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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110506/antibiotic-discovery-throughout-the-small-world-initiative-a-molecular-strategy-to-identify-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-involved-in-antagonistic-activity
#1
Elizabeth Davis, Tyler Sloan, Krista Aurelius, Angela Barbour, Elijah Bodey, Brigette Clark, Celeste Dennis, Rachel Drown, Megan Fleming, Allison Humbert, Elizabeth Glasgo, Trent Kerns, Kelly Lingro, MacKenzie McMillin, Aaron Meyer, Breanna Pope, April Stalevicz, Brittney Steffen, Austin Steindl, Carolyn Williams, Carmen Wimberley, Robert Zenas, Kristen Butela, Hans Wildschutte
The emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to all known antibiotics is a global health crisis. Adding to this problem is that major pharmaceutical companies have shifted away from antibiotic discovery due to low profitability. As a result, the pipeline of new antibiotics is essentially dry and many bacteria now resist the effects of most commonly used drugs. To address this global health concern, citizen science through the Small World Initiative (SWI) was formed in 2012. As part of SWI, students isolate bacteria from their local environments, characterize the strains, and assay for antibiotic production...
January 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110189/anticancer-activity-of-baicalein-and-luteolin-studied-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-lovo-cells-and-in-drug-resistant-lovo-dx-cells
#2
Anna Palko-Labuz, Kamila Sroda-Pomianek, Anna Uryga, Edyta Kostrzewa-Suslow, Krystyna Michalak
Due to the type-specific diversity of cancer cells, an analysis and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for anticancer properties of biologically active compounds are essential. Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids may be useful in cancer chemoprevention or treatment because they influence diverse molecular pathways in cancer cells. In these studies anticancer activity of natural occurring flavones, baicalein and luteolin was investigated in colon cancer cells LoVo and in their drug resistant subline LoVo/Dx...
January 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110185/computational-analysis-of-amsacrine-resistance-in-human-topoisomerase-ii-alpha-mutants-r487k-and-e571k-using-homology-modeling-docking-and-all-atom-molecular-dynamics-simulation-in-explicit-solvent
#3
Safaa Sader, Chun Wu
Amsacrine is an effective topoisomerase II enzyme inhibitor in acute lymphatic leukemia. Previous experimental studies have successfully identified two important mutations (R487K and E571K) conferring 100 and 25 fold resistance to Amsacrine respectively. Although the reduction of the cleavage ligand-DNA-protein ternary complex has been well thought as the major cause of drug resistance, the detailed energetic, structural and dynamic mechanisms remain to be elusive. In this study, we constructed human topoisomerase II alpha (hTop2α) homology model docked with Amsacrine based on crystal structure of human Top2β in complex with etoposide...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110049/performance-of-microscopic-observation-drug-susceptibility-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-and-detection-of-drug-resistance-in-bamako-mali
#4
Moumine Sanogo, Bourahima Kone, Bassirou Diarra, Mamoudou Maiga, Bocar Baya, Anou M Somboro, Yeya S Sarro, Antieme C G Togo, Bindongo P P Dembele, Drissa Goita, Amadou Kone, Ousmane M'Baye, Nadie Coulibaly, Seydou Diabate, Brehima Traore, Mariam H Diallo, Yaya I Coulibaly, Paul Saleeb, Michael Belson, Susan Orsega, Sophia Siddiqui, Michael A Polis, Sounkalo Dao, Robert L Murphy, Souleymane Diallo
OBJECTIVES: In Mali early detection and treatment of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are still challenging due to cost, time and/or complexity associated with regular tests. Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) is a low-cost assay validated by WHO in 2010. It is a liquid culture based assay to detect the "cording" characteristic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) and to assess susceptibility to both isoniazid and rifampicin defining MDR-TB. In this study we aimed to evaluate the performance of MODS as diagnostic tool compared to a validated method, the MGIT/AST/SIRE...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109994/postsurgical-outcome-in-patients-with-olfactory-auras-and-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#5
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Maromi Nei, Elizabeth E Centurion, Matthew Lorenzo, Michael R Sperling
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the clinical features associated with olfactory auras in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and also hypothesized that this type of aura may predict worse postsurgical outcome in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, data from all patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery were reviewed. Patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2016...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109990/ictal-eeg-fmri-study-of-vertiginous-seizures
#6
Alessandra Morano, Marco Carnì, Sara Casciato, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Jinane Fattouch, Martina Fanella, Mariarita Albini, Luca Manfredi Basili, Giulia Lucignani, Marco Scapeccia, Regina Tomassi, Elisabetta Di Castro, Claudio Colonnese, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Carlo Di Bonaventura
Vertigo and dizziness are extremely common complaints, related to either peripheral or central nervous system disorders. Among the latter, epilepsy has to be taken into consideration: indeed, vertigo may be part of the initial aura of a focal epileptic seizure in association with other signs/symptoms, or represent the only ictal manifestation, a rare phenomenon known as "vertiginous" or "vestibular" seizure. These ictal symptoms are usually related to a discharge arising from/involving temporal or parietal areas, which are supposed to be a crucial component of the so-called "vestibular cortex"...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109975/dna-damage-response-in-patients-with-pediatric-acute-lymphoid-leukemia-during-induction-therapy
#7
Júlia Plentz Portich, Rafael Pereira Dos Santos, Nathalia Kersting, Karolina Brochado Jorge, Pietro Rebelo Casagrande, Gabriela Dos Santos Costa, Jéssica Maria Gonçalves Dias Cionek, Danielly Brufatto Olguins, Marialva Sinigaglia, Franciele Faccio Busatto, Jenifer Saffi, Sharbel Weidner Maluf, Jiseh Fagundes Loss, Algemir Lunardi Brunetto, Rafael Roesler, Caroline Brunetto de Farias
Predicting the individual response to chemotherapy is a crucial challenge in cancer treatment. DNA damage caused by antitumor therapies evokes different repair mechanisms responses, such as Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), whose components are being studied as prognosis biomarkers and target therapies. However, few reports have addressed DNA damages in pediatric Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL). Hence, we conducted an observational follow-up study with pediatric patients to assess DNA damage (by Comet Assay) and gene expression from NER pathway during chemotherapy induction...
January 11, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109869/outcomes-infectiousness-and-transmission-dynamics-of-patients-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-home-discharged-patients-with-programmatically-incurable-tuberculosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Keertan Dheda, Jason D Limberis, Elize Pietersen, Jody Phelan, Aliasgar Esmail, Maia Lesosky, Kevin P Fennelly, Julian Te Riele, Barbara Mastrapa, Elizabeth M Streicher, Tania Dolby, Abdallah M Abdallah, Fathia Ben-Rached, John Simpson, Liezel Smith, Tawanda Gumbo, Paul van Helden, Frederick A Sirgel, Ruth McNerney, Grant Theron, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark, Robin M Warren
BACKGROUND: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179)...
January 18, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109868/management-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#9
Rosella Centis, Giovanni Sotgiu, Giovanni Battista Migliori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109867/interactions-between-interleukin-6-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-drive-the-chemoresistant-phenotype-of-hepatocellular-cancer
#10
Min Xu, Zhongwei Zhao, Jingjing Song, Xilin Lan, Siming Lu, Minjiang Chen, Zufei Wang, Weiqian Chen, Xiaoxi Fan, Fazong Wu, Li Chen, Jianfei Tu, Jiansong Ji
Emerging evidence implicates an important role for myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of MDSCs in response to chemotherapies. In this study, we find that drug-resistant hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cells-derived conditioned medium significantly enhances the expansion and immunosuppressive function of MDSCs compared to their parental sensitive cells, which is demonstrated by increased level of arginase, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109845/outbreak-of-nosocomial-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st1419-in-a-neonatal-unit
#11
Jing Yu, Yue Wang, Zhongju Chen, Xuhui Zhu, Lei Tian, Li Li, Ziyong Sun
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterise carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from neonatal clinical specimens over a 4-month period. METHODS: Seven carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were analysed. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by the agar dilution method, and the drug resistance genes were evaluated by PCR. Clonal relatedness of the isolates was assessed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109790/discovery-of-peptidic-mir-21-processing-inhibitor-by-mirror-image-phage-display-a-novel-method-to-generate-rna-binding-d-peptides
#12
Kotaro Sakamoto, Kentaro Otake, Tadashi Umemoto
A novel method to generate RNA binding D-peptide has been developed. To achieve the screening method, phage display was applied to "Mirrored" RNA (L-enantiomer of RNA). We have selected pre-miR21 as an initial screening target to demonstrate the method. The mirrored pre-miR-21 binding peptide sequences were successfully obtained, and were chemically synthesized using D-amino acids. D-peptide is expected to have favorable properties as a drug candidate such as protease resistance and low immunogenicity. As a result of binding evaluation of the D-peptide to pre-miR-21, the EC50 value was 440nM...
January 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109787/synthesis-and-in-vitro-activity-of-dicationic-indolyl-diphenyl-ethers-as-novel-potent-antibiotic-agents-against-drug-resistant-bacteria
#13
Xiaofang Chen, Xinxin Hu, Yanbin Wu, Yonghua Liu, Cong Bian, Tongying Nie, Xuefu You, Laixing Hu
A series of 4,4'-bis-[2-(6-N-substituted-amidino)indolyl] diphenyl ether have been synthesized and tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity including a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens and cytotoxicity. Most of these compounds have mainly shown anti-Gram positive bacteria activities especially against drug resistant bacterial strains MRSA, MRSE and VRE. The anti-MRSA and anti-MRSE activities of compound 7a and 7j were more potent than that of the lead compound 2, levofloxacin and vancomycin...
January 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109770/modulation-of-the-antibiotic-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-strains-of-coumarins-isolated-from-rutaceae-species
#14
Sara A L Madeiro, Nathalie H P B Borges, Augusto L Souto, Pedro T R de Figueiredo, José P Siqueira-Junior, Josean F Tavares
The first occurrences and dissemination of resistant microorganisms led to the inefficacy of many antibiotics, available in the market nowadays, therefore, the search for new substances with antimicrobial activity from natural sources has gained a great importance. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antibacterial activity and modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by coumarins such as bergapten, xantotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin obtained from two Rutaceae species (Metrodorea mollis and Pilocarpus spicatus)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109741/eight-unexpected-cases-of-vancomycin-associated-acute-kidney-injury-with-contemporary-dosing
#15
J Nicholas O'Donnell, Cybele Ghossein, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Jessica Peng, Tina Lertharakul, C Kim Pham, Marc H Scheetz
Vancomycin is one of the most commonly utilized antibiotics in US hospitals. It remains the drug of choice for the treatment of serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. For many of these deep-seated infections, guidelines recommend achieving troughs of 15-20 mg/L for treatment efficacy. At our institution we observed a number of cases of presumed vancomycin-induced acute tubular necrosis clinically diagnosed by the nephrology service. We report eight cases of presumed vancomycin-induced acute tubular necrosis, three of which required hemodialysis before resolution of nephrotoxicity...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109594/characteristics-of-resistance-and-virulence-factors-in-different-species-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-milk-of-healthy-sheep-and-animals-with-subclinical-mastitis
#16
Katheryne B Martins, Patricia Y Faccioli, Mariana F Bonesso, Simone Fernandes, Aline A Oliveira, Ariane Dantas, Luiz F Zafalon, Maria de Lourdes R S Cunha
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are among the main responsible agents for mastitis in sheep. Cure rates can be reduced due to several causes, such as those related to virulence factors presented by microorganisms. This study aims at characterizing the virulence and resistance factors to antimicrobial agents in different CNS species isolated from sheep milk. After collecting milk samples, the samples were analyzed and the CNS species were identified. After identification, the susceptibility-sensitivity profile was examined using the disk diffusion technique for 10 antimicrobial agents...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109255/the-effect-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-test-on-the-time-to-mdr-tb-treatment-initiation-in-a-rural-setting-a-cohort-study-in-south-africa-s-eastern-cape-province
#17
Joshua Iruedo, Don O'Mahony, Sikhumbuzo Mabunda, Graham Wright, Busisiwe Cawe
BACKGROUND: There are significant delays in initiation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR -TB) treatment. The Xpert MTB/RIF test has been shown to reduce the time to diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB predominantly in urban centres. This study describes the time to treatment of MDR-TB and the effect of Xpert MTB/RIF on time to treatment in a deprived rural area in South Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study analysing the medical records of patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in King Sabata Dalindyebo Sub-District between 2009 and 2014...
January 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109167/cell-cycle-tailored-targeting-of-metastatic-melanoma-challenges-opportunities
#18
Nikolas K Haass, Brian Gabrielli
The advent of targeted therapies of metastatic melanoma, such as MAPK pathway inhibitors and immune checkpoint antagonists, has turned dermato-oncology from the 'bad guy' to the 'poster child' in oncology. Current targeted therapies are effective; although here is a clear need to develop combination therapies to delay the onset of resistance. Many anti-melanoma drugs impact on the cell cycle but are also dependent on certain cell cycle phases resulting in cell cycle phase-specific drug insensitivity. Here, we raise the question: Have combination trials been abandoned prematurely as ineffective possibly only because drug scheduling was not optimized? Firstly, if both drugs of a combination hit targets in the same melanoma cell, cell cycle-mediated drug insensitivity should be taken into account when planning combination therapies, timing of dosing schedules and choice of drug therapies in solid tumors...
January 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109133/the-prognostic-and-therapeutic-application-of-micrornas-in-breast-cancer-tissue-and-circulating-micrornas
#19
REVIEW
Afsane Bahrami, Seyed Amir Aledavoud, Kazem Anvari, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Mina Maftouh, Ali Yaghobzade, Omid Salarzaee, Soodabeh ShahidSales, Amir Avan
Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy diagnosed in women, supporting the need for identification of novel prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as molecular regulators that can have key roles in pathogenesis and progression of different malignancies, including breast cancer. Micro-RNAs can be circulated in body fluid, suggesting their values as non-invasive marker. There is growing body of evidence showing the aberrant activation of some known circulating miRNAs, e...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109113/-effect-of-sodium-phenylbutyrate-on-the-sensitivity-of-pc3-dtx-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells-to-docetaxel
#20
Ya-Wen Xu, Shao-Bo Zheng, Bin-Sheng Chen, Yong Wen, Shan-Wen Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB) in modulating docetaxel resistance in human prostate cancer cells in vitro. METHODS: A PC3/docetaxel-resistant human prostate cancer cell line PC3/DTX was induced and examined for proliferation, viability, and cell inhibition rate in the presence of SPB. The concentration of concentration of docetaxel required to kill 50% of PC3/DTX cells incubated with 0, 1, 2, and 4 mmol/L SPB was determined using MTT assay...
2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
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