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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#1
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086964/anti-%C3%AE-synuclein-immunotherapy-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-propagation-in-the-axon-and-degeneration-in-a-combined-viral-vector-and-transgenic-model-of-synucleinopathy
#2
Brian Spencer, Elvira Valera, Edward Rockenstein, Cassia Overk, Michael Mante, Anthony Adame, Wagner Zago, Peter Seubert, Robin Barbour, Dale Schenk, Dora Games, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), PD dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons. Recent studies have proposed that neuron-to-neuron propagation of α-syn plays a role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. We have previously shown that antibodies against the C-terminus of α-syn reduce the intra-neuronal accumulation of α-syn and related deficits in transgenic models of synucleinopathy, probably by abrogating the axonal transport and accumulation of α-syn in in vivo models...
January 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086829/genomic-pathways-modulated-by-twist-in-breast-cancer
#3
Farhad Vesuna, Yehudit Bergman, Venu Raman
BACKGROUND: The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST1 (Twist) is involved in embryonic cell lineage determination and mesodermal differentiation. There is evidence to indicate that Twist expression plays a role in breast tumor formation and metastasis, but the role of Twist in dysregulating pathways that drive the metastatic cascade is unclear. Moreover, many of the genes and pathways dysregulated by Twist in cell lines and mouse models have not been validated against data obtained from larger, independant datasets of breast cancer patients...
January 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081372/role-of-hyperplasia-of-gingival-lymphatics-in-periodontal-inflammation
#4
P Papadakou, A Bletsa, M A Yassin, T V Karlsen, H Wiig, E Berggreen
Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081254/maternal-supply-of-cas9-to-zygotes-facilitates-the-efficient-generation-of-site-specific-mutant-mouse-models
#5
Alberto Cebrian-Serrano, Shijun Zha, Lars Hanssen, Daniel Biggs, Christopher Preece, Benjamin Davies
Genome manipulation in the mouse via microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 site-specific nucleases has allowed the production time for genetically modified mouse models to be significantly reduced. Successful genome manipulation in the mouse has already been reported using Cas9 supplied by microinjection of a DNA construct, in vitro transcribed mRNA and recombinant protein. Recently the use of transgenic strains of mice overexpressing Cas9 has been shown to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis via maternal supply to zygotes and this route may provide an alternative to exogenous supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080219/adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-gestational-diabetes
#6
Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Aaron T Poole, Gayle Olson, Michel Makhlouf, Hanaa S Sallam, Shwetha Thukuntla, Sucharitha Kankanala, Obos Ekhaese, Guillermo Gomez, Manisha Chandalia, Nicola Abate
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and altered glucose-lipid metabolism. We propose that ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), a protein known to induce adipocyte IR, is a determinant of GDM. Our objective was to study ENPP1 expression in adipose tissue (AT) of obese pregnant women with or without GDM, as well as glucose tolerance in pregnant transgenic (Tg) mice with AT-specific overexpression of human ENPP1...
January 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079883/cysteamine-re-establishes-the-clearance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-macrophages-bearing-the-cystic-fibrosis-relevant-f508del-cftr-mutation
#7
Eleonora Ferrari, Romina Monzani, Valeria R Villella, Speranza Esposito, Francesca Saluzzo, Federica Rossin, Manuela D'Eletto, Antonella Tosco, Fabiola De Gregorio, Valentina Izzo, Maria C Maiuri, Guido Kroemer, Valeria Raia, Luigi Maiuri
Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079473/protective-immunity-against-influenza-in-hla-a2-transgenic-mice-by-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-vectored-vaccines-containing-internal-influenza-proteins
#8
Giuseppina Di Mario, Ester Sciaraffia, Marzia Facchini, Francesco Gubinelli, Elisa Soprana, Maddalena Panigada, Valentina Bernasconi, Bruno Garulli, Antonio Siccardi, Isabella Donatelli, Maria R Castrucci
BACKGROUND: The emergence of novel strains of influenza A viruses with hemagglutinins (HAs) that are antigenically distinct from those circulating in humans, and thus have pandemic potential, pose concerns and call for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. In the present study, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding internal influenza antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to protect HLA-A2.1 transgenic (AAD) mice from infection with influenza viruses...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079119/interleukin-32-gamma-stimulates-bone-formation-by-increasing-mir-29a-in-osteoblastic-cells-and-prevents-the-development-of-osteoporosis
#9
Eun-Jin Lee, Sang-Min Kim, Bongkun Choi, Eun-Young Kim, Yeon-Ho Chung, Eun-Ju Lee, Bin Yoo, Chang-Keun Lee, Seokchan Hong, Beom-Jun Kim, Jung-Min Koh, Soo-Hyun Kim, Yong-Gil Kim, Eun-Ju Chang
Interleukin-32 gamma (IL-32γ) is a recently discovered cytokine that is elevated in inflamed tissues and contributes to pathogenic features of bone in human inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Nevertheless, the role of IL-32γ and its direct involvement in bone metabolism is unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanism of IL-32γ in bone remodeling and the hypothetical correlation between IL-32γ and disease activity in osteoporosis patients. Transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human IL-32γ showed reduced bone loss with advancing age, increased bone formation, and high osteogenic capacity of osteoblast compared to wild-type (WT) mice through the upregulation of miR-29a, which caused a reduction of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) expression...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079060/intranasal-lactoferrin-enhances-%C3%AE-secretase-dependent-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-via-the-erk1-2-creb-and-hif-1%C3%AE-pathways-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#10
Chuang Guo, Zhao-Hui Yang, Shuai Zhang, Rui Chai, Han Xue, Yan-Hui Zhang, Jia-Yi Li, Zhan-You Wang
Growing evidence suggests that lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic functional nutrient. Additionally, Lf was recently implicated as a neuroprotective agent. These properties make Lf a valuable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms regulating the physiological roles of Lf in the pathologic condition of AD remain unknown. In the present study, an APPswe/PS1DE9 transgenic mouse model of AD was used. We explored whether intranasal human Lf (hLf) administration could reduce β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ameliorate cognitive decline in this AD model...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#11
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077679/crispr-cas9-gene-repair-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-from-patients-with-x-linked-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#12
Suk See De Ravin, Linhong Li, Xiaolin Wu, Uimook Choi, Cornell Allen, Sherry Koontz, Janet Lee, Narda Theobald-Whiting, Jessica Chu, Mary Garofalo, Colin Sweeney, Lela Kardava, Susan Moir, Angelia Viley, Pachai Natarajan, Ling Su, Douglas Kuhns, Kol A Zarember, Madhusudan V Peshwa, Harry L Malech
Gene repair of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) may avoid problems associated with gene therapy, such as vector-related mutagenesis and dysregulated transgene expression. We used CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated 9) to repair a mutation in the CYBB gene of CD34(+) HSPCs from patients with the immunodeficiency disorder X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD). Sequence-confirmed repair of >20% of HSPCs from X-CGD patients restored the function of NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase and superoxide radical production in myeloid cells differentiated from these progenitor cells in vitro...
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077171/prostate-specific-il-6-transgene-autonomously-induce-prostate-neoplasm-through-amplifying-inflammation-in-the-prostate-and-peri-prostatic-adipose-tissue
#13
Gang Liu, Jinyu Zhang, Lewis Frey, Xiao Gang, Kongming Wu, Qian Liu, Michael Lilly, Jennifer Wu
BACKGROUND: The causative role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in prostate cancer progression has been well established at molecular level. However, whether and how IL-6 may play a role in prostate cancer risk and development is not well defined. One limitation factor to acquiring this knowledge is the lack of appropriate animal models. METHODS: We generated a novel line of prostate-specific IL-6 transgenic mouse model. We compared the prostate pathology, tumorigenic signaling components, and prostate tumor microenvironment of the IL-6 transgenic mice with wild type littermates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077158/ccl2-driven-inflammation-increases-mammary-gland-stromal-density-and-cancer-susceptibility-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model
#14
Xuan Sun, Danielle J Glynn, Leigh J Hodson, Cecilia Huo, Kara Britt, Erik W Thompson, Lucy Woolford, Andreas Evdokiou, Jeffrey W Pollard, Sarah A Robertson, Wendy V Ingman
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play diverse roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is an inflammatory cytokine that recruits macrophages to sites of injury. Although CCL2 has been detected in human and mouse mammary epithelium, its role in regulating mammary gland development and cancer risk has not been explored. METHODS: Transgenic mice were generated wherein CCL2 is driven by the mammary epithelial cell-specific mouse mammary tumour virus 206 (MMTV) promoter...
January 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076758/polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-promote-cognitive-function-and%C3%A2-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Shichao Huang, Jianxin Mao, Kan Ding, Yue Zhou, Xianglu Zeng, Wenjuan Yang, Peipei Wang, Cun Zhao, Jian Yao, Peng Xia, Gang Pei
Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074441/activation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-in-both-retina-and-primary-visual-cortex-improves-the-feature-selectivity-of-primary-visual-cortex-neurons
#16
Jinggang Duan, Hang Fu, Jiayi Zhang
Several recent studies using either viral or transgenic mouse models have shown different results on whether the activation of parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the primary visual cortex (V1) improves the orientation- and direction-selectivity of V1 neurons. Although this discrepancy was thoroughly discussed in a follow-up communication, the issue of using different models to express ChR2 in V1 was not mentioned. We found that ChR2 was expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and V1 neurons in ChR2(fl/+); PV-Cre mice...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073937/activity-of-tachykinin1-expressing-pet1-raphe-neurons-modulates-the-drive-to-breathe
#17
Morgan L Hennessy, Andrea Corcoran, Rachael D Brust, Eugene E Nattie, Susan Dymecki
: Homeostatic control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature relies on circuits within the brainstem modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Mounting evidence points to specialized neuronal subtypes within the 5-HT system, which have borne out in functional studies, including the modulation of distinct facets of homeostatic control. These functional differences, read out at the organismal level, are likely subserved by differences among 5-HT neuron subtypes at the cellular and molecular levels, including differences in the capacity to co-express other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and substance P encoded by the Tachykinin-1 (Tac1) gene...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073409/-a-study-of-immune-response-to-hbsag-mediated-by-cd4-memory-t-lymphocytes-in-immunized-hbv-transgenic-mice
#18
Y Li, J H Chen, X G Shu, J H Chen, Q H Xia, W Z Yuan, L Wu, Q Tang, G B Wang
Objective: To investigate the mechanism of immune response to HBsAg mediated by CD4+ memory T lymphocytes in immunized HBV transgenic (Tg) mice. Methods: Peripheral CD4+ memory T lymphocytes were isolated and collected by magnetic bead sorting from C57BL/6 mice successfully immunized by hepatitis B vaccine. Adoptive immunization was performed for Tg mice by caudal vein injection, and the peripheral blood was collected at 4 and 8 weeks after adoptive immunization. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of HBsAg, anti-HBs, interferon-γ (IFNγ), and interleukin-2 (IL-2), and immunohistochemistry was used to measure the level of HBsAg in the liver...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073379/tau-passive-immunization-inhibits-not-only-tau-but-also-a%C3%AE-pathology
#19
Chun-Ling Dai, Yunn Chyn Tung, Fei Liu, Cheng-Xin Gong, Khalid Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein is a histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases. In recent years, tau immunotherapy has shown great potential in animal models. We report the effect of immunization with tau antibodies 43D against tau 6-18 and 77E9 against tau 184-195 on tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) pathologies and cognition in triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-AD mice at mild to moderate stages of the disease...
January 10, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072604/epigenetic-upregulation-of-cxcl12-expression-mediates-anti-tubulin-chemotherapeutics-induced-neuropathic-pain
#20
Ting Xu, Xiao-Long Zhang, Han-Dong Ou-Yang, Zhen-Yu Li, Cui-Cui Liu, Zhen-Zhen Huang, Jing Xu, Jia-You Wei, Bi-Lin Nie, Chao Ma, Shao-Ling Wu, Wen-Jun Xin
Clinically, Microtubule-targeted agents-induced neuropathic pain hampers chemotherapeutics for cancer patients. Here, we found that application of paclitaxel or vincristine increased the protein and mRNA expression of CXCL12, and frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs) in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Spinal local application of CXCL12 induced the long-term potentiation (LTP) of nociceptive synaptic transmission and increased the amplitude of mEPSCs. Inhibition of CXCL12 by using the transgenic mice (CXCL12) or neutralizing antibody or siRNA ameliorated the mEPSCs enhancement and mechanical allodynia...
January 7, 2017: Pain
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