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Epstein-Barr Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790621/generation-and-application-of-human-induced-stem-cell-memory-t-it-scm-cells-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#1
Taisuke Kondo, Yuuki Imura, Shunsuke Chikuma, Sana Hibino, Setsuko Omata-Mise, Makoto Ando, Takashi Akanuma, Mana Iizuka, Ryota Sakai, Rimpei Morita, Akihiko Yoshimura
Adoptive T cell therapy is an effective strategy for cancer immunotherapy. However, infused T cells frequently become functionally exhausted, and consequently offer a poor prognosis after transplantation into patients. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific stem cell memory T (TSCM ) cells is expected to overcome this shortcoming since TSCM cells are close to naïve T cells, but are also highly proliferative, long-lived, and produce a large number of effector T cells in response to antigen stimulation...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789559/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-modulation-of-autophagy-promotes-ebv-oncoprotein-ebna3c-induced-b-cell-survival
#2
Shaoni Bhattacharjee, Priyanka Bose, Krishna Patel, Shatadru Ghosh Roy, Chandrima Gain, Harsha Gowda, Erle S Robertson, Abhik Saha
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncoprotein EBNA3C is indispensable for primary B-cell transformation and maintenance of lymphoblastoid cells outgrowth. EBNA3C usurps two putative cellular pathways-cell-cycle and apoptosis, essentially through modulating ubiquitin-mediated protein-degradation or gene transcription. In cancer cells, these two pathways are interconnected with autophagy,-a survival-promoting catabolic network in which cytoplasmic material including mis/un-folded protein aggregates and damaged organelles along with intracellular pathogens are degraded and recycled in lysosomal compartments...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788215/an-unusual-presentation-of-murine-typhus-and-mononucleosis
#3
Christine Carroll, Simon Sarkisian, Daniel Brillhart
A 20-year-old female presented to the emergency department complaining of fever, cough, and dyspnea after a recent camping trip. The patient remained ill appearing, persistently tachycardic and dyspneic despite nebulizer treatments, and fluids in the emergency department. She was admitted for observation and gradually improved over the next 4 d. Inpatient laboratory studies indicated acute Epstein-Barr virus infection and she was discharged with a presumptive diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. However, further testing showed a simultaneous rickettsial infection producing murine typhus...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787887/human-pegivirus-persistence-in-the-human-blood-virome-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
Diem-Lan Vu, Samuel Cordey, Federico Simonetta, Francisco Brito, Mylène Docquier, Lara Turin, Christian van Delden, Elsa Boely, Carole Dantin, Amandine Pradier, Eddy Roosnek, Yves Chalandon, Evgeny M Zdobnov, Stavroula Masouridi-Levrat, Laurent Kaiser
OBJECTIVES: As commensal viruses are defined by the immunological tolerance afforded to them, any immunomodulation, such as is received during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may shift the demarcation between innocuous viral resident and disease-causing pathogen. METHODS: We analysed by deep-sequencing the plasma virome of 40 allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients 1 month post-transplantation. As human pegivirus (HPgV) was highly prevalent, we performed a one-year screening of 122 plasma samples by specific rRT-PCR assay...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785139/blockage-of-store-operated-ca-2-entry-antagonizes-epstein-barr-virus-promoted-angiogenesis-by-inhibiting-ca-2-signaling-regulated-vegf-production-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#5
Jiaxiang Ye, Junqi Huang, Qian He, Weilin Zhao, Xiaoying Zhou, Zhe Zhang, Yongqiang Li, Jiazhang Wei, Jinyan Zhang
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) actively contributes to the pathological process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by enabling NPC cells to acquire various capacities required for their malignant biological actions. Our earlier works demonstrated that EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis by boosting store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) upon extracellular epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. However, the antagonistic effects of SOCE blockage on EBV-promoted angiogenesis must be appropriately evaluated in vivo, and the global effect of EBV infection on the EGF-elicited cytosolic Ca2+ signaling, which regulates VEGF-mediated angiogenesis remains to be further clarified...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784613/cryoglobulinemic-glomerulonephritis-associated-with-nodal-and-renal-infiltration-by-t-cell-lymphoma-of-t-follicular-helper-phenotype-a-case-report
#6
Jennifer Li, Marille Umakanathan, Chow Heok P'ng, Winny Varikatt, Fiona Kwok, Ming-Wei Lin, Mirna Vucak-Dzumhur
We present a unique case of cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis associated with nodal and renal infiltration by T-cell lymphoma of T-follicular helper phenotype. The patient presented with transient neurologic symptoms, severe nephritic syndrome with nephrotic-range proteinuria, and acute kidney injury. He had elevated double-stranded DNA levels, low complement levels, detectable cryoglobulin, and detectable immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein. The kidney biopsy showed cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis with a membranoproliferative pattern and diffuse interstitial infiltrates on light microscopy; IgM, C3 but weak IgG, C1q, and negative C4d staining on immunofluorescence; and deposits with organized substructures on electron microscopy...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779181/tailoring-acyclovir-prodrugs-with-enhanced-antiviral-activity-rational-design-synthesis-human-plasma-stability-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#7
Radoslav L Chayrov, Evgenios K Stylos, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Kiril N Chuchkov, Aleksandra I Tencheva, Androniki D Kostagianni, Tsenka S Milkova, Assia L Angelova, Angel S Galabov, Stoyan A Shishkov, Daniel G Todorov, Andreas G Tzakos, Ivanka G Stankova
Bile acid prodrugs have served as a viable strategy for refining the pharmaceutical profile of parent drugs through utilizing bile acid transporters. A series of three ester prodrugs of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir (ACV) with the bile acids cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic were synthesized and evaluated along with valacyclovir for their in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2). The in vitro antiviral activity of the three bile acid prodrugs was also evaluated against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)...
May 19, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777406/can-bovine-leukemia-virus-be-related-to-human-breast-cancer-a-review-of-the-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Lucia Martinez Cuesta, Pamela Anahi Lendez, Maria Victoria Nieto Farias, Guillermina Laura Dolcini, Maria Carolina Ceriani
The incidence of breast cancer is continuously increasing worldwide, as influenced by many factors that act synergistically. In the last decade there was an increasing interest in the possible viral etiology of human breast cancer. Since then, many viruses have been associated with this disease (murine mammary tumor virus, MMTV; Epstein-Barr virus, EBV; and human papillomavirus, HPV). Recently, BLV has been identified in human breast cancers giving rise to the hypothesis that it could be one of the causative agents of this condition...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777376/comprehensive-molecular-diagnosis-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-lymphoproliferative-diseases-using-next-generation-sequencing
#9
Shintaro Ono, Manabu Nakayama, Hirokazu Kanegane, Akihiro Hoshino, Saeko Shimodera, Hirofumi Shibata, Hisanori Fujino, Takahiro Fujino, Yuta Yunomae, Tsubasa Okano, Motoi Yamashita, Takahiro Yasumi, Kazushi Izawa, Masatoshi Takagi, Kohsuke Imai, Kejian Zhang, Rebecca Marsh, Capucine Picard, Sylvain Latour, Osamu Ohara, Tomohiro Morio
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several life-threatening diseases, such as lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Some categories of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) including X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), are characterized by susceptibility and vulnerability to EBV infection. The number of genetically defined PIDs is rapidly increasing, and clinical genetic testing plays an important role in establishing a definitive diagnosis. Whole-exome sequencing is performed for diagnosing rare genetic diseases, but is both expensive and time-consuming...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772230/replacing-c189-in-the-bzip-domain-of-zta-with-s-t-v-or-a-changes-dna-binding-specificity-to-four-types-of-double-stranded-dna
#10
Sreejana Ray, Desiree Tillo, Nima Assad, Aniekanabasi Ufot, Christopher Deppmann, Stewart R Durell, Aleksey Porollo, Charles Vinson
Zta is a bZIP transcription factor (TF) in the Epstein-Barr virus that binds unmethylated and methylated DNA sequences. Substitution of cysteine 189 of Zta to serine (Zta(C189S)) results in a virus that is unable to execute the lytic cycle which was attributed to a change in binding to methylated DNA sequences. To learn more about the role of this position in defining sequence-specific DNA binding, we mutated cysteine 189 to four other amino acids producing Zta(C189S), Zta(C189T), Zta(C189A), and Zta(C189V) mutants...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769722/bystander-cd8-t-cells-are-abundant-and-phenotypically-distinct-in-human-tumour-infiltrates
#11
Yannick Simoni, Etienne Becht, Michael Fehlings, Chiew Yee Loh, Si-Lin Koo, Karen Wei Weng Teng, Joe Poh Sheng Yeong, Rahul Nahar, Tong Zhang, Hassen Kared, Kaibo Duan, Nicholas Ang, Michael Poidinger, Yin Yeng Lee, Anis Larbi, Alexis J Khng, Emile Tan, Cherylin Fu, Ronnie Mathew, Melissa Teo, Wan Teck Lim, Chee Keong Toh, Boon-Hean Ong, Tina Koh, Axel M Hillmer, Angela Takano, Tony Kiat Hon Lim, Eng Huat Tan, Weiwei Zhai, Daniel S W Tan, Iain Beehuat Tan, Evan W Newell
Various forms of immunotherapy, such as checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, are proving to be effective at restoring T cell-mediated immune responses that can lead to marked and sustained clinical responses, but only in some patients and cancer types1-4 . Patients and tumours may respond unpredictably to immunotherapy partly owing to heterogeneity of the immune composition and phenotypic profiles of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within individual tumours and between patients5,6 . Although there is evidence that tumour-mutation-derived neoantigen-specific T cells play a role in tumour control2,4,7-10 , in most cases the antigen specificities of phenotypically diverse tumour-infiltrating T cells are largely unknown...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769697/establishment-of-a-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cell-line-capable-of-undergoing-lytic-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation
#12
Yim Ling Yip, Weitao Lin, Wen Deng, Lin Jia, Kwok Wai Lo, Pierre Busson, Benjamin Vérillaud, Xuefeng Liu, Chi Man Tsang, Maria Li Lung, Sai Wah Tsao
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the adult human population. Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is common in Southeast Asia, with a particularly high incidence among southern Chinese. The EBV genome can be detected in practically all cancer cells in undifferentiated NPC. The role of EBV in pathogenesis of undifferentiated NPC remains elusive. NPC cell lines are known to be difficult to establish in culture. The EBV+ve NPC cell lines, even if established in culture, rapidly lost their EBV episomes upon prolonged propagation...
May 16, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765906/epstein-barr-virus-and-human-papillomaviruses-interactions-and-their-roles-in-the-initiation-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-progression
#13
REVIEW
Farhan S Cyprian, Halema F Al-Farsi, Semir Vranic, Saghir Akhtar, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa
Oncoviruses are implicated in around 20% of all human cancers including both solid and non-solid malignancies. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the most common oncoviruses worldwide. Currently, it is well established that onco-proteins of EBV (LMP1, LMP2A, and EBNA1) and high-risk HPVs (E5 and E6/E7) play an important role in the initiation and/or progression of several human carcinomas, including cervical, oral, and breast. More significantly, it has been recently pointed out that viral onco-proteins of EBV and high-risk HPVs can be co-present and consequently cooperate to initiate and/or amplify epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is the hallmark of cancer progression and metastasis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765376/immunization-with-fc-based-recombinant-epstein-barr-virus-gp350-elicits-potent-neutralizing-humoral-immune-response-in-a-balb-c-mice-model
#14
Bingchun Zhao, Xiao Zhang, Claude Krummenacher, Shuo Song, Ling Gao, Haojiong Zhang, Miao Xu, Lin Feng, Qisheng Feng, Musheng Zeng, Yuting Xu, Yixin Zeng
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human virus proved to be closely associated with tumor development, such as lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. Despite many efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines against EBV infection and diseases, no candidates have succeeded in effectively blocking EBV infection in clinical trials. Previous investigations showed that EBV gp350 plays a pivotal role in the infection of B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, using monomeric gp350 proteins as antigens has not been effective in preventing infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765171/risks-and-protective-factors-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-with-a-focus-on-micronutrients-and-infections
#15
Dagmar Horakova, Katerina Bouchalova, Karel Cwiertka, Ladislav Stepanek, Jana Vlckova, Helena Kollarova
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer (BC) with a poor prognosis. Second, patients cannot benefit from targeted therapy, except for those with BRCA1/2 mutations, for whom poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition therapy using olaparib has recently been approved. As global priorities continue to be epidemiological analysis of BC risk factors and early diagnosis, this review focuses on the risks and protective factors associated with TNBC. A PubMed keyword search for new knowledge on the risks and protective factors for TNBC was carried out...
May 15, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765143/other-immunomodulatory-agent-related-lymphoproliferative-diseases-a-single-center-series-of-72-biopsy-confirmed-cases
#16
Lukas Marcelis, Charlien Berghen, Alexandra De Zutter, Pauline Biesemans, Peter Vandenberghe, Gregor Verhoef, Olivier Gheysens, Xavier Sagaert, Daan Dierickx, Thomas Tousseyn
Ongoing development of new drugs, as well as novel indications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases leads to the increasing use of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Immunomodulatory agent-related lymphoproliferative disorders are a known and potentially life threatening complication of chronic administration of these drugs, but are less well characterized compared with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. The heterogeneous drug targets, various underlying disease indications, different drug combinations used and relatively low incidence render data collection and interpretation difficult...
May 15, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764843/poorly-cytotoxic-terminally-differentiated-cd56-neg-cd16-pos-nk-cells-accumulate-in-kenyan-children-with-burkitt-lymphomas
#17
Catherine S Forconi, Cormac P Cosgrove, Pryia Saikumar-Lakshmi, Christina E Nixon, Joslyn Foley, John Michael Ong'echa, Juliana A Otieno, Galit Alter, Christian Münz, Ann M Moormann
Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for restricting viral infections and mediating tumor immunosurveillance. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria are known risk factors for endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), the most common childhood cancer in equatorial Africa. To date, the composition and function of NK cells have not been evaluated in eBL etiology or pathogenesis. Therefore, using multiparameter flow cytometry and in vitro killing assays, we compared NK cells from healthy children and children diagnosed with eBL in Kenya...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764502/decreased-macrophage-inflammatory-protein-mip-1%C3%AE-and-mip-1%C3%AE-increase-the-risk-of-developing-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#18
Meng-Jie Yang, Jie Guo, Yan-Fang Ye, Sui-Hong Chen, Li-Xia Peng, Chu-Yang Lin, Ting Hu, Shang-Hang Xie, Chuan-Bo Xie, Qi-Hong Huang, Yu-Qiang Lu, Qing Liu, Chao-Nan Qian, Su-Mei Cao
BACKGROUND: The association of circulating inflammation markers with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still largely unclear. This study aimed to comprehensively explore the relationship between circulating cytokine levels and the subsequent risk of NPC with a two-stage epidemiologic study in southern China. METHODS: The serum levels of 33 inflammatory cytokines were first measured in a hospital-based case-control study (150 NPC patients and 150 controls) using multiplex assay platforms...
April 3, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764493/nasopharyngeal-brushing-a-convenient-and-feasible-sampling-method-for-nucleic-acid-based-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-research
#19
Pei-Fen Zhang, Xiao-Hui Zheng, Xi-Zhao Li, Tian Tian, Shao-Dan Zhang, Ye-Zhu Hu, Wei-Hua Jia
BACKGROUND: Tissue specimens for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) research are scarce because of sampling difficulties. Previous studies have suggested non-invasive nasopharyngeal brushing as an effective sampling method for NPC diagnosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of nasopharyngeal brushing in the acquisition of NPC nucleic acids for research. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal brushing samples were acquired from 24 healthy individuals and 48 NPC patients...
April 12, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762709/determinants-of-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-shedding-in-saliva-among-ugandan-children-and-their-mothers
#20
Robert Newton, Nazzarena Labo, Katie Wakeham, Vickie Marshall, Romin Roshan, Angela Nalwoga, Ismail Sebina, Lawrence Muhangi, Emily L Webb, Wendell Miley, Rosemary Rochford, Alison M Elliott, Denise Whitby
Introduction: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are transmitted via saliva but factors associated with salivary shedding are unknown. Methods: We measured the shedding of both viruses in the saliva of ~500 Ugandan mothers and their six-year old children, testing all participants for EBV and KSHV seropositive individuals for KSHV. Results: EBV and KSHV were shed by 72% and 22% of the mothers, and by 85% and 40% of children, respectively; boys were more likely than girls to shed KSHV (48% versus 30%), but not EBV...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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