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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214176/sex-differences-in-prolactin-levels-in-emerging-psychosis-indication-for-enhanced-stress-reactivity-in-women
#1
Sarah Ittig, Erich Studerus, Ulrike Heitz, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Katharina Beck, Laura Egloff, Letizia Leanza, Christina Andreou, Anita Riecher-Rössler
BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinemia is a known side effect of antipsychotics. In recent reports it has also been shown in antipsychotic-naïve at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Prolactin is not only involved in reproduction and lactation, but is also synthesized in response to stress. As stress is thought to play an important role in the onset and relapse of schizophrenia, the aim of this study was to further elucidate the influence of prolactin in emerging psychosis...
February 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214175/the-traumatic-experience-of-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Rebecca Rodrigues, Kelly K Anderson
INTRODUCTION: A psychotic episode may be sufficiently traumatic to induce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which could impact outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in relation to psychosis in FEP and to identify risk factors for the development of PTSD symptoms. METHODS: We searched electronic databases and conducted manual searching of reference lists and tables of contents to identify relevant studies...
February 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212505/long-term-validity-of-the-at-risk-mental-state-arms-for-predicting-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-mental-disorders
#3
P Fusar-Poli, G Rutigliano, D Stahl, C Davies, A De Micheli, V Ramella-Cravaro, I Bonoldi, P McGuire
BACKGROUND: The long-term clinical validity of the At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for the prediction of non-psychotic mental disorders is unknown. METHODS: Clinical register-based cohort study including all non-psychotic individuals assessed by the Outreach And Support in South London (OASIS) service (2002-2015). The primary outcome was risk of developing any mental disorder (psychotic or non-psychotic). Analyses included Cox proportional hazard models, Kaplan-Meier survival/failure function and C statistics...
December 6, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212173/prediction-of-conversion-to-psychosis-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-a-brief-update-on-recent-developments
#4
Anita Riecher-Rössler, Erich Studerus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: So far, only little more than one-third of individuals classified as being at-risk for psychosis have been shown to actually convert to frank psychosis during follow-up. There have therefore been enormous efforts to improve the accuracy of predicting this transition. We reviewed the most recent studies in the field with the aim to clarify whether accuracy of prediction has been improved by the different research endeavors and what could be done to further improve it, and/or what alternative goals research should pursue...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196549/mental-health-related-stigma-and-pathways-to-care-for-people-at-risk-of-psychotic-disorders-or-experiencing-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#5
P C Gronholm, G Thornicroft, K R Laurens, S Evans-Lacko
BACKGROUND: Stigma associated with mental illness can delay or prevent help-seeking and service contact. Stigma-related influences on pathways to care in the early stages of psychotic disorders have not been systematically examined. METHOD: This review systematically assessed findings from qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods research studies on the relationship between stigma and pathways to care (i.e. processes associated with help-seeking and health service contact) among people experiencing first-episode psychosis or at clinically defined increased risk of developing psychotic disorder...
February 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192769/disorganization-at-the-stage-of-schizophrenia-clinical-outcome-clinical-biological-study
#6
A Nestsiarovich, V Obyedkov, H Kandratsenka, M Siniauskaya, I Goloenko, N Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192768/schizotypal-and-affective-traits-in-the-offspring-of-antenatally-depressed-mothers-relationship-to-family-history-of-psychosis-in-the-northern-finland-1966-birth-cohort
#7
T Taka-Eilola Née Riekki, J Miettunen, P Mäki
BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is relatively common during pregnancy. However, follow-ups of the adult offspring of antenatally depressed mothers are scarce. Previously we found the risk of schizophrenia to be higher in the adult offspring with antenatally depressed mothers and parents with psychosis than in subjects with only one or neither of these risk factors. The aim was to study whether the risk of schizotypal or affective traits differ among adult offspring with antenatally depressed mothers with or without a parental history of psychosis when compared with offspring without antenatally depressed mothers and without parental psychosis...
December 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186095/the-role-of-microrna-expression-in-cortical-development-during-conversion-to-psychosis
#8
Amanda B Zheutlin, Clark D Jeffries, Diana O Perkins, Yoonho Chung, Adam M Chekroud, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin S Cadenhead, Barbara A Cornblatt, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Larry J Seidman, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods, Ming Tsuang, Tyrone D Cannon
In a recent report of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), clinical high-risk individuals who converted to psychosis showed a steeper rate of cortical gray matter reduction compared with non-converters and healthy controls, and the rate of cortical thinning was correlated with levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines at baseline. These findings suggest a critical role for microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, in perturbations of cortical maturation processes associated with onset of psychosis...
February 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184308/the-access-and-waiting-time-standard-for-first-episode-psychosis-an-opportunity-for-identification-and-treatment-of-psychosis-risk-states
#9
EDITORIAL
Richard Whale, Andrew Thompson, Rick Fraser
Expansion of early intervention services to identify and clinically manage at-risk mental state for psychosis has been recently commissioned by NHS England. Although this is a welcome development for preventive psychiatry, further clarity is required on thresholds for definition of such risk states and their ability to predict subsequent outcomes. Intervention studies for these risk states have demonstrated that a variety of interventions, including those with fewer adverse effects than antipsychotic medication, may potentially be effective but they should be interpreted with caution...
February 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179063/modelling-gene-environment-interaction-in-first-episodes-of-psychosis
#10
Miguel Bernardo, Miquel Bioque, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Laura Pina, Iluminada Corripio, Julio Sanjuán, Anna Mané, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Eduard Vieta, Celso Arango, Gisela Mezquida, Patricia Gassó, Mara Parellada, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Manuel J Cuesta, Sergi Mas
INTRODUCTION: Recent research demonstrates the heterogeneous etiology of psychotic disorders, where gen-environment (GxE) interaction plays a key role. Large genetic studies have linked many genetic variants with schizophrenia, but each variant is only associated with a small effect and the GxE interaction contribution has not been evaluated. METHODS: The PEPs Project was designed to carefully collect a large amount of genetic and environmental exposure data of 335 FEP patients and 253 matched healthy controls...
February 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179039/cannabis-use-and-adherence-to-antipsychotic-medication-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
E Foglia, T Schoeler, E Klamerus, K Morgan, S Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Substance use may increase the risk of non-adherence to antipsychotics, resulting in negative outcomes in patients with psychosis. METHOD: We aimed to quantitatively summarize evidence regarding the effect of cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug amongst those with psychosis, on adherence to antipsychotic medication. Studies were identified through a systematic database search. Adopting random-effects models, pooled odds ratios (OR) for risk of non-adherence to antipsychotic medications were calculated comparing: cannabis-users at baseline v...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170299/gender-dysphoria-and-co-existing-psychosis-review-and-four-case-examples-of-successful-gender-affirmative-treatment
#12
Julia H Meijer, Guus M Eeckhout, Roy H T van Vlerken, Annelou L C de Vries
PURPOSE: Controversy exists as to if, and when, gender affirmative (GA) treatment should be offered to individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) and co-existing psychosis. Concerns exist regarding a high risk of misdiagnosing, regret afterward due to impulsive decision making, and deterioration of psychotic symptoms. This case series aims at extending the sparse literature on GA treatment in this population by identifying challenges in diagnosis and treatment and offering recommendations to overcome them...
February 7, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169087/adolescents-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-circadian-rhythm-disturbances-predict-worsened-prognosis-at-1-year-follow-up
#13
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Bruno da Silva Brandão Gonçalves, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo A Bressan, Ary Gadelha, Randy P Auerbach, Vijay A Mittal
BACKGROUND: Individuals with psychotic disorders experience disruptions to both the sleep and circadian components of the sleep/wake cycle. Recent evidence has supported a role of sleep disturbances in emerging psychosis. However, less is known about how circadian rhythm disruptions may relate to psychosis symptoms and prognosis for adolescents with clinical high-risk (CHR) syndromes. The present study examines circadian rest/activity rhythms in CHR and healthy control (HC) youth to clarify the relationships among circadian rhythm disturbance, psychosis symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and the longitudinal course of illness...
February 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168698/cannabis-use-and-symptom-severity-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#14
R Carney, J Cotter, J Firth, T Bradshaw, A R Yung
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis have higher rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) than non-UHR individuals and determine whether UHR cannabis users have more severe psychotic experiences than non-users. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting cannabis use in the UHR group and/or positive or negative symptoms among UHR cannabis users and non-users. Logit event rates were calculated for cannabis use, in addition to odds ratios to assess the difference between UHR and controls...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168521/does-apolipoprotein-a1-predict-microstructural-changes-in-subgenual-cingulum-in-early-parkinson
#15
Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Higher plasma cholesterol levels are associated with lower Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) is a surface marker of brain HDL-like particles associated with the time of PD onset. Clinical correlates of serum Apolipoprotein A1 levels with structural brain connectivity in PD-related disorders remains unclear. Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach [Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Connectometry] to explore the association between ApoA-1 and structural brain connectivity in PD...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167435/troponin-t-levels-associated-with-genetic-variants-in-notch2-and-mtnr1b-in-women-with-psychosis
#16
Dzana Sudic Hukic, Catharina Lavebratt, Eric Olsson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Sven V Eriksson, David Erlinge, Martin Schalling, Urban Ösby
Psychosis patients have increased prevalence of metabolic disorders, which increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Elevated troponin T level is an early biomarker of cardiovascular damage. We tested for association between troponin T levels and genetic risk variants of elevated blood glucose level in psychosis. Glucose and troponin T levels correlated positively. MTNR1B rs10830963 and NOTCH2 rs10923931 associated with troponin T levels in women, adjusted for glucose levels. These findings may indicate metabolic genetic influences on troponin T levels among women with psychosis...
January 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155207/prodrome-or-risk-syndrome-what-s-in-a-name
#17
Pierre Alexis Geoffroy, Jan Scott
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, an increasing number of publications have examined the precursors of bipolar disorders (BD) and attempted to clarify the early origins and illness trajectory. This is a complex task as the evolution of BD often shows greater heterogeneity than psychosis, and the first onset episode of BD may be dominated by depressive or manic features or both. To date, most of the published reviews have not clarified whether they are focused on prodromes, risk syndromes or addressing both phenomena...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152356/cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Leonard Kritharides, Vincent Chow, Tim Jr Lambert
Patients with schizophrenia die on average 25 years earlier than the general population, and this gap appears to be increasing. Most of the excess mortality is due to premature cardiovascular deaths rather than suicide. Many psychotropic agents are orexigenic and can increase weight and promote dyslipidaemia. Traditional cardiac risk factors are undertreated among patients with schizophrenia, and they are less likely to receive cardiac revascularisation than those without a mental illness. Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication effective for treatment of refractory schizophrenia, but is associated with the risk of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy...
February 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148613/delirium-in-trauma-patients-prevalence-and-predictors
#19
Kathryn T Von Rueden, Breighanna Wallizer, Paul Thurman, Karen McQuillan, Tiffany Andrews, Jennifer Merenda, Heesook Son
BACKGROUND: Delirium is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, hospital costs, and postdischarge cognitive dysfunction. Most research focuses on nontrauma patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and predictors of delirium in trauma patients residing in intensive and intermediate care units of an academic medical center. METHODS: Trauma patients were screened for delirium by using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit...
February 2017: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143678/episodic-memory-functions-in-first-episode-psychosis-and-clinical-high-risk-individuals
#20
Sarah E Greenland-White, J Daniel Ragland, Tara A Niendam, Emilio Ferrer, Cameron S Carter
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with schizophrenia have disproportionate memory impairments when encoding relational versus item-specific information, and when using recollection versus familiarity during retrieval. It is unclear whether this pattern is unique to people with chronic schizophrenia, or if it occurs in individuals after a first episode of psychosis (FE), or when at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR). METHODS: We administered the Relational and Item-Specific Memory task (RiSE) to 22 CHR, 101 FE, and 58 typically developing (TD) participants...
January 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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