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Placenta fetal programming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859593/placental-specific-overexpression-of-sflt-1-alters-trophoblast-differentiation-and-nutrient-transporter-expression-in-an-iugr-mouse-model
#1
E Kühnel, V Kleff, V Stojanovska, S Kaiser, R Waldschütz, F Herse, T Plösch, E Winterhager, A Gellhaus
Since it is known that placental overexpression of the human anti-angiogenic molecule sFlt-1, the main candidate in the progression of preeclampsia, lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in mice by lentiviral transduction of mouse blastocysts, we hypothesize that sFlt-1 influence placental morphology and physiology resulting in fetal IUGR. We therefore examined the effect of sFlt-1 on placental morphology and physiology at embryonic day 18.5 with histologic and morphometric analyses, transcript analyses, immunoblotting, and methylation studies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849611/notch1-controls-development-of-the-extravillous-trophoblast-lineage-in-the-human-placenta
#2
Sandra Haider, Gudrun Meinhardt, Leila Saleh, Christian Fiala, Jürgen Pollheimer, Martin Knöfler
Development of the human placenta and its different epithelial trophoblasts is crucial for a successful pregnancy. Besides fusing into a multinuclear syncytium, the exchange surface between mother and fetus, progenitors develop into extravillous trophoblasts invading the maternal uterus and its spiral arteries. Migration into these vessels promotes remodelling and, as a consequence, adaption of blood flow to the fetal-placental unit. Defects in remodelling and trophoblast differentiation are associated with severe gestational diseases, such as preeclampsia...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817870/biological-features-of-placental-programming
#3
Kent L Thornburg, Kevin Kolahi, Melinda Pierce, Amy Valent, Rachel Drake, Samantha Louey
The placenta is a key organ in programming the fetus for later disease. This review outlines nine of many structural and physiological features of the placenta which are associated with adult onset chronic disease. 1) Placental efficiency relates the placental mass to the fetal mass. Ratios at the extremes are related to cardiovascular disease risk later in life. 2) Placental shape predicts a large number of disease outcomes in adults but the regulators of placental shape are not known. 3) Non-human primate studies suggest that at about mid-gestation, the placenta becomes less plastic and less able to compensate for pathological stresses...
October 20, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782079/organ-specific-gene-expression-changes-in-the-fetal-liver-and-placenta-in-response-to-maternal-folate-depletion
#4
Jill A McKay, Long Xie, Michiel Adriaens, Chris T Evelo, Dianne Ford, John C Mathers
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that the in utero environment can have profound implications for fetal development and later life offspring health. Current theory suggests conditions experienced in utero prepare, or "programme", the fetus for its anticipated post-natal environment. The mechanisms responsible for these programming events are poorly understood but are likely to involve gene expression changes. Folate is essential for normal fetal development and inadequate maternal folate supply during pregnancy has long term adverse effects for offspring...
October 22, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780972/developmental-origins-of-nafld-a-womb-with-a-clue
#5
REVIEW
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher, Jacob E Friedman
Changes in the maternal environment leading to an altered intrauterine milieu can result in subtle insults to the fetus, promoting increased lifetime disease risk and/or disease acceleration in childhood and later in life. Particularly worrisome is that the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing among children and adults, and is being diagnosed at increasingly younger ages, pointing towards an early-life origin. A wealth of evidence, in humans and non-human primates, suggests that maternal nutrition affects the placenta and fetal tissues, leading to persistent changes in hepatic metabolism, mitochondrial function, the intestinal microbiota, liver macrophage activation and susceptibility to NASH postnatally...
October 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749592/prevalence-of-placenta-previa-among-deliveries-in-mainland-china-a-prisma-compliant-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Dazhi Fan, Song Wu, Wen Wang, Lihong Xin, Guo Tian, Li Liu, Jinping Feng, Xiaoling Guo, Zhengping Liu
BACKGROUND: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. METHODS: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698567/managing-hyperthyroidism-in-pregnancy-current-perspectives
#7
Stine Linding Andersen, Peter Laurberg
Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678102/variable-methylation-potential-in-preterm-placenta-implication-for-epigenetic-programming-of-the-offspring
#8
Vinita V Khot, Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Savita Mehendale, Sadhana R Joshi
Children born preterm are reported to be at increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in later life. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns are implicated in fetal programming of adult diseases. Our earlier animal studies focus on micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) that interact in the 1 carbon cycle, thereby influencing methylation reactions. Our previous studies in women delivering preterm show altered plasma levels of micronutrients and lower plasma LCPUFA levels...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621448/maternal-and-fetal-genomes-interplay-through-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-p110%C3%AE-signaling-to-modify-placental-resource-allocation
#9
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Jorge López-Tello, Abigail L Fowden, Miguel Constancia
Pregnancy success and life-long health depend on a cooperative interaction between the mother and the fetus in the allocation of resources. As the site of materno-fetal nutrient transfer, the placenta is central to this interplay; however, the relative importance of the maternal versus fetal genotypes in modifying the allocation of resources to the fetus is unknown. Using genetic inactivation of the growth and metabolism regulator, Pik3ca (encoding PIK3CA also known as p110α, α/+), we examined the interplay between the maternal genome and the fetal genome on placental phenotype in litters of mixed genotype generated through reciprocal crosses of WT and α/+ mice...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604528/placental-origins-of-chronic-disease
#10
REVIEW
Graham J Burton, Abigail L Fowden, Kent L Thornburg
Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577707/3d-power-doppler-ultrasound-assessment-of-placental-perfusion-during-uterine-contraction-in-labor
#11
Miki Sato, Junko Noguchi, Masato Mashima, Hirokazu Tanaka, Toshiyuki Hata
INTRODUCTION: To assess placental perfusion during spontaneous or induced uterine contraction in labor at term using placental vascular sonobiopsy (PVS) by 3D power Doppler ultrasound with the VOCAL imaging analysis program. METHOD: PVS was performed in 50 normal pregnancies (32 in spontaneous labor group [SLG], and 18 in induced labor group with oxytocin or prostaglandin F2α [ILG]) at 37-41 weeks of gestation to assess placental perfusion during uterine contraction in labor...
September 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577579/objective-measures-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Cheryl McQuire, Shantini Paranjothy, Lisa Hurt, Mala Mann, Daniel Farewell, Alison Kemp
CONTEXT: Objective measurement of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is essential for identifying children at risk for adverse outcomes, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Biomarkers have been advocated for use in universal screening programs, but their validity has not been comprehensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the validity of objective measures of PAE. DATA SOURCES: Thirteen electronic databases and supplementary sources were searched for studies published between January 1990 and October 2015...
September 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567599/the-formation-and-transformation-of-hormones-in-maternal-placental-and-fetal-compartments-biological-implications
#13
Jorge R Pasqualini, Gérard S Chetrite
The fetal endocrine system constitutes the earliest system developing in fetal life and operates during all the steps of gestation. Its regulation is in part dependent on the secretion of placental and/or maternal precursors emanating across the feto-maternal interface. Human fetal and placental compartments possess all the enzymatic systems necessary to produce steroid hormones. However, their activities are different and complementary: the fetus is very active in converting acetate into cholesterol, in transforming pregnanes to androstanes, various hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, while all these transformations are absent or very limited in the placenta...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555877/the-effects-of-prenatal-metformin-on-obesogenic-diet-induced-alterations-in-maternal-and-fetal-fatty-acid-metabolism
#14
Kemoy Harris, Neeraj Desai, Madhu Gupta, Xiangying Xue, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Burton Rochelson, Christine N Metz
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity may program the fetus and increase the susceptibility of the offspring to adult diseases. Metformin crosses the placenta and has been associated with decreased inflammation and reversal of fatty liver in obese leptin-deficient mice. We investigated the effects of metformin on maternal and fetal lipid metabolism and hepatic inflammation using a rat model of diet-induced obesity during pregnancy. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (6-7 weeks old) were fed normal or high calorie diets for 5 weeks...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479992/lasting-impact-of-an-ephemeral-organ-the-role-of-the-placenta-in-fetal-programming
#15
Lindsey Konkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452433/telomere-homeostasis-in-placentas-from-pregnancies-with-uncontrolled-diabetes
#16
Tal Biron-Shental, Meital Liberman, Michal Elbaz, Ido Laish, Reuven Sharony, Aliza Amiel
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes during pregnancy causes an intrauterine environment that influences lifetime sickness of the mother and the fetus. There is a correlation between diabetes and telomere shortening; however, very little is known about telomere homeostasis in the placenta. We aimed to study the telomerase complex in placentas and in cord blood leukocytes from patients with poorly controlled diabetes. METHODS: Biopsies from 16 third-trimester placentas and cord blood samples from pregnancies complicated with uncontrolled diabetes and from 16 gestational age-matched controls from uncomplicated pregnancies were examined...
August 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442421/the-fetal-brain-role-of-progesterone-and-allopregnanolone
#17
Nicola Pluchino, Marinella Russo, Andrea R Genazzani
Progesterone and allopregnanolone have crucial and different roles in brain development, function and recovery after injury. Pregnancy is characterized by an increased synthesis of progesterone and its neuro-active metabolites by the placenta, maternal and fetal brain. This supports the critical role of these steroids in maternal brain adaptation during pregnancy and development of the fetal brain. Moreover, allopregnanolone may play a brain-protective role during complications of pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, such as preterm delivery or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), by reducing the impact of hypoxia and excitotoxic brain damage or impairment myelination...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364084/factors-affecting-the-success-of-a-large-embryo-transfer-program-in-holstein-cattle-in-a-commercial-herd-in-the-southeast-region-of-the-united-states
#18
P A Ferraz, C Burnley, J Karanja, A Viera-Neto, J E P Santos, R C Chebel, K N Galvão
The objectives of this study were to evaluate factors affecting in vivo embryo production and pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in Holstein cattle in the southeast region of the United States. Data from a total of 516 embryo collections and 10,297 ETs performed from 2011 to 2014 were available. For embryo production, the effects of donor parity (nulliparous [N], primiparous [P], multiparous [M]), average temperature-humidity index (THI) at embryo collection, days in milk at embryo collection, occurrence of calving problems, and occurrence of metritis postpartum were evaluated...
October 15, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363547/stress-the-placenta-and-fetal-programming-of-behavior-genes-first-encounter-with-the-environment
#19
M Camille Hoffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314367/diet-before-and-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-health-the-importance-of-animal-models-and-what-can-be-learned-from-them
#20
Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Anne Tarrade, Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard
This review article outlines epidemiologic studies that support the hypothesis that maternal environment (including early nutrition) plays a seminal role in determining the offspring's long-term health and metabolism, known as the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHaD). In this context, current concerns are particularly focused on the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, particularly in youth and women of child-bearing age. We summarize key similarities, differences and limitations of various animal models used to study fetal programming, with a particular focus on placentation, which is critical for translating animal findings to humans...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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