIMS: We evaluated, in some cases for the first time, the effect of polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes on serum prolactin (PRL) levels in an AP-treated FEP cohort recruited in the multicenter PEPs study (Phenotype - genotype and environmental interaction; Application of a predictive model in first psychotic episodes)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766653/organic-psychosis-the-pathobiology-and-treatment-of-delusions
#7
REVIEW
Eileen Maria Joyce
Organic or secondary psychosis can be seen in diverse conditions such as toxic/metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and stroke. Poststroke psychosis is a rare phenomenon, but its study has significantly contributed to the understanding of delusion formation. The evidence from case studies of patients with focal strokes shows that delusions develop following unilateral damage of the right hemisphere. The majority of patients with right hemisphere stroke do not develop delusions however, and advanced neuroimaging analysis has elucidated why this symptom develops in only a small proportion...
May 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766209/is-cannabis-a-risk-factor-for-suicide-attempts-in-men-and-women-with-psychotic-illness
#8
A Waterreus, P Di Prinzio, J C Badcock, M Martin-Iverson, A Jablensky, V A Morgan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether recent cannabis use by men and women with psychotic disorders was associated with increased risk of suicide attempt, and to determine associated factors, stratified by sex. METHODS: Data from 1065 men and 725 women interviewed in the Australian national survey of psychosis were analysed to model separately, for each sex, the impact of daily, casual or no past-year cannabis use and other risk factors including age, on a past-year suicide attempt...
May 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765027/polygenic-pleiotropy-and-potential-causal-relationships-between-educational-attainment-neurobiological-profile-and-positive-psychotic-symptoms
#9
Yen-Feng Lin, Chia-Yen Chen, Dost Öngür, Rebecca Betensky, Jordan W Smoller, Deborah Blacker, Mei-Hua Hall
Event-related potential (ERP) components have been used to assess cognitive functions in patients with psychotic illness. Evidence suggests that among patients with psychosis there is a distinct heritable neurophysiologic phenotypic subtype captured by impairments across a range of ERP measures. In this study, we investigated the genetic basis of this "globally impaired" ERP cluster and its relationship to psychosis and cognitive abilities. We applied K-means clustering to six ERP measures to re-derive the globally impaired (n = 60) and the non-globally impaired ERP clusters (n = 323) in a sample of cases with schizophrenia (SCZ = 136) or bipolar disorder (BPD = 121) and healthy controls (n = 126)...
May 16, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761632/coping-strategies-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Louise Mian, Guido Maria Lattanzi, Stefania Tognin
AIM: The impact of dysfunctional coping strategies during the prodromal phase of psychosis has recently been explored by several studies. What has yet to be clarified is whether maladaptive coping is evident in the prodromal phase and the impact that this might have on symptomatic and functional outcomes. The aim of this study was to review the findings on coping in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis (UHR) in relation to symptoms and level of functioning. METHODS: Original articles were identified by searching 7 databases using the terms "prodrom*," "ultra high risk," "clinical high risk," "at-risk mental state," "coping style*," "coping strategies," "cope," "coping" and "psychosis"...
November 2, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759055/results-of-a-coordinated-specialty-care-program-for-early-psychosis-and-predictors-of-outcomes
#11
Ilana Nossel, Melanie M Wall, Jennifer Scodes, Leslie A Marino, Sacha Zilkha, Iruma Bello, Igor Malinovsky, Rufina Lee, Marleen Radigan, Thomas E Smith, Lloyd Sederer, Gyojeong Gu, Lisa Dixon
OBJECTIVE: This study prospectively evaluated outcomes of OnTrackNY, a statewide coordinated specialty care (CSC) program for treatment of early psychosis in community settings, as well as predictors of outcomes. METHODS: The sample included 325 individuals ages 16-30 with recent-onset nonaffective psychosis who were enrolled in OnTrackNY and who had at least one three-month follow-up. Clinicians provided data at baseline and quarterly up to one year. Domains assessed included demographic and clinical characteristics, social and occupational functioning, medications, suicidality and violence, hospitalization, and time to intervention...
May 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759034/motives-offending-behavior-and-gender-differences-in-murder-perpetrators-with-or-without-psychosis
#12
Henning Hachtel, Margaret Nixon, Debra Bennett, Paul Mullen, James Ogloff
Little is known whether differences exist in motivation and reactive/instrumental offense behaviors between murder offenders with and without psychotic disorder. To contribute to better prevention strategies, the aim of this study was to investigate offense characteristics in murder offenders with a psychotic, nonpsychotic or no psychiatric diagnosis, and whether these factors differ according to sex. This data study examined the population of murder offenders between 1997 and 2005 ( N = 435) in Victoria, Australia...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756003/onset-and-remission-of-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease-pharmacologic-and-motoric-markers
#13
Jared Thomas Hinkle, Kate Perepezko, Catherine C Bakker, Martinus P G Broen, Kathleen Chin, Ted M Dawson, Vanessa Johnson, Zoltan Mari, Cherie L Marvel, Kelly A Mills, Alexander Pantelyat, Olga Pletnikova, Liana S Rosenthal, Melissa D Shepard, Daniel A Stevens, Juan C Troncoso, Jiangxia Wang, Gregory M Pontone
Background: Psychosis is among the most disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD). The chronicity of PD psychosis remains understudied and the relative importance of dopaminergic therapy versus the disease process itself in engendering psychosis remains unclear. Objectives: To examine pharmacologic and motoric correlates of PD psychosis onset and remission in a longitudinally monitored PD cohort. Methods: We analyzed data from 165 participants enrolled in a longitudinal PD study through the Morris K...
January 2018: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755393/language-lateralization-and-auditory-attention-impairment-in-young-adults-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-dichotic-listening-study
#14
Ingvild Aase, Kristiina Kompus, Jens Gisselgård, Inge Joa, Jan O Johannessen, Kolbjørn Brønnick
Objectives: Impaired attention and language functions are common in psychosis, but have been less explored in subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR). The aim of the study was to investigate differences in language lateralization and auditory attention in UHR subjects compared to healthy controls with a dichotic listening paradigm. In addition, symptoms from The Structural Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) were explored in relation to performance on dichotic listening. Methods: The UHR subjects ( n = 46, female = 28, mean age = 17...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754121/early-intervention-services-in-greece-time-to-focus-on-people-at-high-risk
#15
S I Bargiota, V P Bozikas, G Garyfallos, P McGuire
Over the last twenty years, a lot of early intervention services operate worldwide with the aim of offering assistance and promoting the early diagnosis and management, not only of people who experience a first episode of psychosis but also of individuals that are at high risk of developing psychosis. The early intervention services that operate in other countries have been reviewed in correlation with the current status of early intervention services for psychosis in Greece. Early intervention services were first established in Australia, and now hundreds of similar programs exist in Europe, North America and Asia...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751984/age-related-trajectories-of-social-cognition-in-youth-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-an-exploratory-study
#16
Charlie A Davidson, Danijela Piskulic, Jean Addington, Kristen S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Carrie E Bearden, Daniel H Mathalon, Scott W Woods, Jason K Johannesen
BACKGROUND: Clinical high risk (CHR) status is characterized by impairments in social cognition, but questions remain concerning their stability over development. In cross-sectional analysis of a large naturalistic sample, the current study examined whether those at CHR status show deviant trajectories for age-related change in social cognitive ability, and whether these trajectories are influenced by treatment history. METHOD: Emotion perception (EP) and theory of mind (ToM) were assessed in 675 CHR and 263 healthy comparison (HC) participants aged 12-35...
May 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749710/attenuated-psychotic-symptom-interventions-in-youth-at-risk-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Daniel J Devoe, Megan S Farris, Parker Townes, Jean Addington
AIM: Attenuated psychotic symptoms (APSs) have been the primary emphasis in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis for assessing symptomology and determining subsequent transition to a psychotic disorder. Previous reviews primarily focused on the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on APS; however, a comprehensive assessment of other interventions to date is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all intervention studies examining APS in CHR youth...
May 11, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748632/chronic-cannabis-promotes-pro-hallucinogenic-signaling-of-5-ht2a-receptors-through-akt-mtor-pathway
#18
Inés Ibarra-Lecue, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, J Javier Meana, Luis F Callado, Rebeca Diez-Alarcia, Leyre Urigüen
Long-term use of potent cannabis during adolescence increases the risk of developing schizophrenia later in life, but to date, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several findings suggest that the functional selectivity of serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) through inhibitory G-proteins is involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for psychotic symptoms. Moreover, this receptor is dysregulated in the frontal cortex of schizophrenia patients. In this context, studies involving cannabis exposure and 5-HT2AR are scarce...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748630/interaction-between-tspo-a-neuroimmune-marker-and-redox-status-in-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-pet-mrs-study
#19
Sina Hafizi, Tania Da Silva, Jeffrey H Meyer, Michael Kiang, Sylvain Houle, Gary Remington, Ivana Prce, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Napapon Sailasuta, Romina Mizrahi
Altered neuroimmune response and oxidative stress have both been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. While preclinical studies have proposed several pathways regarding potential interactions between oxidative stress and neuroimmune imbalance in the development of psychosis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this interaction are not yet understood. To date, no study has investigated this link in vivo in the human brain. We conducted the first in vivo study linking translocator protein 18  kDa (TSPO) expression and glutathione (a major brain antioxidant and a marker for redox status) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of a relatively large sample of participants (N = 48) including 27 antipsychotic-naïve individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and 21 matched healthy volunteers using high-resolution PET with TSPO radioligand, [18 F]FEPPA, and 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS)...
April 13, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748629/abnormal-reward-prediction-error-signalling-in-antipsychotic-naive-individuals-with-first-episode-psychosis-or-clinical-risk-for-psychosis
#20
Anna O Ermakova, Franziska Knolle, Azucena Justicia, Edward T Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Trevor W Robbins, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Ongoing research suggests preliminary, though not entirely consistent, evidence of neural abnormalities in signalling prediction errors in schizophrenia. Supporting theories suggest mechanistic links between the disruption of these processes and the generation of psychotic symptoms. However, it is unknown at what stage in the pathogenesis of psychosis these impairments in prediction-error signalling develop. One major confound in prior studies is the use of medicated patients with strongly varying disease durations...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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