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Intestinal epithelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#1
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520792/myd88-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-and-the-intestinal-epithelium-controls-immunity-against-intestinal-infection-with-c-rodentium
#2
Christin Friedrich, Panagiota Mamareli, Sophie Thiemann, Friederike Kruse, Zuobai Wang, Bernhard Holzmann, Till Strowig, Tim Sparwasser, Matthias Lochner
MyD88-mediated signaling downstream of Toll-like receptors and the IL-1 receptor family is critically involved in the induction of protective host responses upon infections. Although it is known that MyD88-deficient mice are highly susceptible to a wide range of bacterial infections, the cell type-specific contribution of MyD88 in protecting the host against intestinal bacterial infection is only poorly understood. In order to investigate the importance of MyD88 in specific immune and nonimmune cell types during intestinal infection, we employed a novel murine knock-in model for MyD88 that enables the cell type-specific reactivation of functional MyD88 expression in otherwise MyD88-deficient mice...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514409/-new-opportunities-for-the-prevention-of-gastric-cancer
#3
I G Maev, A N Kazyulin
The approvals and provisions of the Management of Helicobacter pylori infection-the Maastricht V/ Florence Consensus Report and those of the Kyoto Global Consensus Conference on H. pylori-associated gastritis, concerning with the primary and secondary prevention of gastric cancer (GC), unambiguously suggest that H. pylori infection is the most important risk factor of GC. Accordingly, the basis for the primary and secondary prevention of GC is the optimization of H. pylori eradication therapy. The clear direct relationship of the risk of GC to the severity and extent of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia and no reversal of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in the presence of H...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512157/il-22bp-dictates-characteristics-of-peyer-s-patch-follicle-associated-epithelium-for-antigen-uptake
#4
Toshi Jinnohara, Takashi Kanaya, Koji Hase, Sayuri Sakakibara, Tamotsu Kato, Naoko Tachibana, Takaharu Sasaki, Yusuke Hashimoto, Toshiro Sato, Hiroshi Watarai, Jun Kunisawa, Naoko Shibata, Ifor R Williams, Hiroshi Kiyono, Hiroshi Ohno
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) acts protectively and harmfully on intestinal tissue depending on the situation; therefore, IL-22 signaling needs to be tightly regulated. IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) binds IL-22 to inhibit IL-22 signaling. It is expressed in intestinal and lymphoid tissues, although its precise distribution and roles have remained unclear. In this study, we show that IL-22BP is highly expressed by CD11b(+)CD8α(-) dendritic cells in the subepithelial dome region of Peyer's patches (PPs). We found that IL-22BP blocks IL-22 signaling in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering PPs, indicating that IL-22BP plays a role in regulating the characteristics of the FAE...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508685/primary-epidermoid-cyst-of-biliary-duct-presenting-as-choledochal-cyst
#5
Dong Hyang Kwon, Lynt B Johnson, Metin Ozdemirli
Choledochal cyst is a cystic dilation of the biliary tree that can increase the risk of malignancy in bile ducts and the gallbladder. These are usually lined by bile duct epithelium, which may undergo intestinal and squamous metaplasia. This is the first report of clinically diagnosed type II choledochal cyst that is entirely lined by metaplastic stratified squamous epithelium, unlike most other cysts, which are histologically lined by bile duct epithelium. This observation can potentially explain the underlying pathogenic mechanism of rare reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in bile duct systems...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508584/human-intestinal-spirochetosis-in-japanese-patients-aged-less-than-20-years-histological-analysis-of-colorectal-biopsy-and-surgical-specimens-obtained-from-479-patients
#6
Shojiro Ichimata, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Mai Kusakari, Yoshiko Nakayama, Shiho Asaka, Tatsuya Negishi, Eriko Kasuga, Takehisa Matsumoto, Takayuki Honda
Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a condition in which spirochetes attach to and colonize the colorectal epithelium. To our knowledge, no comprehensive studies of HIS in young patient have been published in a developed country. This study aimed to determine the incidence and clinicopathological manifestations of HIS in Japanese patients aged less than 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed 3605 biopsy and 92 surgical specimens obtained from 479 patients admitted to Shinshu University Hospital between 1997 and 2014...
May 15, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507021/cell-biology-of-tight-junction-barrier-regulation-and-mucosal-disease
#7
Aaron Buckley, Jerrold R Turner
Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells. In the intestine, the epithelium establishes a selectively permeable barrier that supports nutrient absorption and waste secretion while preventing intrusion by luminal materials. Intestinal epithelia therefore play a central role in regulating interactions between the mucosal immune system and luminal contents, which include dietary antigens, a diverse intestinal microbiome, and pathogens. The paracellular space is sealed by the tight junction, which is maintained by a complex network of protein interactions...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505094/antigiardial-activity-of-podophyllotoxin-type-lignans-from-bursera-fagaroides-var-fagaroides
#8
Filiberto Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Ana María Puebla-Pérez, Sirenia González-Pozos, José Manuel Hernández-Hernández, Armando Pérez-Rangel, Laura Patricia Alvarez, Gabriela Tapia-Pastrana, Araceli Castillo-Romero
Giardiasis, a diarrheal disease, is highly prevalent in developing countries. Several drugs are available for the treatment of this parasitosis; unfortunately, all of them have variable efficacies and adverse effects. Bursera fagaroides has been known for its anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal properties in Mexican traditional medicine. We investigated the in vitro anti-giardial activities of four podophyllotoxin-type lignans from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides, namely, 5'-desmethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (5-DES), acetylpodophyllotoxin (APOD), burseranin (BUR), and podophyllotoxin (POD)...
May 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503995/preparation-and-characterization-of-surface-modified-plga-polymeric-nanoparticles-used-to-target-treatment-of-intestinal-cancer
#9
Niyaz Ahmad, Md Aftab Alam, Rizwan Ahmad, Atta Abbas Naqvi, Farhan Jalees Ahmad
Docetaxel (DTX), a cytotoxic taxane, is a poor water-soluble drug and exhibits less oral bioavailability. Current research investigates the effective transport, for DTX-loaded chitosan (CS)-coated-poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)-nanoparticles (NPs) (DTX-CS-PLGA-NPs) and DTX-PLGA-NPs as well as a novel third-generation P-gp inhibitor i.e. GF120918 (Elacridar), across intestinal epithelium with its successive uptake by the tumour cells in an in vitro model. The prepared NPs showed a spherical shape particle size i...
May 14, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503169/cytotoxicity-intestinal-transport-and-bioavailability-of-dispersible-iron-and-zinc-supplements
#10
Hyeon-Jin Kim, Song-Hwa Bae, Hyoung-Jun Kim, Kyoung-Min Kim, Jae Ho Song, Mi-Ran Go, Jin Yu, Jae-Min Oh, Soo-Jin Choi
Iron or zinc deficiency is one of the most important nutritional disorders which causes health problem. However, food fortification with minerals often induces unacceptable organoleptic changes during preparation process and storage, has low bioavailability and solubility, and is expensive. Nanotechnology surface modification to obtain novel characteristics can be a useful tool to overcome these problems. In this study, the efficacy and potential toxicity of dispersible Fe or Zn supplement coated in dextrin and glycerides (SunActive Fe(TM) and SunActive Zn(TM)) were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity, intestinal transport, and bioavailability, as compared with each counterpart without coating, ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498822/interleukin-4-and-interleukin-13-increase-nadph-oxidase-1-related-proliferation-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#11
Han Liu, Smitha Antony, Krishnendu Roy, Agnes Juhasz, Yongzhong Wu, Jiamo Lu, Jennifer L Meitzler, Guojian Jiang, Eric Polley, James H Doroshow
Human colon cancers express higher levels of NADPH oxidase 1 [NOX1] than adjacent normal epithelium. It has been suggested that reactive oxygen species [ROS] derived from NOX1 contribute to DNA damage and neoplastic transformation in the colon, particularly during chronic inflammatory stress. However, the mechanism(s) underlying increased NOX1 expression in malignant tumors or chronic inflammatory states involving the intestine are poorly characterized. We examined the effects of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, on the regulation of NOX1...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495755/intestinal-microbiota-contributes-to-colonic-epithelial-changes-in-simulated-microgravity-mouse-model
#12
Junxiu Shi, Yifan Wang, Jian He, Pingping Li, Rong Jin, Ke Wang, Xi Xu, Jie Hao, Yan Zhang, Hongju Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Hounan Wu, Qing Ge
Exposure to microgravity leads to alterations in multiple systems, but microgravity-related changes in the gastrointestinal tract and its clinical significance have not been well studied. We used the hindlimb unloading (HU) mouse model to simulate a microgravity condition and investigated the changes in intestinal microbiota and colonic epithelial cells. Compared with ground controls (Ctrls), HU affected fecal microbiota composition with a profile that was characterized by the expansion of Firmicutes and decrease of Bacteroidetes The colon epithelium of HU mice showed decreased goblet cell numbers, reduced epithelial cell turnover, and decreased expression of genes that are involved in defense and inflammatory responses...
May 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494934/the-expression-of-nkg2d-on-porcine-iel-and-its-possible-relation-to-the-adaptive-intestinal-immune-system
#13
Sara Altmeyer, Jürgen Zentek, Wilfried Vahjen, Lydia Scharek-Tedin
The gastrointestinal tract contains a multitude of components which include intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). IELs have been reported to express a variety of surface receptors that enable cross talk among various cell populations. The purpose of the reported investigation was to determine which IEL populations express the natural killer cell receptor NKG2D which is an activating receptor that plays a role in cytolytic responses. In a feeding experiment with piglets, IELs were isolated from jejunal tissue at three different stages post weaning...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494873/a-chimeric-egfr-protein-reporter-mouse-reveals-egfr-localization-and-trafficking-in%C3%A2-vivo
#14
Yu-Ping Yang, Haiting Ma, Alina Starchenko, Won Jae Huh, Wei Li, F Edward Hickman, Qin Zhang, Jeffrey L Franklin, Douglas P Mortlock, Sabine Fuhrmann, Bruce D Carter, Rebecca A Ihrie, Robert J Coffey
EGF receptor (EGFR) is a critical signaling node throughout life. However, it has not been possible to directly visualize endogenous Egfr in mice. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we appended a fluorescent reporter to the C terminus of the Egfr. Homozygous reporter mice appear normal and EGFR signaling is intact in vitro and in vivo. We detect distinct patterns of Egfr expression in progenitor and differentiated compartments in embryonic and adult mice. Systemic delivery of EGF or amphiregulin results in markedly different patterns of Egfr internalization and trafficking in hepatocytes...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493289/intestinal-epithelial-claudins-expression-and-regulation-in-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Vicky Garcia-Hernandez, Miguel Quiros, Asma Nusrat
The intestinal epithelium forms a highly dynamic and selective barrier that controls absorption of fluid and solutes while restricting pathogen access to underlying tissues. Barrier properties are achieved by intercellular junctions that include an apical tight junction (TJ) and subjacent adherens junctions and desmosomes. The TJ tetraspan claudin proteins form pores between epithelial cells to control paracellular fluid and ion movement. In addition to regulation of barrier function, claudin family members control epithelial homeostasis and are expressed in a spatiotemporal manner in the intestinal crypt-luminal axis...
May 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492284/inhibition-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1-and-activation-of-receptor-2-protect-against-colonic-injury-and-promote-epithelium-repair
#16
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Tali Filler, Alison Hock, Richard You Wu, Qi Li, Shigang Chen, Yuhki Koike, Wan Ip, Lijun Chi, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Pekka Määttänen, Tanja Gonska, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490422/cftr-mediated-anion-secretion-across-intestinal-epithelium-like-caco-2-monolayer-under-pth-stimulation-is-dependent-on-intermediate-conductance-k-channels
#17
Walailak Jantarajit, Kornkamon Lertsuwan, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Nateetip Krishnamra, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), a pleiotropic hormone that maintains mineral homeostasis, is also essential for controlling pH balance and ion transport across renal and intestinal epithelia. Optimization of luminal pH is important for absorption of trace elements, e.g., calcium and phosphorus. We have previously demonstrated that PTH rapidly stimulated electrogenic HCO3(-) secretion in intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 monolayer, but the underlying cellular mechanism, contributions of other ions, particularly Cl(-) and K(+), and long-lasting responses are not completely understood...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487683/trans-cinnamaldehyde-carvacrol-and-eugenol-reduce-campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-factors-and-expression-of-virulence-genes-in-vitro
#18
Abhinav Upadhyay, Komala Arsi, Basanta R Wagle, Indu Upadhyaya, Sandip Shrestha, Ann M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans characterized by fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal epithelium followed by cytolethal distending toxin mediated cell death, and enteritis. Reducing the attachment and invasion of Campylobacter to intestinal epithelium and expression of its virulence factors such as motility and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) production could potentially reduce infection in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486580/enterocyte-glycosylation-is-responsive-to-changes-in-extracellular-conditions-implications-for-membrane-functions
#19
Dayoung Park, Gege Xu, Mariana Barboza, Ishita M Shah, Maurice Wong, Helen Raybould, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla
Epithelial cells in the lining of the intestines play critical roles in maintaining homeostasis while challenged by dynamic and sudden changes in luminal contents. Given the high density of glycosylation that encompasses their extracellular surface, environmental changes may lead to extensive reorganization of membrane-associated glycans. However, neither the molecular details nor the consequences of conditional glycan changes are well understood. Here we assessed the sensitivity of Caco-2 and HT-29 membrane N-glycosylation to variations in (i) dietary elements; (ii) microbial fermentation products; and (ii) cell culture parameters relevant to intestinal epithelial cell growth and survival...
May 9, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485250/localization-of-trefoil-factor-family-peptide-3-in-epithelial-tissues-originating-from-the-three-germ-layers-of-developing-mouse-embryo
#20
Nikola Bijelić, Tatjana Belovari, Maja Tolušić Levak, Mirela Baus Lončar
Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are involved in the maintenance of epithelial integrity and epithelial restitution. Mature epithelial tissues originate from different embryonic germ layers. The objective of this research was to explore the presence and localization of TFF3 peptide in mouse embryonic epithelium and to examine if the occurrence of TFF3 is germ layer-dependent. Mouse embryos (14-18 days old) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed with affinity purified rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody, goat anti-rabbit biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, followed by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine...
May 9, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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