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Molecular cell biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538238/current-research-on-the-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-management-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#1
Simon Eaton, Clare M Rees, Nigel J Hall
Despite decades of research on necrotizing enterocolitis, we still do not fully understand the pathogenesis of the disease, or how to prevent or how to treat it. However, as a result of recent significant advances in the microbiology, molecular biology, and cell biology of the intestine of preterm infants and infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, there is some hope that research into this devastating disease will yield some important translation into effective prevention, more rapid diagnosis, and novel therapies...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538101/chemical-endgroup-modified-diblock-copolymers-elucidate-anchor-and-chain-mechanism-of-membrane-stabilization
#2
Evelyne M Houang, Karen J Haman, Mihee Kim, Wenjia Zhang, Dawn A Lowe, Yuk Yin Sham, Timothy P Lodge, Benjamin J Hackel, Frank S Bates, Joseph M Metzger
Block copolymers can be synthesized in an array of architectures and compositions to yield diverse chemical properties. The triblock copolymer Poloxamer 188 (P188), the family archetype, consisting of a hydrophobic polypropylene oxide core flanked by hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chains, can stabilize cellular membranes during stress. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis of membrane interaction by copolymers in living organisms. By leveraging diblock architectural design, discrete end-group chemistry modifications can be tested...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538013/update-on-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#3
Gabriella Giancane, Alessandra Alongi, Angelo Ravelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recently published studies on pathogenesis and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). RECENT FINDINGS: In the past year, the potential role of network analysis in the understanding of the molecular phenotype of individual JIA subgroups has been highlighted. In addition, potential new targets for pharmacologic interventions have been identified through the elucidation of mechanisms that modulate the function of cells involved in the inflammatory process...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537892/effects-and-related-mechanisms-of-serotonin-on-malignant-biological-behavior-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-regulation-of-yap
#4
Sushun Liu, Runchen Miao, Mimi Zhai, Qing Pang, Yan Deng, Sinan Liu, Kai Qu, Chang Liu, Jingyao Zhang
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and Yes-associated protein (Yap), which act as a mitogen and an oncogene, respectively, play an important role in tumors. Here, we investigated whether 5-HT could affect the hepatocarcinogenic process via promoting the activation and expression of Yap, as well as the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that 5-HT promoted hepatoma cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis via regulating Yap expression in vitro and in vivo, and Yap knockdown had opposite effects...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535188/molecular-heterogeneity-at-the-network-level-high-dimensional-testing-clustering-and-a-tcga-case-study
#5
Nicolas Städler, Frank Dondelinger, Steven M Hill, Rehan Akbani, Yiling Lu, Gordon B Mills, Sach Mukherjee
Motivation: Molecular pathways and networks play a key role in basic and disease biology. An emerging notion is that networks encoding patterns of molecular interplay may themselves differ between contexts, such as cell type, tissue or disease (sub)type. However, while statistical testing of differences in mean expression levels has been extensively studied, testing of network differences remains challenging. Furthermore, since network differences could provide important and biologically interpretable information to identify molecular subgroups, there is a need to consider the unsupervised task of learning subgroups and networks that define them...
May 23, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535149/quantitative-computational-models-of-molecular-self-assembly-in-systems-biology
#6
Marcus Thomas, Russell Schwartz
Molecular self-assembly is the dominant form of chemical reaction in living systems, yet efforts at systems biology modeling are only beginning to appreciate the need for and challenges to accurate quantitative modeling of self-assembly. Self-assembly reactions are essential to nearly every important process in cell and molecular biology and handling them is thus a necessary step in building comprehensive models of complex cellular systems. They present exceptional challenges, however, to standard methods for simulating complex systems...
May 23, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534999/mir-370-regulates-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-targeting-egfr-in-gastric-cancer
#7
Tao Ning, Haiyang Zhang, Xinyi Wang, Shuang Li, Le Zhang, Ting Deng, Likun Zhou, Rui Liu, Xia Wang, Ming Bai, Shaohua Ge, Hongli Li, Dingzhi Huang, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to be overexpressed in ~30% of gastric cancer (GC) cases, and may serve as an effective biomarker for predicting the clinical benefit of anti-EGFR therapy. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of EGFR expression remains unknown. Evidence indicates that post-transcriptional regulation may exist in the process of EGFR expression. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether miR-370 is involved in this process, and how it impacts the biological behaviors of GC cells...
May 23, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534985/microarray-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-l929-mouse-fibroblast-cells-exposed-to-leptin-and-hypoxia
#8
Ping Ouyang, Sen Wang, He Zhang, Zhigang Huang, Pei Wei, Ye Zhang, Zhuguo Wu, Tao Li
Leptin and hypoxia are pro-fibrotic factors involved in fibrogenesis, however, the gene expression profiles remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory roles of leptin and hypoxia on the L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. The cells were assigned to a normoxia, normoxia with leptin, hypoxia, and hypoxia with leptin group. The cDNA expression was detected using an Agilent mRNA array platform. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to leptin and hypoxia were identified using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, followed by clustering analysis, Gene Ontology analysis and pathway analysis...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534950/microrna%C3%A2-296-targets-akt2-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-functions-as-a-potential-tumor-suppressor
#9
Hailing Li, Jilin Li, Baolin Shi, Feng Chen
Although microRNA-296 (miR-296) has been studied in various types of human cancer, its expression, biological role and mechanism of action in pancreatic cancer remains to be elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression level, possible roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR‑296 in pancreatic cancer. The present study revealed that miR‑296 is significantly downregulated in tissue from patients with pancreatic cancer and in human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, when compared with matched healthy tissue and normal human pancreatic cell lines, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534676/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-biopharmaceutical-manufacturing-a-short-review
#10
Kevin Buckley, Alan G Ryder
The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534650/functions-of-iqd-proteins-as-hubs-in-cellular-calcium-and-auxin-signaling-a-toolbox-for-shape-formation-and-tissue-specification-in-plants
#11
Katharina Bürstenbinder, Dipannita Mitra, Jakob Quegwer
Ca(2+) ions play pivotal roles as second messengers in intracellular signal transduction, and coordinate many biological processes. Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels are perceived by Ca(2+) sensors such as CaM/CML proteins, which transduce Ca(2+) signals into cellular responses by regulation of diverse target proteins. Insights into molecular functions of CaM targets are thus essential to understand the molecular and cellular basis of Ca(2+) signaling. During the last decade, IQD proteins emerged as the largest class of CaM targets in plants with mostly unknown functions...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534167/platforms-for-manufacturing-allogeneic-autologous-and-ipsc-cell-therapy-products-an-industry-perspective
#12
Eytan Abraham, Behnam Baghbaderani Ahmadian, Kathryn Holderness, Yonatan Levinson, Erika McAfee
As cell therapy processes mature from benchtop research protocols to industrial processes capable of manufacturing market-relevant numbers of doses, new cell manufacturing platforms are required. Here we give an overview of the platforms and technologies currently available to manufacture allogeneic cell products, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and technologies for mass production of autologous cell therapies via scale-out. These technologies include bioreactors, microcarriers, cell separation and cryopreservation equipment, molecular biology tools for iPSC generation, and single-use controlled-environment systems for autologous cell production...
May 23, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533810/tc003132-is-essential-for-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-in-telotrophic-tribolium-oogenesis
#13
Matthias Teuscher, Nadi Ströhlein, Markus Birkenbach, Dorothea Schultheis, Michael Schoppmeier
BACKGROUND: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with a potential for self-renewal, which are essential to support normal development and homeostasis. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying adult stem cell biology and organ evolution, we use the telotrophic ovary of the beetle Tribolium. To this end, we participated in a large-scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium, which identified functions in embryonic and postembryonic development for more than half of the Tribolium genes...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533793/exogenous-supplementation-of-silicon-improved-the-recovery-of-hyperhydric-shoots-in-dianthus-caryophyllus-l-by-stabilizing-the-physiology-and-protein-expression
#14
Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Abinaya Manivannan, Yoon S Cho, Byoung R Jeong
Hyperhydricity is one of the major problems hindering in vitro propagation of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Silicon (Si) is a well-known beneficial element renowned for its stress amelioration properties in plants. This study has demonstrated the physiological and molecular mechanism behind the Si-mediated recovery from hyperhydricity in D. caryophyllus L. 'Green Beauty'. Four weeks old hyperhydric shoots obtained from temporary immersion system were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533780/innate-immune-function-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
David Sancho, Michel Enamorado, Johan Garaude
Sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger signals by innate immune receptors drives a complex exchange of information. Innate receptor signaling not only triggers transcriptional events but also induces profound changes in metabolic fluxes, redox balance, and metabolite abundance thereby influencing immune cell function. Mitochondria are at the core of metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. The close interaction between mitochondrial metabolism and immune signaling has emerged as a central regulator of innate sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533224/microrna-196b-5p-regulates-colorectal-cancer-cell-migration-and-metastases-through-interaction-of-hoxb7-and-galnt5
#16
Verena Stiegelbauer, Petra Vychytilova-Faltejskova, Michael Karbiener, Anna-Maria Pehserl, Andreas Reicher, Margit Resel, Ellen Heitzer, Cristina Ivan, Marc D Bullock, Hui Ling, Alexander Ja Deutsch, Annika Wulf-Goldenberg, Jan Basri Adiprasito, Herbert Stöger, Johannes Haybaeck, Marek Svoboda, Michael Stotz, Gerald Höfler, Ondrej Slaby, George A Calin, Armin Gerger, Martin Pichler
Purpose: MicroRNA-196b-5p (miR-196b-5p) has been previously implicated in malignant transformation, however, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully explored. In the current study, we examine the clinical and biological relevance of miR-196b-5p, and the molecular pathways regulated by miR-196b-5p in CRC. <p>Experimental design: MiR-196b-5p expression was quantitated by qRT-PCR in two independent cohorts comprised of 292 CRC patients in total, to explore its biomarker potential. Transient and stable gain and loss of function experiments were conducted in a panel of CRC cell lines and mice, to evaluate the impact of miR-196b-5p on proliferation, chemo-sensitivity, migration/invasion and metastases formation in vitro and in vivo The molecular pathways influenced by miR-196b-5p were characterized using whole transcriptome profiling, in-silico target prediction tools, luciferase-interaction assays, and pheno-copy/rescue gene knock-down experiments...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532995/histological-subtypes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-are-related-to-gene-mutations-and-molecular-tumour-classification
#17
Julien Calderaro, Gabrielle Couchy, Sandrine Imbeaud, Giuliana Amaddeo, Eric Letouzé, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Christophe Laurent, Yacine Hajji, Daniel Azoulay, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Jean-Charles Nault, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our increasing understanding of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology holds promise for personalized care, however its translation into clinical practice requires a precise knowledge of its relationship to tumour phenotype. METHODS: We aimed at investigating molecular-phenotypic correlations in a large series of HCC. To this purpose, 343 surgically resected HCC were investigated by pathological review, immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling and sequencing...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531986/biomimicking-synthesis-of-photoluminescent-molecular-lantern-catalyzed-by-in-situ-formation-of-nanogold-catalysts
#18
Yong Yu, Xin Ting Zheng, Boon Wei Yee, Yen Nee Tan
Bioluminescence has been widely recognized as a powerful imaging tool for biological investigations. Synthesis of molecular lanterns that mimic bioluminescence in nature is of great interest. Herein we report a synthesis of molecular lantern by utilizing the catalytic properties of ultrasmall (<2nm) gold nanoclusters (AuNC), which is inspired by the enzymatic light-up of luciferin in the biological system. Small molecules such as hydroquinone and Cys-Gly peptides are used to direct the synthesis of AuNC via a biotemplating approach, while the in-situ formation of AuNC simultaneously catalyze the formation of luciferin-like, brightly fluorescent dye (λem=520nm, QY=0...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531800/restoration-of-arpin-suppresses-aggressive-phenotype-of-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Yi Li, Jiliang Qiu, Ting Pang, Zhixing Guo, Yonghui Su, Qingan Zeng, Xuexia Zhang
Arpin, a negative regulator of the actin-related protein-2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, is downregulated and predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, its biological relevance in breast cancer is still unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the roles of Arpin in breast cancer growth and invasion. We overexpressed Arpin expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and examined the effects of restoration of Arpin on cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531659/risk-assessment-of-the-endocrine-disrupting-effects-of-nine-chiral-pesticides
#20
Qin Song, Yi Zhang, Lu Yan, Jinghua Wang, Chensheng Lu, Quan Zhang, Meirong Zhao
The increased release of chiral pesticides into the environment has generated interest in the role of enantioselectivity in the environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of these compounds. However, the information on the endocrine disrupting effects (EDEs) of chiral pesticides is still limited and discrepancies are also usually observed among different assays. In this study, we investigated the enantioselectivity of EDEs via estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors for nine chiral pesticides using in vitro and in silico approaches...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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