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Noriyuki Yoshida, Tominori Kimura
Among all new cancer cases in 2012, on average, 15.4% were caused by Helicobacter pylori or oncoviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C viruses, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. These pathogens encode a variety of non-coding RNAs, which are important cofactors for oncogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the study of long and small non-protein-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, of oncogenic pathogens, and discuss their mechanisms of action in the multiple steps of oncogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Vanessa Mordasini, Seigo Ueda, Roberta Aslandogmus, Christoph Berger, Claudine Gysin, Daniela Hühn, Alessandro A Sartori, Michele Bernasconi, David Nadal
Primary infection of the immunocompromised host with the oncovirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that targets mainly B-cells is associated with an increased risk for EBV-associated tumors. The early events subsequent to primary infection with potential for B-cell transformation are poorly studied. Here, we modeled in vitro the primary infection by using B-cells isolated from tonsils, the portal of entry of EBV, since species specificity of EBV hampers modeling in experimental animals. Increasing evidence indicates that the host DNA damage response (DDR) can influence and be influenced by EBV infection...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
Maite Baz-Martínez, Sabela Da Silva-Álvarez, Estefanía Rodríguez, Jorge Guerra, Ahmed El Motiam, Anxo Vidal, Tomás García-Caballero, Miguel González-Barcia, Laura Sánchez, César Muñoz-Fontela, Manuel Collado, Carmen Rivas
Cellular senescence is often considered a protection mechanism triggered by conditions that impose cellular stress. Continuous proliferation, DNA damaging agents or activated oncogenes are well-known activators of cell senescence. Apart from a characteristic stable cell cycle arrest, this response also involves a proinflammatory phenotype known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). This, together with the widely known interference with senescence pathways by some oncoviruses, had led to the hypothesis that senescence may also be part of the host cell response to fight virus...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nimrah Akram, Muhammad Imran, Mamoona Noreen, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Viruses are the intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. Approximately, 20% of all human oncogenesis is caused by cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses. Viral infection causes chronic inflammation leading to cell death, uncontrollable proliferation, and modulated expression of some of the regulatory proteins. Oncogenesis is a multistep phenomenon in which normal host cells are transformed into cancerous cells on the basis of host genetic variability...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
Fenggang Yu, Wei Jian Tan, Yanan Lu, Paul A MacAry, Kwok Seng Loh
Epstein-Barr virus is (EBV) a ubiquitous virus prevalent in 90% of the human population. Transmitted through infected saliva, EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and is further implicated in malignancies of lymphoid and epithelial origins. In the past few decades, research efforts primarily focused on dissecting the mechanism of EBV-induced oncogenesis. Here, we present an alternate facet of the oncovirus EBV, on its applications in research and therapy. Finally, discussions on the prospective utilization of EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) diagnosis and therapy will also be presented...
September 2016: Oral Oncology
Pravinkumar Purushothaman, Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Subhash C Verma
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells...
2016: Viruses
Lary A Robinson, Crystal J Jaing, Christine Pierce Campbell, Anthony Magliocco, Yin Xiong, Genevra Magliocco, James B Thissen, Scott Antonia
BACKGROUND: Although ∼20% of human cancers are caused by microorganisms, only suspicion exists for a microbial cause of lung cancer. Potential infectious agents were investigated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and non-neoplastic lung. METHODS: Seventy NSCLC tumours (33 squamous cell carcinomas, 17 adenocarcinomas, 10 adenocarcinomas with lepidic spread, and 10 oligometastases) and 10 non-neoplastic lung specimens were evaluated for molecular evidence of microorganisms...
August 9, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Camila Freze Baez, Flavia Savassi-Ribas, Wilker Menezes da Rocha, Stéphanie G S Almeida, Marianna T V Gonçalves, Maria Angelica A M Guimarães, Silvia Maria B Cavalcanti, Rafael B Varella
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of EBV and HPV with gingivitis and/or periodontitis according to the immunologic status. To this end, 74 oral biopsies from transplanted and non-transplanted individuals with the abovementioned oral manifestations were submitted to a screening by PCR for both viruses. According to the results, EBV was strongly associated with gingivitis and/or periodontitis in transplanted individuals (p = 0.011) but not HPV (p = 0.766). EBV-HPV co-detections did not enhance the presence of tissue injury as well...
July 11, 2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Zhi Li, Shujun Fu, Lun-Quan Sun
Over 12 % of all human cancers are caused by oncoviruses, primarily including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). In addition to viral oncoproteins, a variety of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) produced by oncoviruses have been recognized as important cofactors that contribute to the oncogenic events. In this chapter, we will focus on the recent understanding of the long and short noncoding RNAs, as well as microRNAs of the viruses, and discuss their roles in the biology of multistep oncogenesis mediated by established human oncoviruses...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Junyun Lai, Wei Jian Tan, Chien Tei Too, Joanna Ai Ling Choo, Lan Hiong Wong, Fatimah Bte Mustafa, Nalini Srinivasan, Angeline Pei Chiew Lim, Youjia Zhong, Nicholas R J Gascoigne, Brendon J Hanson, Soh Ha Chan, Jianzhu Chen, Paul A MacAry
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncovirus associated with several human malignancies including posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in immunosuppressed patients. We show here that anti-EBV T-cell receptor-like monoclonal antibodies (TCR-like mAbs) E1, L1, and L2 bound to their respective HLA-A*0201-restricted EBV peptides EBNA1562-570, LMP1125-133, and LMP2A426-434 with high affinities and specificities. These mAbs recognized endogenously presented targets on EBV B lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCLs), but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells, from which they were derived...
September 8, 2016: Blood
Alexander A Svoronos, Donald M Engelman, Frank J Slack
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, noncoding RNAs whose dysregulation has been implicated in most, if not all, cancers. They regulate gene expression by suppressing mRNA translation and reducing mRNA stability. To this end, there is a great deal of interest in modifying miRNA expression levels for the treatment of cancer. However, the literature is fraught with inconsistent accounts as to whether various miRNAs are oncogenic or tumor suppressive. In this review, we directly examine these inconsistencies and propose several mechanisms to explain them...
July 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Xue Chen, Ann M Bode, Zigang Dong, Ya Cao
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), defined as transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells, is critical for embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and cancer progression. Recently, the role of EMT in carcinogenesis has attracted much attention. Oncoviruses, including human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hepatitis B and C viruses (HBVs, HCVs), are known to be involved in the etiology of cancer and have been found to play important roles in cancer metastasis, especially in the EMT process...
September 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ting Ni, Vladimir Majerciak, Zhi-Ming Zheng, Jun Zhu
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human oncovirus linked to the development of several malignancies in immunocompromised patients. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has a large DNA genome encoding more than 100 distinct gene products. Despite being transcribed and processed by cellular machinery, the structure and organization of KSHV genes in the virus genome differ from what is observed in cellular genes from the human genome. A typical feature of KSHV expression is the production of polycistronic transcripts initiated from different promoters but sharing the same polyadenylation site (pA site)...
2016: Current Protocols in Microbiology
D J Speicher, V Ramirez-Amador, D P Dittmer, J Webster-Cyriaque, M T Goodman, A-B Moscicki
Human herpesviruses (HHVs) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are common in the general population and, in immunocompetent people, are mostly carried asymptomatically. However, once an individual becomes immunocompromised by age, illness or HIV infection these dormant viruses can manifest and produce disease. In HIV-positive patients, there is an increased risk of disease caused by HHVs and HPV infections and cancers caused by the oncoviruses Epstein-Barr Virus, HHV-8 and HPV. This workshop examined four questions regarding the viruses associated with oral cancers and disease in the HIV-positive and -negative populations, the immune response, and biomarkers useful for accurate diagnostics of these infections and their sequalae...
April 2016: Oral Diseases
Iain Joseph Hyndman
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Cancer arises due to a series of somatic mutations that accumulate within the nucleus of a cell which enable the cell to proliferate in an unregulated manner. These mutations arise as a result of both endogenous and exogenous factors. Genes that are commonly mutated in cancer cells are involved in cell cycle regulation, growth and proliferation. It is known that both nature and nurture play important roles in cancer development through complex gene-environment interactions; however, the exact mechanism of these interactions in carcinogenesis is presently unclear...
April 2016: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
Vicente Soriano, Pablo Barreiro
Neoplasms are more frequent in HIV-positive persons than in non-infected individuals. The incidence of malignancies associated to oncoviruses increases with low CD4 counts in HIV carriers. This is the case for Kaposi sarcoma, Castleman disease or effusive cavity lymphomas due to HHV-8, anorectal or cervical cancer due to human papillomavirus, and Burkitt lymphoma or large B-cell lymphoma due to Epstein-Barr virus.
October 2015: AIDS Reviews
Janet M Doolittle-Hall, Danielle L Cunningham Glasspoole, William T Seaman, Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque
Oncoviruses cause tremendous global cancer burden. For several DNA tumor viruses, human genome integration is consistently associated with cancer development. However, genomic features associated with tumor viral integration are poorly understood. We sought to define genomic determinants for 1897 loci prone to hosting human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). These were compared to HIV, whose enzyme-mediated integration is well understood. A comprehensive catalog of integration sites was constructed from the literature and experimentally-determined HPV integration sites...
November 10, 2015: Cancers
A N Pullos, R M Castilho, C H Squarize
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is an etiologic agent associated with the development of head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC)-in particular, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The HPV-positive HNSCC is characterized by genetic alterations, clinical progression, and therapeutic response, which are distinct from HPV-negative head and neck cancers, suggesting that virus-associated tumors constitute a unique entity among head and neck cancers. Malignant stem cells, or cancer stem cells, are a subpopulation of tumor cells that self-renew, initiate new tumors upon transplantation, and are resistant to therapy, and their discovery has revealed novel effects of oncovirus infection in cancer...
November 2015: Journal of Dental Research
Sameer Lapsia, Siva Koganti, Salvatore Spadaro, Ramona Rajapakse, Anupama Chawla, Sumita Bhaduri-McIntosh
Anti-TNFα therapy, known to suppress T-cell immunity, is increasingly gaining popularity for treatment of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). T-cell suppression increases the risk of B-cell EBV-lymphoproliferative diseases and lymphomas. Since EBV-lytic activation is essential for development of EBV-lymphomas and there have been reports of EBV-lymphomas in patients treated with anti-TNFα therapy, we investigated if patients treated with anti-TNFα antibodies demonstrate greater EBV-lytic activity in blood...
February 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Haiyong Wang, Xiaoshan Zhang, Lisong Teng, Randy J Legerski
Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins...
June 10, 2015: Experimental Cell Research
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