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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104494/pathogenic-role-of-exosomes-in-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-associated-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Sin-Yeang Teow, Kitson Liew, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Suat-Cheng Peh
Exosomes are 40- to 100-nm membrane-bound small vesicles that carry a great variety of cellular cargoes including proteins, DNA, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). These nanovesicles are detected in various biological fluids such as serum, urine, saliva, and seminal fluids. Exosomes serve as key mediators in intercellular communication by facilitating the transfer and exchange of cellular components from cells to cells. They contain various pathogenic factors whereby their adverse effects have been implicated in multiple viral infections and cancers...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994707/why-human-papillomavirus-acute-infections-matter
#2
REVIEW
Samuel Alizon, Carmen Lía Murall, Ignacio G Bravo
Most infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are `acute', that is non-persistent. Yet, for HPVs, as for many other oncoviruses, there is a striking gap between our detailed understanding of chronic infections and our limited data on the early stages of infection. Here we argue that studying HPV acute infections is necessary and timely. Focusing on early interactions will help explain why certain infections are cleared while others become chronic or latent. From a molecular perspective, descriptions of immune effectors and pro-inflammatory pathways during the initial stages of infections have the potential to lead to novel treatments or to improved handling algorithms...
October 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983187/viral-causes-of-lymphoma-the-history-of-epstein-barr-virus-and-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-1
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Esau
In 1964, Epstein, Barr, and Achong published a report outlining their discovery of viral particles in lymphoblasts isolated from a patient with Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human cancer virus to be described, and its discovery paved the way for further investigations into the oncogenic potential of viruses. In the decades following the discovery of EBV, multinational research efforts led to the discovery of further viral causes of various human cancers. Lymphomas are perhaps the cancer type that is most closely associated with oncogenic viruses: infection with EBV, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8, and hepatitis C virus have all been associated with lymphomagenesis...
2017: Virology: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965834/epstein-barr-virus-lymphoproliferative-disease-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Susan E Prockop, Anant Vatsayan
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first identified human oncovirus and is also one of the most ubiquitous viral infections known with established infections in more than 90% of individuals by early adulthood. EBV establishes latency by controlling expression of the viral genome making it silent to immune surveillance. In immunocompetent individuals, up to 1% of circulating T cells are directed at maintaining control over EBV replication. In addition to being involved in oncogenesis of lymphoid and epithelial tumors in immune-competent individuals, loss of immune surveillance over EBV predisposes individuals to EBV malignancies...
September 28, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962899/the-interaction-between-mitochondria-and-oncoviruses
#5
REVIEW
Shujie Song, Shasha Gong, Pragya Singh, Jianxin Lyu, Yidong Bai
Mitochondria play important roles in multiple aspects of viral tumorigenesis. Mitochondrial genomes contribute to the host's genetic background. After viruses enter the cell, they modulate mitochondrial function and thus alter bioenergetics and retrograde signaling pathways. At the same time, mitochondria also regulate and mediate viral oncogenesis. In this context, oncogenesis by oncoviruses like Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human papilloma virus (HPV), Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) will be discussed...
September 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859984/epstein-barr-virus-encoded-latent-membrane-protein-1-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-inducing-v-set-ig-domain-containing-4-vsig4-expression-via-nf-kb-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-hk-2%C3%A2-cells
#6
Seung-Mi Kim, Se Won Oh, Sang Hyun Park, Dae Young Hur, Seung-Woo Hong, Sang Youb Han
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a hallmark of chronic kidney disease, is a key event in the conversion from tubular epithelial cells to myofibroblasts in renal fibrosis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a γ-herpes oncovirus associated with chronic kidney disease. However, the relationship between EBV and the EMT process in renal tubular epithelial cells is not well understood. Among EBV-latent genes, EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) induces EMT by regulating a variety of molecules in EBV-induced oncogenic transformation...
October 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836703/anoikis-resistance-and-oncoviruses
#7
Ehsan Kakavandi, Ramin Shahbahrami, Hossein Goudarzi, Gita Eslami, Ebrahim Faghihloo
Anoikis is known as a special type of programmed cell death which occurs in response to loss of correct cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) connections. This process could be as pivotal event in normal development and tissue homeostasis and found as important mechanism in cancer invasiveness and metastasis. The persistent infection with oncoviruses including EBV (Epstein Bar virus), HPV (Human Papillomaviruses), HBV (Hepatitis B virus), KSHV (Human herpesvirus 8), HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus-1), and HCV (Hepatitis C virus) accounted as one of main risk factor for cancer progression...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828983/epigenetics-of-virus-induced-tumors-perspectives-for-therapeutic-targeting
#8
Svetlana Vinokurova
About 15-20% of human cancers worldwide have viral etiology. Seven human DNA and RNA viruses are accepted to be oncogenic viruses or oncoviruses and contribute to the development of various cancer types. Human oncoviruses have developed multiple molecular mechanisms to interfere with specific cellular pathways to promote viral replication and viral life cycle maintenance in the host. Despite the diversity of oncogenic viruses, they use similar strategies for cancer development. Viral oncoproteins and viral non-coding RNAs are the key factors that can affect multiple cellular processes on both genetic and epigenetic levels...
August 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790362/double-stranded-rna-induces-chicken-t-cell-lymphoma-apoptosis-by-trif-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#9
Haitao Zou, Ruixue Su, Jing Ruan, Hongxia Shao, Kun Qian, Jianqiang Ye, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair, Aijian Qin
Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), a member of the pathogen recognition receptor family, has been reported to activate immune response and to exhibit pro-apoptotic activity against some tumor cells. However it is unclear whether TLR3 has same function against chicken lymphoma. In this paper we investigated the effect of TLR3 activation on a Marek's disease lymphoma-derived chicken cell line, MDCC-MSB1. The TLR3 agonist poly (I:C) activated TLR3 pathway and inhibited tumor cells proliferation through caspase-dependent apoptosis...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602713/interplay-between-viruses-and-bacterial-microbiota-in-cancer-development
#10
REVIEW
Dariia Vyshenska, Khiem C Lam, Natalia Shulzhenko, Andrey Morgun
During the last few decades we have become accustomed to the idea that viruses can cause tumors. It is much less considered and discussed, however, that most people infected with oncoviruses will never develop cancer. Therefore, the genetic and environmental factors that tip the scales from clearance of viral infection to development of cancer are currently an area of active investigation. Microbiota has recently emerged as a potentially critical factor that would affect this balance by increasing or decreasing the ability of viral infection to promote carcinogenesis...
August 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562165/her-2-epstein-barr-virus-crosstalk-in-human-gastric-carcinogenesis-a-novel-concept-of-oncogene-oncovirus-interaction
#11
Farhan S Cyprian, Noor Al-Antary, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Additionally, it is well-known that metastatic cancer disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Several investigations reported that HER-2 (ErbB-2 receptor) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are important etiological factors in human gastric cancer, where either oncogene/oncovirus alone can derive a major event of cancer progression and metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
May 31, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410134/pathogen-associated-regulatory-non-coding-rnas-and-oncogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Noriyuki Yoshida, Tominori Kimura
Among all new cancer cases in 2012, on average, 15.4% were caused by Helicobacter pylori or oncoviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C viruses, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. These pathogens encode a variety of non-coding RNAs, which are important cofactors for oncogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the study of long and small non-protein-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, of oncogenic pathogens, and discuss their mechanisms of action in the multiple steps of oncogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031537/activation-of-atr-chk1-pathway-facilitates-ebv-mediated-transformation-of-primary-tonsillar-b-cells
#13
Vanessa Mordasini, Seigo Ueda, Roberta Aslandogmus, Christoph Berger, Claudine Gysin, Daniela Hühn, Alessandro A Sartori, Michele Bernasconi, David Nadal
Primary infection of the immunocompromised host with the oncovirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that targets mainly B-cells is associated with an increased risk for EBV-associated tumors. The early events subsequent to primary infection with potential for B-cell transformation are poorly studied. Here, we modeled in vitro the primary infection by using B-cells isolated from tonsils, the portal of entry of EBV, since species specificity of EBV hampers modeling in experimental animals. Increasing evidence indicates that the host DNA damage response (DDR) can influence and be influenced by EBV infection...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849057/cell-senescence-is-an-antiviral-defense-mechanism
#14
Maite Baz-Martínez, Sabela Da Silva-Álvarez, Estefanía Rodríguez, Jorge Guerra, Ahmed El Motiam, Anxo Vidal, Tomás García-Caballero, Miguel González-Barcia, Laura Sánchez, César Muñoz-Fontela, Manuel Collado, Carmen Rivas
Cellular senescence is often considered a protection mechanism triggered by conditions that impose cellular stress. Continuous proliferation, DNA damaging agents or activated oncogenes are well-known activators of cell senescence. Apart from a characteristic stable cell cycle arrest, this response also involves a proinflammatory phenotype known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). This, together with the widely known interference with senescence pathways by some oncoviruses, had led to the hypothesis that senescence may also be part of the host cell response to fight virus...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830995/oncogenic-role-of-tumor-viruses-in-humans
#15
Nimrah Akram, Muhammad Imran, Mamoona Noreen, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Viruses are the intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. Approximately, 20% of all human oncogenesis is caused by cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses. Viral infection causes chronic inflammation leading to cell death, uncontrollable proliferation, and modulated expression of some of the regulatory proteins. Oncogenesis is a multistep phenomenon in which normal host cells are transformed into cancerous cells on the basis of host genetic variability...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531881/the-other-side-of-the-coin-leveraging-epstein-barr-virus-in-research-and-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Fenggang Yu, Wei Jian Tan, Yanan Lu, Paul A MacAry, Kwok Seng Loh
Epstein-Barr virus is (EBV) a ubiquitous virus prevalent in 90% of the human population. Transmitted through infected saliva, EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and is further implicated in malignancies of lymphoid and epithelial origins. In the past few decades, research efforts primarily focused on dissecting the mechanism of EBV-induced oncogenesis. Here, we present an alternate facet of the oncovirus EBV, on its applications in research and therapy. Finally, discussions on the prospective utilization of EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) diagnosis and therapy will also be presented...
September 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447661/kshv-mediated-angiogenesis-in-tumor-progression
#17
REVIEW
Pravinkumar Purushothaman, Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Subhash C Verma
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells...
July 20, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415011/molecular-evidence-of-viral-dna-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-non-neoplastic-lung
#18
Lary A Robinson, Crystal J Jaing, Christine Pierce Campbell, Anthony Magliocco, Yin Xiong, Genevra Magliocco, James B Thissen, Scott Antonia
BACKGROUND: Although ∼20% of human cancers are caused by microorganisms, only suspicion exists for a microbial cause of lung cancer. Potential infectious agents were investigated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and non-neoplastic lung. METHODS: Seventy NSCLC tumours (33 squamous cell carcinomas, 17 adenocarcinomas, 10 adenocarcinomas with lepidic spread, and 10 oligometastases) and 10 non-neoplastic lung specimens were evaluated for molecular evidence of microorganisms...
August 9, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410918/association-of-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-but-not-human-papillomavirus-hpv-with-gingivitis-and-or-periodontitis-in-transplanted-individuals
#19
Camila Freze Baez, Flavia Savassi-Ribas, Wilker Menezes da Rocha, Stéphanie G S Almeida, Marianna T V Gonçalves, Maria Angelica A M Guimarães, Silvia Maria B Cavalcanti, Rafael B Varella
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of EBV and HPV with gingivitis and/or periodontitis according to the immunologic status. To this end, 74 oral biopsies from transplanted and non-transplanted individuals with the abovementioned oral manifestations were submitted to a screening by PCR for both viruses. According to the results, EBV was strongly associated with gingivitis and/or periodontitis in transplanted individuals (p = 0.011) but not HPV (p = 0.766). EBV-HPV co-detections did not enhance the presence of tissue injury as well...
July 11, 2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376743/viral-noncoding-rnas-in-cancer-biology
#20
REVIEW
Zhi Li, Shujun Fu, Lun-Quan Sun
Over 12 % of all human cancers are caused by oncoviruses, primarily including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). In addition to viral oncoproteins, a variety of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) produced by oncoviruses have been recognized as important cofactors that contribute to the oncogenic events. In this chapter, we will focus on the recent understanding of the long and short noncoding RNAs, as well as microRNAs of the viruses, and discuss their roles in the biology of multistep oncogenesis mediated by established human oncoviruses...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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