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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230125/seven-temperate-terrestrial-planets-around-the-nearby-ultracool-dwarf-star-trappist-1
#1
Michaël Gillon, Amaury H M J Triaud, Brice-Olivier Demory, Emmanuël Jehin, Eric Agol, Katherine M Deck, Susan M Lederer, Julien de Wit, Artem Burdanov, James G Ingalls, Emeline Bolmont, Jeremy Leconte, Sean N Raymond, Franck Selsis, Martin Turbet, Khalid Barkaoui, Adam Burgasser, Matthew R Burleigh, Sean J Carey, Aleksander Chaushev, Chris M Copperwheat, Laetitia Delrez, Catarina S Fernandes, Daniel L Holdsworth, Enrico J Kotze, Valérie Van Grootel, Yaseen Almleaky, Zouhair Benkhaldoun, Pierre Magain, Didier Queloz
One aim of modern astronomy is to detect temperate, Earth-like exoplanets that are well suited for atmospheric characterization. Recently, three Earth-sized planets were detected that transit (that is, pass in front of) a star with a mass just eight per cent that of the Sun, located 12 parsecs away. The transiting configuration of these planets, combined with the Jupiter-like size of their host star-named TRAPPIST-1-makes possible in-depth studies of their atmospheric properties with present-day and future astronomical facilities...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103105/evolution-of-earth-like-extrasolar-planetary-atmospheres-assessing-the-atmospheres-and-biospheres-of-early-earth-analog-planets-with-a-coupled-atmosphere-biogeochemical-model
#2
S Gebauer, J L Grenfell, J W Stock, R Lehmann, M Godolt, P von Paris, H Rauer
Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models...
January 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057962/exoplanetary-atmospheres-chemistry-formation-conditions-and-habitability
#3
Nikku Madhusudhan, Marcelino Agúndez, Julianne I Moses, Yongyun Hu
Characterizing the atmospheres of extrasolar planets is the new frontier in exoplanetary science. The last two decades of exoplanet discoveries have revealed that exoplanets are very common and extremely diverse in their orbital and bulk properties. We now enter a new era as we begin to investigate the chemical diversity of exoplanets, their atmospheric and interior processes, and their formation conditions. Recent developments in the field have led to unprecedented advancements in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets and the implications for their formation conditions...
December 2016: Space Science Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973530/detecting-3d-vegetation-structure-with-the-galileo-space-probe-can-a-distant-probe-detect-vegetation-structure-on-earth
#4
Christopher E Doughty, Adam Wolf
Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870585/another-earth-2-0-not-so-fast
#5
Dirk Schulze-Makuch, Edward Guinan
The number of confirmed exoplanets now exceeds 3000, with an additional nearly 5000 exoplanet candidates awaiting confirmation in the NASA Exoplanet Archive ( 2016 ). Nearly weekly we hear about the detection of a new exoplanet similar in mass to Earth and located in the so-called habitable zone around its host star. The excitement is understandable given our desire to find a second Earth. However, the excitement should not lead to an over-interpretation of the findings, because the claim can only be to have some crude similarity to Earth based on a few selected geophysical parameters...
November 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792417/the-pale-orange-dot-the-spectrum-and-habitability-of-hazy-archean-earth
#6
Giada Arney, Shawn D Domagal-Goldman, Victoria S Meadows, Eric T Wolf, Edward Schwieterman, Benjamin Charnay, Mark Claire, Eric Hébrard, Melissa G Trainer
Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects...
November 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790984/a-population-of-planetary-systems-characterized-by-short-period-earth-sized-planets
#7
Jason H Steffen, Jeffrey L Coughlin
We analyze data from the Quarter 1-17 Data Release 24 (Q1-Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA's Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671635/exoplanet-orbital-eccentricities-derived-from-lamost-kepler-analysis
#8
Ji-Wei Xie, Subo Dong, Zhaohuan Zhu, Daniel Huber, Zheng Zheng, Peter De Cat, Jianning Fu, Hui-Gen Liu, Ali Luo, Yue Wu, Haotong Zhang, Hui Zhang, Ji-Lin Zhou, Zihuang Cao, Yonghui Hou, Yuefei Wang, Yong Zhang
The nearly circular (mean eccentricity [Formula: see text]) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination [Formula: see text]) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits ([Formula: see text]). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661884/design-trade-off-and-proof-of-concept-for-loupe-the-lunar-observatory-for-unresolved-polarimetry-of-earth
#9
H J Hoeijmakers, M L J Arts, F Snik, C U Keller, J M Kuiper
We provide a proof of the technical feasibility of LOUPE, the first integral-field snapshot spectropolarimeter, designed to monitor the reflected flux and polarization spectrum of Earth. These are to be used as benchmark data for the retrieval of biomarkers and atmospheric and surface characteristics from future direct observations of exoplanets. We perform a design trade-off for an implementation in which LOUPE performs snapshot integral-field spectropolarimetry at visible wavelengths. We used off-the-shelf optics to construct a polarization modulator, in which polarization information is encoded into the spectrum as a wavelength-dependent modulation, while spatial resolution is maintained using a micro-lens array...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580038/exoplanets-migration-of-giants
#10
Amaury Triaud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563079/the-exoplanet-next-door
#11
Daniel Clery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516582/astronomy-making-sense-of-the-exoplanet-zoo
#12
COMMENT
Rebecca Oppenheimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437572/a-combined-transmission-spectrum-of-the-earth-sized-exoplanets-trappist-1-b-and-c
#13
Julien de Wit, Hannah R Wakeford, Michaël Gillon, Nikole K Lewis, Jeff A Valenti, Brice-Olivier Demory, Adam J Burgasser, Artem Burdanov, Laetitia Delrez, Emmanuël Jehin, Susan M Lederer, Didier Queloz, Amaury H M J Triaud, Valérie Van Grootel
Three Earth-sized exoplanets were recently discovered close to the habitable zone of the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 (ref. 3). The nature of these planets has yet to be determined, as their masses remain unmeasured and no observational constraint is available for the planetary population surrounding ultracool dwarfs, of which the TRAPPIST-1 planets are the first transiting example. Theoretical predictions span the entire atmospheric range, from depleted to extended hydrogen-dominated atmospheres...
September 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436980/dynamics-of-atmospheres-with-a-non-dilute-condensible-component
#14
Raymond T Pierrehumbert, Feng Ding
The diversity of characteristics for the host of recently discovered exoplanets opens up a great deal of fertile new territory for geophysical fluid dynamics, particularly when the fluid flow is coupled to novel thermodynamics, radiative transfer or chemistry. In this paper, we survey one of these new areas-the climate dynamics of atmospheres with a non-dilute condensible component, defined as the situation in which a condensible component of the atmosphere makes up a substantial fraction of the atmospheric mass within some layer...
June 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386921/direct-imaging-discovery-of-a-jovian-exoplanet-within-a-triple-star-system
#15
Kevin Wagner, Dániel Apai, Markus Kasper, Kaitlin Kratter, Melissa McClure, Massimo Robberto, Jean-Luc Beuzit
Direct imaging allows for the detection and characterization of exoplanets via their thermal emission. We report the discovery via imaging of a young Jovian planet in a triple-star system and characterize its atmospheric properties through near-infrared spectroscopy. The semimajor axis of the planet is closer relative to that of its hierarchical triple-star system than for any known exoplanet within a stellar binary or triple, making HD 131399 dynamically unlike any other known system. The location of HD 131399Ab on a wide orbit in a triple system demonstrates that massive planets may be found on long and possibly unstable orbits in multistar systems...
August 12, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324847/a-hot-jupiter-orbiting-a-2-million-year-old-solar-mass-t-tauri-star
#16
J F Donati, C Moutou, L Malo, C Baruteau, L Yu, E Hébrard, G Hussain, S Alencar, F Ménard, J Bouvier, P Petit, M Takami, R Doyon, A Collier Cameron
Hot Jupiters are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit their host stars 100 times more closely than Jupiter orbits the Sun. These planets presumably form in the outer part of the primordial disk from which both the central star and surrounding planets are born, then migrate inwards and yet avoid falling into their host star. It is, however, unclear whether this occurs early in the lives of hot Jupiters, when they are still embedded within protoplanetary disks, or later, once multiple planets are formed and interact...
June 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213220/interstellar-travel-and-galactic-colonization-insights-from-percolation-theory-and-the-yule-process
#17
Manasvi Lingam
UNLABELLED: In this paper, percolation theory is employed to place tentative bounds on the probability p of interstellar travel and the emergence of a civilization (or panspermia) that colonizes the entire Galaxy. The ensuing ramifications with regard to the Fermi paradox are also explored. In particular, it is suggested that the correlation function of inhabited exoplanets can be used to observationally constrain p in the near future. It is shown, by using a mathematical evolution model known as the Yule process, that the probability distribution for civilizations with a given number of colonized worlds is likely to exhibit a power-law tail...
June 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27140784/statistical-framework-for-the-utilization-of-simultaneous-pupil-plane-and-focal-plane-telemetry-for-exoplanet-imaging-i-accounting-for-aberrations-in-multiple-planes
#18
Richard A Frazin
A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs), has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams...
April 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108423/introduction-to-the-special-issue-habitability-in-the-universe-from-the-early-earth-to-exoplanets
#19
Muriel Gargaud, Wolf Dietrich Geppert, Nigel J Mason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105054/a-new-empirical-constraint-on-the-prevalence-of-technological-species-in-the-universe
#20
A Frank, W T Sullivan
UNLABELLED: In this article, we address the cosmic frequency of technological species. Recent advances in exoplanet studies provide strong constraints on all astrophysical terms in the Drake equation. Using these and modifying the form and intent of the Drake equation, we set a firm lower bound on the probability that one or more technological species have evolved anywhere and at any time in the history of the observable Universe. We find that as long as the probability that a habitable zone planet develops a technological species is larger than ∼10(-24), humanity is not the only time technological intelligence has evolved...
May 2016: Astrobiology
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