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Drug efficacy

L-B Zhao, G-D Zhen, Y Zhang, Y-Y Pan, G-H Du, S-Z Zhou, Z-F Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of melatonin on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized control trial, a total of 59 AOPP patients with subsequent delirium were randomly divided into two groups, the melatonin group (n=29) and the placebo-controlled group (n=30). Patients in the melatonin group (n=29) underwent oral administration of melatonin in addition to the symptomatic treatment, while those in the placebo-controlled group took a placebo in addition to the symptomatic treatment...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Si Houn Hahn, David Kronn, Nancy D Leslie, Loren D M Pena, Pranoot Tanpaiboon, Michael J Gambello, James B Gibson, Richard Hillman, David W Stockton, John W Day, Raymond Y Wang, Kristina An Haack, Raheel Shafi, Susan Sparks, Yang Zhao, Catherine Wilson, Priya S Kishnani
PurposePompe disease results from lysosomal acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency and its associated glycogen accumulation and muscle damage. Alglucosidase alfa (recombinant human GAA (rhGAA)) received approval in 2006 as a treatment for Pompe disease at the 160 L production scale. In 2010, larger-scale rhGAA was approved for patients up to 8 years old without cardiomyopathy. NCT01526785 evaluated 4,000 L rhGAA efficacy/safety in US infantile- or late-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, LOPD) patients up to 1 year old transitioned from 160 L rhGAA...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Octavia Ramayanti, Mitch Brinkkemper, Sandra A W M Verkuijlen, Leni Ritmaleni, Mei Lin Go, Jaap M Middeldorp
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists in nasopharyngeal (NPC) and gastric carcinomas (EBVaGC) in a tightly latent form. Cytolytic virus activation (CLVA) therapy employs gemcitabine and valproic acid (GCb+VPA) to reactivate latent EBV into the lytic phase and antiviral valganciclovir to enhance cell death and prevent virus production. CLVA treatment has proven safe in phase-I/II trials with promising clinical responses in patients with recurrent NPC. However, a major challenge is to maximize EBV lytic reactivation by CLVA...
March 22, 2018: Cancers
Daiki Kumaki, Yukio Nakamura, Takako Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. Glucocorticoids are often used for AOSD, which may induce complicating glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). An anti-resorption drug, denosumab, has recently been approved for osteoporosis treatment in Japan. However, the drug's efficacy for GIO in AOSD is largely unknown. This retrospective, consecutive case series investigated two patients with GIO in AOSD to examine the effects of denosumab on bone metabolism. Bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar 1-4 spine (L-BMD) and bilateral total hips (H-BMD) were followed for six months in a male patient and for twelve months in a female patient...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Xinkuan Liu, Wenyi Shao, Mingyi Luo, Jiayin Bian, Deng-Guang Yu
Nanomaterials providing sustained release profiles are highly desired for efficacious drug delivery. Advanced nanotechnologies are useful tools for creating elaborate nanostructure-based nanomaterials to achieve the designed functional performances. In this research, a modified coaxial electrospinning was explored to fabricate a novel core-sheath nanostructure (nanofibers F2), in which a sheath drug-free gliadin layer was successfully coated on the core ketoprofen (KET)-gliadin nanocomposite. A monolithic nanocomposite (nanofibers F1) that was generated through traditional blending electrospinning of core fluid was utilized as a control...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Hua Wang, Shu Zhang, Aihong Zhang, Cunling Yan
This study aimed to explore the efficacy of propofol to treat malignant pheochromocytoma (PCC) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, PC12 cells were treated with different concentrations of propofol (0, 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL) for specific times followed by a MTT assay to detect cell proliferation. Transwell assays were performed to assess the function of propofol on the migration and invasion of PC12 cells, and flow cytometry to analyze cell apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was carried out to analyze the expression level of mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, and CyclinE)...
March 22, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Bamigboye J Taiwo, Olujide O Olubiyi, Fanie R van Heerden
Nigerian medicinal plants have been demonstrated to be veritable source of lead compounds for drug discovery efforts. One such example is mangiferin. Mangiferin was originally isolated from the Nigerian plant Ceiba pentandra (Mombacaceae), after which its structure was elucidated with the aid of spectroscopy. Mangiferin, a xanthone glycoside, has also been reported in certain other plant families including Gentianaceae and Anacardiaceae. In certain other climes and different parts of the world, folkloric and traditional medicine has extensively employed Mangifera indica (another source of mangiferin) in treating different diseases...
March 20, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Avneet Kaur, Sharad Wakode, Dharam Pal Pathak, Vidushi Sharma, Ashok K Shakya
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used for many years, but the chronic use of NSAID's leads to gastric side effects, ulceration and kidney problems. These side effects are due to non-selective inhibition of COX-2 along with COX-1. Therefore, it is imperative to develop novel and selective COX-2 inhibitors Objective: In this paper wehave synthesized a series of novel hybrids comprising of substituted-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-benzo[d]oxazole derivatives and screened for the treatment of inflammation...
March 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Gabriella Fabbrocini, Antonio Cristaudo, Marius-Anton Ionescu, Luigia Panariello, Geraldine Robert, Marcello Pellicano, Fabio Ayala
BACKGROUND: Many cytotoxic and biological drugs are cause of severe dermatological side effects, such as hand-foot syndrome (HFS) and hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR). Oncologic patients with HFS or HFSR presents relevant symptoms that interferes with daily activities and with adherence to anticancer treatment. The HFRS control and treatment are important goals to enhance the quality of life of oncologic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a b...
April 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Luan Carvalho Martins, Pedro Henrique Monteiro Torres, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Pedro Geraldo Pascutti, Elio A Cino, Rafaela Salgado Ferreira
Chagas disease remains a major health problem in South America, and throughout the world. The two drugs clinically available for its treatment have limited efficacy and cause serious adverse effects. Cruzain is an established therapeutic target of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Our group recently identified a competitive cruzain inhibitor (compound 1) with an IC50  = 15 µM that is also more synthetically accessible than the previously reported lead, compound 2. Prior studies, however, did not propose a binding mode for compound 1, hindering understanding of the structure-activity relationship and optimization...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Sandeep Jain, Gauri Kapoor, Sahitya Koneru, Gayatri Vishwakarma
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced vomiting is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We assessed the non-inferiority of palonosetron versus ondansetron in prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in children with cancer in 2-18 years of age. METHODS: In this single-center, open-label, randomized study, children receiving moderate and high emetogenic chemotherapy were assigned to get either ondansetron or palonosetron in addition to other antiemetic prophylaxis...
March 22, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Tatiana V Beketova, Mikhail Y Volkov, Evgeniy A Naryshkin, Tatiana M Novoselova, Evgeniy L Nasonov
Recent advances in pharmacology have greatly expanded the drug repertoire for treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare multisystemic disorder, a type of the ANCA-associated vasculitis. Important features of this disease are eosinophilia and anti-myeloperoxidase ANCA presence in around 30-70% of patients. Primary therapy of EGPA includes steroids and cytotoxic drugs, e.g., cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, or methotrexate...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Marie-Isabel Murray, Ahran Arnold, Murad Younis, Swaroop Varghese, Andreas Michael Zeiher
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety outcomes of the treatment with cryoballoon (CB) compared to the treatment with traditional irrigated radiofrequency ablation (RF) for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) and refractory to antiarrhythmic drug therapy (AAD). DESIGN: We conducted a systemic review to find and include more than two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with at least 20 patients in each of the CB and RF groups...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Yuan Ou, Kai Chen, Hao Cai, Hu Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Jian Wang, Wei Chen, Kui Luo
In this study, to enhance the therapeutic function and reduce the side-effects of doxorubicin (DOX), a biodegradable N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-DOX conjugate has been prepared through reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and conjugation chemistry, and the anticancer agent DOX was covalently linked to the polymeric vehicle through a pH-responsive hydrazone bond. The cellular mechanisms of the conjugate were explored, and the therapeutic indexes were studied as well...
March 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Eric H Jung, David J Meyers, Jürgen Bosch, Arturo Casadevall
Similarities in fungal and animal cells make antifungal discovery efforts more difficult than those for other classes of antimicrobial drugs. Currently, there are only three major classes of antifungal drugs used for the treatment of systemic fungal diseases: polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. Even in situations where the offending fungal organism is susceptible to the available drugs, treatment courses can be lengthy and unsatisfactory, since eradication of infection is often very difficult, especially in individuals with impaired immunity...
March 2018: MSphere
Sarath Chandra Veerla, Da Reum Kim, Sung Yun Yang
Background: Controlled drug delivery system is highly important for not only prolonged the efficacy of drug but also cellular development for tissue engineering. A number of biopolymer composites and nanostructured carriers behave been used for the controlled drug delivery of therapeutics. Recently, in vitro microfluidic devices that mimic the human body have been developed for drug-delivery applications. Methods: A microfluidic channel was fabricated via a two-step process: (i) polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and curing agent were poured with a 10:2 mass ratio onto an acrylic mold with two steel pipes, and (ii) calcium alginate beads were synthesized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Mosayeb Moradniani, Zohre Mirbeik-Sabzevari, Soleiman Jaferian, Shiva Shafiezadeh, Mohammad Javad Ehsani Ardakani, Mehrdad Mirzaee Roozbahany, Saleh Azadbakht, Hamidreza Sherkatolabbasieh
Aim: This study was aimed to evaluating the efficacy of levofloxacin based sequential therapy vs clarithromycin based sequential therapy in h.pylori (HP) eradication. Background: Several therapeutic regimen were investigated to treat HP infection. Sequential therapy is an alternative to classic triple therapy. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 200 HP infected patients randomly divided into two therapeutic groups .1-Levofloxacin based sequential regimen (group A); omeprazole and amoxicillin for 7days followed by omeprazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin for 7days...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Chang Ju Hwang, Sung Soo Chung, Kyu-Yeol Lee, Jae Hyup Lee, Seong-Hwan Moon, Jin-Hyok Kim, Kyu-Jung Cho, Jae-Sung Ahn, Dong-Soo Kim, Ye-Soo Park, Hye-Jeong Park
Background: A prolonged-release formulation of oxycodone/naloxone has been shown to be effective in European populations for the management of chronic moderate to severe pain. However, no clinical data exist for its use in Korean patients. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone in Korean patients for management of chronic moderate-to-severe pain. Methods: In this multicenter, single-arm, open-label, phase IV study, Korean adults with moderate-to-severe spinal disorder-related pain that was not satisfactorily controlled with weak opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs received prolonged-release oral oxycodone/naloxone at a starting dose of 10/5 mg/day (maximum 80/40 mg/day) for 8 weeks...
March 2018: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Roberto Salvatori
Surgery is considered the treatment of choice in acromegaly, but patients with persistent disease after surgery or in whom surgery cannot be considered require medical therapy. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) octreotide (OCT), lanreotide, and the more recently approved pasireotide, characterized by a broader receptor ligand binding profile, are considered the mainstay in the medical management of acromegaly. However, in the attempt to offer a more efficacious and better tolerated medical approach, recent research has been aimed to override some limitations related to the use of currently approved drugs and novel SRLs therapies, with potential attractive features, have been proposed...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Gilda Varricchi, Pietro Ameri, Christian Cadeddu, Alessandra Ghigo, Rosalinda Madonna, Giancarlo Marone, Valentina Mercurio, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Paolo Parrella, Flora Pirozzi, Antonio Pecoraro, Paolo Spallarossa, Concetta Zito, Giuseppe Mercuro, Pasquale Pagliaro, Carlo G Tocchetti
Antineoplastic drugs can be associated with several side effects, including cardiovascular toxicity (CTX). Biochemical studies have identified multiple mechanisms of CTX. Chemoterapeutic agents can alter redox homeostasis by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species RNS. Cellular sources of ROS/RNS are cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, stromal and inflammatory cells in the heart. Mitochondria, peroxisomes and other subcellular components are central hubs that control redox homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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