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Intestinal epithelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775592/dietary-and-microbial-oxazoles-induce-intestinal-inflammation-by-modulating-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-responses
#1
Shankar S Iyer, Thomas Gensollen, Amit Gandhi, Sungwhan F Oh, Joana F Neves, Frederic Collin, Richard Lavin, Carme Serra, Jonathan Glickman, Punyanganie S A de Silva, R Balfour Sartor, Gurdyal Besra, Russell Hauser, Anthony Maxwell, Amadeu Llebaria, Richard S Blumberg
Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease, while epidemiological studies have emphasized that pathogenesis likely involves host interactions with environmental elements whose source and structure need to be defined. Here, we identify a class of compounds derived from dietary, microbial, and industrial sources that are characterized by the presence of a five-membered oxazole ring and induce CD1d-dependent intestinal inflammation. We observe that minimal oxazole structures modulate natural killer T cell-dependent inflammation by regulating lipid antigen presentation by CD1d on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774159/toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-modulate-intestinal-il-10-differently-in-ileum-and-colon
#2
Eva Latorre, Elena Layunta, Laura Grasa, Julián Pardo, Santiago García, Ana I Alcalde, José E Mesonero
Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases are consequence of an intestinal homeostasis breakdown in which innate immune dysregulation is implicated. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are immune recognition receptors expressed in the intestinal epithelium, the first physical-physiological barrier for microorganisms, to inform the host of the presence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to maintenance of intestinal homeostasis...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770852/notch-inhibition-counteracts-paneth-cell-death-in-absence-of-caspase-8
#3
M K Jeon, E Kaemmerer, U Schneider, M Schiffer, C Klaus, J Hennings, T Clahsen, T Ackerstaff, M Niggemann, A Schippers, T Longerich, G Sellge, C Trautwein, N Wagner, C Liedtke, N Gassler
Opposing activities of Notch and Wnt signaling regulate mucosal barrier homeostasis and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. Specifically, Wnt activity is essential for differentiation of secretory cells including Wnt3-producing Paneth cells, whereas Notch signaling strongly promotes generation of absorptive cells. Loss of caspase-8 in intestinal epithelium (casp8∆int ) is associated with fulminant epithelial necroptosis, severe Paneth cell death, secondary intestinal inflammation, and an increase in Notch activity...
May 16, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769003/influence-of-probiotics-on-dietary-protein-digestion-and-utilization-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
Jing Wang, Haifeng Ji
Protein is essential to growth and metabolism. Many factors influence dietary protein digestion and utilization in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics have attracted increasing attention in recent years owing to their broad health benefits, which may include a positive influence on the digestion and utilization of proteins. Several observations support their potential role in protein digestion. For example, probiotics can regulate the intestinal microflora and thereby influence intestinal bacteria related to proteolysis...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768179/intestinal-epithelial-wnt-signaling-mediates-acetylcholine-triggered-host-defense-against-infection
#5
Sid Ahmed Labed, Khursheed A Wani, Sakthimala Jagadeesan, Abdul Hakkim, Mehran Najibi, Javier Elbio Irazoqui
Regulated antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal epithelium is key to defense against infection and to microbiota homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate such expression is necessary for understanding immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease and for developing safe and effective therapies. We used Caenorhabditis elegans in a preclinical approach to discover mechanisms of antimicrobial gene expression control in the intestinal epithelium. We found an unexpected role for the cholinergic nervous system...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768040/myristate-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-requires-ceramide-synthases-5-6-and-generation-of-c14-ceramide-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#6
Songhwa Choi, Justin M Snider, Nicole Olakkengil, Johana M Lambert, Andrea K Anderson, Jessica S Ross-Evans, L Ashley Cowart, Ashley J Snider
Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and chronic inflammatory responses, as well as alter sphingolipid metabolism. Disruptions in ER stress and sphingolipid metabolism have also been implicated in intestinal inflammation. Therefore, to elucidate the roles of SFAs in ER stress and inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells, we examined myristate (C14:0) and palmitate (C16:0). Myristate, but not palmitate, induced ER stress signaling, including activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) signaling...
May 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764431/cyclooxygenase-2-immunoexpression-in-intestinal-epithelium-and-lamina-propria-of-cats-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-low-grade-alimentary-lymphoma
#7
Jorge Castro-López, Antonio Ramis, Marta Planellas, Mariana Teles, Josep Pastor
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inducible isoform by cellular activation, proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate COX-2 immunoexpression in epithelial and lamina propria (LP) of cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and low grade alimentary lymphoma (LGAL), as well as to correlate them with clinical signs and histopathological scoring. Cats diagnosed with IBD and LGAL (2007-2013) were included in the current study. Feline chronic enteropathy activity index (FCEAI) was calculated for all cases...
May 15, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764197/re-thinking-the-chicken-campylobacter-jejuni-interaction-a-review
#8
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For long time, C. jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
May 15, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760082/a-cytokine-network-involving-il-36%C3%AE-il-23-and-il-22-promotes-antimicrobial-defense-and-recovery-from-intestinal-barrier-damage
#9
Vu L Ngo, Hirohito Abo, Estera Maxim, Akihito Harusato, Duke Geem, Oscar Medina-Contreras, Didier Merlin, Andrew T Gewirtz, Asma Nusrat, Timothy L Denning
The gut epithelium acts to separate host immune cells from unrestricted interactions with the microbiota and other environmental stimuli. In response to epithelial damage or dysfunction, immune cells are activated to produce interleukin (IL)-22, which is involved in repair and protection of barrier surfaces. However, the specific pathways leading to IL-22 and associated antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production in response to intestinal tissue damage remain incompletely understood. Here, we define a critical IL-36/IL-23/IL-22 cytokine network that is instrumental for AMP production and host defense...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756575/effects-of-stress-on-the-mucus-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut
#10
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756292/primary-intestinal-type-adenocarcinoma-of-the-oral-tongue-case-report-and-review-of-histologic-origin-and-oncologic-management
#11
Jenna Berg, Rodolfo E Manosalva, Andrew Coughlin, Yungpo Bernard Su, Tien-Shew Huang, John Gentry
BACKGROUND: Primary intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (ITAC) of the oral tongue is an extremely uncommon malignancy with only 3 cases reported in the literature. This high-grade malignancy originates from metaplasia of minor salivary glands. METHODS: A 40-year-old man presented with a gradually enlarging midline oral tongue mass, odynophagia, and dysphagia. Management included a median lingual glossectomy, bilateral neck dissections, and adjuvant chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
May 13, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755893/policing-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-innate-immune-functions-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#12
Madeleine D Hu, Luo Jia, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: This review will explore the contribution of IELs to mucosal innate immunity and highlight the similarities in IEL functional responses to bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasite invasion. Recent findings: IELs rapidly respond to microbial invasion by activating host defense responses, including the production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides to prevent microbes from reaching the epithelial surface. During active infection, IELs promote epithelial cytolysis, cytokine and chemokine production to limit pathogen invasion, replication and dissemination...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754801/ingestion-of-food-particles-regulates-the-mechanosensing-misshapen-yorkie-pathway-in-drosophila-intestinal-growth
#13
Qi Li, Niraj K Nirala, Yingchao Nie, Hsi-Ju Chen, Gary Ostroff, Junhao Mao, Qi Wang, Lan Xu, Y Tony Ip
The intestinal epithelium has a high cell turnover rate and is an excellent system to study stem cell-mediated adaptive growth. In the Drosophila midgut, the Ste20 kinase Misshapen, which is distally related to Hippo, has a niche function to restrict intestinal stem cell activity. We show here that, under low growth conditions, Misshapen is localized near the cytoplasmic membrane, is phosphorylated at the threonine 194 by the upstream kinase Tao, and is more active toward Warts, which in turn inhibits Yorkie...
May 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752866/a-requirement-for-septins-and-the-autophagy-receptor-p62-in-the-proliferation-of-intracellular-shigella
#14
Damián Lobato-Márquez, Sina Krokowski, Andrea Sirianni, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. During infection of epithelial cells, Shigella escape from the phagosome to the cytosol, where they reroute host cell glycolysis to obtain nutrients for proliferation. Septins, a poorly understood component of the cytoskeleton, can entrap cytosolic Shigella targeted to autophagy in cage-like structures to restrict bacterial proliferation. Although bacterial entrapment by septin caging has been the subject of intense investigation, the role of septins and the autophagy machinery in the proliferation of non-caged Shigella is mostly unknown...
May 12, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749528/methylation-of-the-claudin%C3%A2-3-promoter-predicts-the-prognosis-of-advanced-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#15
Zhenzhen Zhang, Weixing Yu, Shuqin Chen, Yupeng Chen, Linying Chen, Sheng Zhang
Claudin‑3 expression is associated with gastric cancer progression, but the role of epigenetic modifications remains unclear. We investigated methylation of the claudin‑3 promoter and expression profiles in gastric adenocarcinoma and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of the patients. A total of 122 patients with advanced gastric cancer [stage IIB‑IV, with lymph node (LN) metastasis] were enrolled. Each patient provided 4 tissue samples: normal gastric epithelium, intestinal metaplasia, primary tumor and metastatic LN...
May 2, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746173/induction-of-gut-proteasome-activity-in-hemorrhagic-shock-and-its-recovery-by-treatment-with-diphenyldihaloketones-clefma-and-ef24
#16
Geeta Rao, Hailey Houson, Gregory Nkepang, Hooman Yari, Chengwen Teng, Vibhudutta Awasthi
BACKGROUND: Multi-organ failure in hemorrhagic shock is triggered by gut barrier dysfunction and consequent systemic infiltration of proinflammatory factors. Our previous study has shown that diphenyldihaloketone drugs CLEFMA and EF24 restore gut barrier dysfunction and reduce systemic inflammatory response in hemorrhagic shock. AIMS: We investigated the effect of hemorrhagic shock on proteasome activity of intestinal epithelium and how CLEFMA and EF24 treatments modulate proteasome function in hemorrhagic shock...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744053/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-apoptosis-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-a-feed-back-regulation-by-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-mtorc1
#17
Yun Ji, Xuan Luo, Ying Yang, Zhaolai Dai, Guoyao Wu, Zhenlong Wu
Background: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with multiple pathological processes of intestinal diseases. Despite a critical role of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in regulating cellular stress response, the crosstalk between mTORC1 and ER stress signaling and its contribution to the intestinal barrier function is unknown. Results: In the present study, we showed that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) incubated with tunicamycin led to caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743862/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-retinoid-receptors-cross-talk-at-the-cyp1a1-promoter-in-vitro
#18
Stefanie Hessel-Pras, Anke Ehlers, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
The epithelium of the small intestine plays an important role in detoxification processes due to the presence of various xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes from phase I and II, as well as transport proteins of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily. Exposure to xenobiotics induces the expression of these proteins in the small intestine, with multiple signaling pathways stimulated by exogenous compounds converging at individual gene promoters by mechanisms which have not been fully understood yet. In this context the promoter region of the CYP1A1 gene, encoding the phase I monooxygenase cytochrome P450 1A1, was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with regard to binding of xeno-sensing receptors following stimulation of Caco-2 cells with agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and retinoid receptors...
2018: EXCLI Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742964/efficient-generation-of-cynomolgus-monkey-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-organoids-with-pharmacokinetic-functions
#19
Daichi Onozato, Misaki Yamashita, Ryosuke Fukuyama, Takumi Akagawa, Yuriko Kida, Akiko Koeda, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao, Tamihide Matsunaga
In preclinical studies, the cynomolgus monkey (CM) model is frequently used to predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the human small intestine, because of its evolutionary closeness to humans. Intestinal organoids that mimic the intestinal tissue have attracted attention in regenerative medicine and drug development. In this study, we generated intestinal organoids from CM induced pluripotent stem (CMiPS) cells and analysed their pharmacokinetic functions. CMiPS cells were induced into the hindgut; then, the cells were seeded on microfabricated culture vessel plates to form spheroids...
May 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740541/anti-biofilm-properties-of-the-fecal-probiotic-lactobacilli-against-vibrio-spp
#20
Sumanpreet Kaur, Preeti Sharma, Namarta Kalia, Jatinder Singh, Sukhraj Kaur
Diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in developing countries including India and is associated with high rate of mortality especially in children. V. cholerae is known to form biofilms on the gut epithelium, and the biofilms once formed are resistant to the action of antibiotics. Therefore agents that prevent the biofilm formation and disperse the preformed biofilms are associated with therapeutic benefits. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera is associated with side effects such as gut dysbiosis due to depletion of gut microflora, and the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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