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Placenta fetal programming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408625/maternal-and-neonatal-irisin-precursor-gene-fndc5-polymorphism-is-associated-with-preterm-birth
#1
Hagit Salem, Yekaterina Yatchenko, Mariana Anosov, Talya Rosenfeld, Gheona Altarescu, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Ruth Birk
Irisin is a novel secreted myokine, encoded by the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) precursor gene. Irisin plays a role in the female reproductive system in pregnancy and in embryonic development, and is associated with fetal size. It is expressed in the ovary, placenta and neonatal cord serum. We studied whether maternal and neonatal FNDC5 genetic polymorphisms are associated with preterm birth (PTB). Blood for DNA analysis was collected from Israeli mothers (n = 315) and from umbilical veins of their respected idiopathic preterm (24-36 weeks) and control term (>37 weeks) newborns (n = 161)...
January 30, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380317/assessment-of-placental-transport-function-in-studies-of-disease-programming
#2
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
Environmental conditions during pregnancy affect fetal growth and development and program the offspring for poor future health. These effects may be mediated by the placenta, which develops to transfer nutrients from the mother to the fetus for growth. The ability to measure the unidirectional maternofetal transfer of non-metabolizable radio-analogues of glucose and amino acid by the placenta in vivo has thus been invaluable to our understanding of the regulation of fetal growth, particularly in small animal models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360948/diet-induced-obesity-alters-the-maternal-metabolome-and-early-placenta-transcriptome-and-decreases-placenta-vascularity-in-the-mouse
#3
Tami J Stuart, Kathleen O'Neill, David Condon, Issac Sasson, Payel Sen, Yunwei Xia, Rebecca A Simmons
Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in offspring. Increasing evidence suggests that the placenta plays an active role in fetal programming. In this study, we used a mouse model of diet-induced obesity to demonstrate that the abnormal metabolic milieu of maternal obesity sets the stage very early in pregnancy by altering the transcriptome of placenta progenitor cells in the pre-implantation (trophectoderm [TE]) and early post-implantation (ectoplacental cone [EPC]) placenta precursors which is associated with later changes in placenta development and function...
January 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335435/placental-morphology-is-associated-with-maternal-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-and-toddler-psychiatric-problems
#4
Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Melissa Jane Cudmore, Eva Haeussner, Christoph Schmitz, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Esa Hämäläinen, Pia M Villa, Susanna Mehtälä, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Rebecca M Reynolds, Hans-Georg Frank, Katri Räikkönen
Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy predict increased psychiatric problems in children. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. Hence, we examined whether alterations in the morphology of 88 term placentas were associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and psychiatric problems in 1.9-3.1-years old (Mean = 2.1 years) toddlers. Maternal depressive symptoms were rated biweekly during pregnancy with the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (n = 86)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321064/the-role-of-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-and-mas1-receptor-axis-in-glucocorticoid-induced-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#5
Elham Ghadhanfar, Aseel Alsalem, Shaimaa Al-Kandari, Jumana Naser, Fawzi Babiker, Maie Al-Bader
BACKGROUND: Plasma and urine levels of the potent vasodilator Ang-(1-7) are elevated in mid and late pregnancy and are correlated with elevated placental angiogenesis, fetal blood flow, and rapid fetal growth. We hypothesized that Ang-(1-7), its receptor (Mas1) and the enzymes involved in Ang-(1-7) production (ACE2 and Membrane metallo-endopeptidase; MME) are down regulated in response to glucocorticoid administration contributing to IUGR. METHODS: Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with dexamethasone (DEX; 0...
December 29, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312622/acute-nutritional-stress-during-pregnancy-affects-placental-efficiency-fetal-growth-and-adult-glucose-homeostasis
#6
Sajida Malik, Alan Diot, Karl Morten, Eszter Dombi, Manu Vatish, C A Richard Boyd, Joanna Poulton
Exposure to maternal malnutrition impairs postnatal health. Acute nutritional stress is less clearly implicated in intrauterine programming. We studied the effects of stressing pregnant mothers on perinatal growth and adult glucose homeostasis. We compared one group ("stressed", mothers fasted for 16 hours) with controls ("unstressed"). We found that fasting stress had adverse effects on the weight of the fetuses conceived (p<0.005) and the placental efficiency (p<0.001) in stressed compared to unstressed offspring...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217485/developmental-origins-of-adult-health-and-disease-the-metabolic-role-of-bdnf-from-early-life-to-adulthood
#7
REVIEW
Despina D Briana, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process...
December 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190548/supplementation-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-pregnant-rats-with-mild-diabetes-normalizes-placental-ppar%C3%AE-and-mtor-signaling-in-female-offspring-developing-gestational-diabetes
#8
Evangelina Capobianco, Daiana Fornes, Sabrina Lorena Roberti, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
Maternal diabetes impairs fetoplacental development and programs metabolic diseases in the offspring. We have previously reported that female offspring of pregnant rats with mild diabetes develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) when they become pregnant. Here, we studied the effects of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in pregnant mild diabetic rats (F0) by feeding a 6% safflower-oil-enriched diet from day 1 to 14 followed by a 6% chia-oil-enriched diet from day 14 of pregnancy to term...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184858/what-is-fetal-programming-a-lifetime-health-is-under-the-control-of-in-utero-health
#9
REVIEW
Eun Jin Kwon, Young Ju Kim
The "Barker hypothesis" postulates that a number of organ structures and associated functions undergo programming during embryonic and fetal life, which determines the set point of physiological and metabolic responses that carry into adulthood. Hence, any stimulus or insult at a critical period of embryonic and fetal development can result in developmental adaptations that produce permanent structural, physiological and metabolic changes, thereby predisposing an individual to cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine disease in adult life...
November 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179559/does-exercise-during-pregnancy-affect-placental-weight-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Ruben Barakat, Marina Vargas, Maia Brik, Irene Fernandez, Javier Gil, Javier Coteron, Belen Santacruz
Placental weight (PW) is a measure commonly used to summarize growth and aspects of placental function. In a normal pregnancy, it is reasonable to assume that PW is related to aspects of the functional capacity of the placenta. The placenta, as the site for all maternal-fetal oxygen and nutrient exchange, influences birth weight and is thus central to a successful pregnancy outcome. PW is the most common way to characterize placental growth, which relates to placental function. With physical exercise becoming an integral part of life for many women, the question of whether exercise during pregnancy has an adverse effect on the growing fetus is very important...
January 1, 2017: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123519/two-distinct-myeloid-subsets-at-the-term-human-fetal-maternal-interface
#11
Maria Laura Costa, Michelle L Robinette, Mattia Bugatti, Mark S Longtine, Bryanne N Colvin, Erica Lantelme, William Vermi, Marco Colonna, D Michael Nelson, Marina Cella
During pregnancy, immune cells infiltrate the placenta at different stages of fetal development. NK cells and macrophages are the most predominant cell types. These immune cells play pleiotropic roles, as they control spiral artery remodeling to ensure appropriate blood supply and maintain long-term tolerance to a true allograft; yet, they must be able to mount appropriate immune defenses to pathogens that may threaten the fetus. Whether the same cell type accomplishes all these tasks or if there are dedicated subsets remains controversial...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123159/zinc-is-a-critical-regulator-of-placental-morphogenesis-and-maternal-hemodynamics-during-pregnancy-in-mice
#12
Rebecca L Wilson, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Zona Goh, Dale McAninch, Tanja Jankovic-Karasoulos, Gabriela E Leghi, Jessica A Phillips, Katrina Mirabito Colafella, Cuong Tran, Sean O'Leary, Sam Buckberry, Stephen Pederson, Sarah A Robertson, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts
Zinc is an essential micronutrient in pregnancy and zinc deficiency impairs fetal growth. We used a mouse model of moderate zinc deficiency to investigate the physiological mechanisms by which zinc is important to placental morphogenesis and the maternal blood pressure changes during pregnancy. A 26% reduction in circulating zinc (P = 0.005) was exhibited in mice fed a moderately zinc-deficient diet. Zinc deficiency in pregnancy resulted in an 8% reduction in both near term fetal and placental weights (both P < 0...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112458/review-detrimental-effects-of-alcohol-exposure-around-conception-putative-mechanisms
#13
Jacinta I Kalisch-Smith, Karen M Moritz
In western countries, alcohol consumption is widespread in women of reproductive age, and in binge quantities. These countries also continue to have high incidences of unplanned pregnancies, with women often reported to cease drinking after discovering their pregnancy. This suggests the early embryo may be highly exposed to the detrimental effects of alcohol during this periconceptional period. The periconception and pre-implantation windows which includes maturation of the oocyte, fertilisation and morphogenesis of the pre-implantation embryo, are particularly sensitive times of development...
November 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108634/maternal-growth-restriction-and-stress-exposure-in-rats-differentially-alters-expression-of-components-of-the-placental-glucocorticoid-barrier-and-nutrient-transporters
#14
Jessica F Briffa, Sogand S Hosseini, Melanie Tran, Karen M Moritz, James S M Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
The placenta plays a major role in the development of fetal growth restriction, which affects 10% of pregnancies and contributes to chronic adult disease risk. We have reported that female rats born small develop cardiometabolic dysfunction only during pregnancy. The physiological tests performed during pregnancy induced a maternal stress response as indicated by increased maternal corticosterone concentrations. This stress effected placental growth compared to females who were unhandled during pregnancy. Maternal stress and growth restriction independently program F2 offspring metabolic dysfunction...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081341/dna-methylation-and-birth-weight-a-genome-wide-analysis
#15
Li Li Mao, Xin Hua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Jia Zheng, Wen Hui Li, Miao Yu, Hua Bing Zhang, Fan Ping, Jian Ping Xu, Xiao Jing Wang
The study illustrate the inner correlation between global DNA methylation variation and different birth weights. Infant birth weight was used to identify cases and controls. Cord blood and placentas were collected. We performed DNA methylation profiling of bisulphite-converted DNA. We have identified many differentially methylated CpG sites in experimental groups; these sites involved in hundreds of signalings. Among these, more than ten pathways were referred to the glucose and lipid metabolism. Methylation changes in the insulin-signaling pathway (ISP), adipocytokine signaling pathway (ASP) and MAPK signaling pathway are involved in the fetal programming of diabetes...
September 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045485/alterations-in-the-placental-methylome-with-maternal-obesity-and-evidence-for-metabolic-regulation
#16
Kohzoh Mitsuya, Ashley N Parker, Lu Liu, Jianhua Ruan, Margreet C M Vissers, Leslie Myatt
The inflammatory and metabolic derangements of obesity in pregnant women generate an adverse intrauterine environment, increase pregnancy complications and adverse fetal outcomes and program the fetus for obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. We hypothesized that epigenetic modifications in placenta including altered DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation may mediate these effects. Term placental villous tissue was collected following cesarean section from lean (prepregnancy BMI<25) or obese (BMI>30) women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034064/personalized-therapy-against-preeclampsia-by-replenishing-placental-protein-13-pp13-targeted-to-patients-with-impaired-pp13-molecule-or-function
#17
REVIEW
Hamutal Meiri, George Osol, Irene Cetin, Sveinbjörn Gizurarson, Berthold Huppertz
Hypertensive disorders affect about one third of all people aged 20 and above, and are treated with anti-hypertensive drugs. Preeclampsia (PE) is one form of such disorders that only develops during pregnancy. It affects ten million pregnant women globally and additionally causes fetal loss and major newborn disabilities. The syndrome's origin is multifactorial, and anti-hypertensive drugs are ineffective in treating it. Biomarkers are helpful for predict its development. Generic drugs, such as low dose aspirin, were proven effective in preventing preterm PE...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979893/prenatal-maternal-stress-and-the-risk-of-asthma-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Konstantinos Douros, Maria Moustaki, Sophia Tsabouri, Anna Papadopoulou, Marios Papadopoulos, Kostas N Priftis
Emerging evidence indicate that maternal prenatal stress (MPS) can result in a range of long-term adverse effects in the offspring. The underlying mechanism of MPS is not fully understood. However, its complexity is emphasized by the number of purportedly involved pathways namely, placental deregulated metabolism of maternal steroids, impaired maturation of fetal HPA axis, imbalanced efflux of commensal bacteria across the placenta, and skewed immune development toward Th2. Fetal programming probably exerts a pivotal role in the end result of the above pathways through the modulation of gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962690/early-and-late-onset-preeclampsia-and-the-tissue-specific-epigenome-of-the-placenta-and-newborn
#19
Emilie M Herzog, Alex J Eggink, Sten P Willemsen, Roderick C Slieker, Kim P J Wijnands, Janine F Felix, Jun Chen, Andrew Stubbs, Peter J van der Spek, Joyce B van Meurs, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) carries increased risks of cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases in mothers and offspring during the life course. While the severe early-onset PE (EOPE) phenotype originates from impaired placentation in early pregnancy, late-onset PE (LOPE) is in particular associated with pre-existing maternal cardiovascular- and metabolic risk factors. We hypothesize that PE is associated with altered epigenetic programming of placental and fetal tissues and that these epigenetic changes might elucidate the increased cardiovascular- and metabolic disease susceptibility in PE offspring...
October 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926727/early-pregnancy-intrauterine-fetal-exposure-to-maternal-smoking-and-impact-on-fetal-telomere-length
#20
Hooman Mirzakhani, Immaculata De Vivo, J Steven Leeder, Roger Gaedigk, Carrie A Vyhlidal, Scott T Weiss, Kelan Tantisira
BACKGROUND: Reduced telomere length, or its accelerated attrition, has been implicated in aging, mortality, and several human diseases, including respiratory diseases. Age dependent manifestation of telomere-mediated disease during life span indicates the role of developmental stage in these diseases and highlights the importance of fetal developmental process in utero and at earlier life stages. Environmental determinants during developmental and later stages of life could affect telomere length...
November 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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