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Choline fetal programming

Peter W Nathanielsz, Jian Yan, Ralph Green, Mark Nijland, Joshua W Miller, Guoyao Wu, Thomas J McDonald, Marie A Caudill
Maternal intake of dietary methyl-micronutrients (e.g. folate, choline, betaine and vitamin B-12) during pregnancy is essential for normal maternal and fetal methionine metabolism, and is critical for important metabolic processes including those involved in developmental programming. Maternal obesity and nutrient excess during pregnancy influence developmental programming potentially predisposing adult offspring to a variety of chronic health problems. In the present study, we hypothesized that maternal obesity would dysregulate the maternal and fetal methionine cycle...
November 2015: Physiological Reports
A C Galdos-Riveros, P O Favaron, S E A L Will, M A Miglino, D A Maria
In several species, placentation involves the presence of two different membranes responsible for maternal-fetal exchanges: the yolk sac and the chorioallantoic placenta. The yolk sac plays important roles in embryonic survival, mainly during the early stages of gestation. In bovine, it is a transitional membrane that is present until day 50-70 of pregnancy. Herein, we evaluated the morphological and molecular aspects of the yolk sac of bovine embryos during 24 to 52 days of gestation. A total of 69 embryos were allocated into three groups according to the crown-rump length and estimated ages...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Abalo Chango, Igor P Pogribny
Fetal life is characterized by a tremendous plasticity and ability to respond to various environmental and lifestyle factors, including maternal nutrition. Identification of the role of dietary factors that can modulate and reshape the cellular epigenome during development, including methyl group donors (e.g., folate, choline) and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols) is of great importance; however, there is insufficient knowledge of a particular effect of each type of modulator and/or their combination on fetal life...
April 2015: Nutrients
Xinyin Jiang, Allyson A West, Marie A Caudill
The modulatory role of choline on the fetal epigenome and the impact of in utero choline supply on fetal programming and health are of great interest. Studies in animals and/or humans suggest that maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy benefits important physiologic systems such as offspring cognitive function, response to stress, and cerebral inhibition. Because alterations in offspring phenotype frequently coincide with epigenetic modifications and changes in gene expression, maternal choline supplementation may be a nutritional strategy to improve lifelong health of the child...
May 2014: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Nisha Padmanabhan, Erica D Watson
During development, a fetus and its placenta must respond to a changing maternal environment to ensure normal growth is achieved and survival is maintained. The mechanisms behind developmental programming involve complex interactions between epigenetic and physiological processes, which are not well understood. Importantly, when programming goes awry, it puts the fetus at risk for disease later in life and may, in some instances, affect subsequent generations via epigenetic processes including DNA methylation...
December 2013: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Jean-Louis Guéant, Rania Elakoum, Olivier Ziegler, David Coelho, Eva Feigerlova, Jean-Luc Daval, Rosa-Maria Guéant-Rodriguez
Barker's concept of 'foetal programming' proposes that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predicts complex metabolic diseases through relationships that may be further modified by the postnatal environment. Dietary restriction and deficit in methyl donors, folate, vitamin B12, and choline are used as experimental conditions of foetal programming as they lead to IUGR and decreased birth weight. Overfeeding and deficit in methyl donors increase central fat mass and lead to a dramatic increase of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in offspring...
May 2014: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Fanny Giudicelli, Anne-Laure Brabant, Isabelle Grit, Patricia Parnet, Valérie Amarger
Methionine, folic acid, betaine and choline interact in the one-carbon metabolism which provides methyl groups for methylation reactions. An optimal intake of these nutrients during pregnancy is required for successful completion of fetal development and evidence is growing that they could be involved in metabolic long-term programming. However, the biological pathways involved in the action of these nutrients are still poorly known. This study investigated the interaction between methyl donors and protein content in maternal diet during the preconceptual, pregnancy and lactation periods and the consequences on the rat offspring in the short and long term...
2013: PloS One
Xinyin Jiang, Jian Yan, Allyson A West, Cydne A Perry, Olga V Malysheva, Srisatish Devapatla, Eva Pressman, Francoise Vermeylen, Marie A Caudill
The in utero availability of methyl donors, such as choline, may modify fetal epigenetic marks and lead to sustainable functional alterations throughout the life course. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates cortisol production and is sensitive to perinatal epigenetic programming. As an extension of a 12-wk dose-response choline feeding study conducted in third-trimester pregnant women, we investigated the effect of maternal choline intake (930 vs. 480 mg/d) on the epigenetic state of cortisol-regulating genes, and their expression, in placenta and cord venous blood...
August 2012: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Tiffany J Mellott
Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. Metabolically choline is used for the synthesis of membrane phospholipids (e.g. phosphatidylcholine), as a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and, following oxidation to betaine, choline functions as a methyl group donor in a pathway that produces S-adenosylmethionine. As a methyl donor choline influences DNA and histone methylation--two central epigenomic processes that regulate gene expression. Because the fetus and neonate have high demands for choline, its dietary intake during pregnancy and lactation is particularly important for normal development of the offspring...
June 2012: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
C S Wyrwoll, D Kerrigan, M C Holmes, J R Seckl, A J Drake
There is increasing evidence for a role for epigenetic modifications in early life 'programming' effects. Altered placental methyl donor transport may impact on the establishment of epigenetic marks in the fetus. This study investigated the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure on placental methyl donor transport. Glucocorticoids increased folate but decreased choline transport and reduced fetal plasma methionine levels. There was no change in global DNA methylation in fetal liver. These data suggest prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure causes complex alterations in the placental transport of key methyl donors which may have important implications for maternal diet and nutrient supplementation in pregnancy...
March 2012: Placenta
Carine Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Sébastien Blaise, Grégory Pourié, Catherine Tomasetto, Sandra Audonnet, Sandrine Ortiou, Violette Koziel, Marie-Christine Rio, Jean-Luc Daval, Jean-Louis Guéant, Bernard Beck
Methyl donor deficiency (MDD) during pregnancy influences intrauterine development. Ghrelin is expressed in the stomach of fetuses and influences fetal growth, but MDD influence on gastric ghrelin is unknown. We examined the gastric ghrelin system in MDD-induced intrauterine growth retardation. By using specific markers and approaches (such as periodic acid-Schiff, bromodeoxyuridine, homocysteine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling, immunostaining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), we studied the gastric oxyntic mucosa cellular organization and ghrelin gene expression in the mucosa in 20-day-old fetuses and weanling pups, and plasma ghrelin concentration in weanling rat pups of dams either normally fed or deprived of choline, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 during gestation and suckling periods...
January 2010: American Journal of Pathology
Andrea Perra, Marta Anna Kowalik, Monica Pibiri, Giovanna M Ledda-Columbano, Amedeo Columbano
UNLABELLED: Triiodothyronine (T3), through interaction with its intracellular thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), influences various physiological functions, including metabolism, development, and growth. We investigated the effect of T3 and the selective TR-beta agonist GC-1 in two models of hepatocarcinogenesis. Preneoplastic lesions were induced in F-344 rats via a single dose of diethylnitrosamine, followed by a choline-deficient (CD) diet for 10 weeks. Rat subgroups were then fed the CD diet or a CD diet containing either 4 mg/kg T3 or 5 mg/kg GC-1 for another week...
April 2009: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Bonnie N Joe, Kiarash Vahidi, Andrew Zektzer, Mei-Hsiu Chen, Matthew S Clifton, Thomas Butler, Kayvan Keshari, John Kurhanewicz, Fergus Coakley, Mark G Swanson
PURPOSE: To determine the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of human amniotic fluid metabolite concentration measurements (including potential markers of fetal lung maturity) detectable by MR spectroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy was performed at 11.7 T on 23 third-trimester amniotic fluid samples. Samples were analyzed quantitatively using 3-(trimethylsilyl)propionic-2,2,3,3-d(4) acid (TSP) as a reference...
December 2008: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Theodore A Slotkin, Bethany E Bodwell, Ian T Ryde, Frederic J Seidler
Nicotine alters the developmental trajectory of acetylcholine (ACh) systems in the immature brain, with vulnerability extending from fetal stages through adolescence. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47) and then examined the subsequent response to nicotine given in adulthood (PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and performing evaluations during nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120 and PN130), as well as assessing persistent changes at 6 months of age (PN180)...
May 15, 2008: Brain Research Bulletin
Christopher A Maloney, Susan M Hay, William D Rees
The methionine cycle and methyl group metabolism are implicated in the long-term programming of metabolism. Diets deficient in folic acid, methionine and choline have been fed to pregnant rats to examine the effects on amino acid metabolism, choline reserves and DNA methylation in dam and fetuses. Animals were fed folate-deficient, folate-deficient with low methionine, folate-deficient with low choline and folate-deficient, low-methionine, low-choline diets starting 2 weeks before mating. The dams and their fetuses were subsequently killed on day 21 of gestation for analysis...
June 2007: British Journal of Nutrition
M J Mahoney, W M Saltzman
Cell therapy is a promising method for treatment of hematopoietic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and tissue loss due to trauma. Some of the major barriers to cell therapy have been partially addressed, including identification of cell populations, in vitro cell proliferation, and strategies for immunosuppression. An unsolved problem is recapitulation of the unique combinations of matrix, growth factor, and cell adhesion cues that distinguish each stem cell microenvironment, and that are critically important for control of progenitor cell differentiation and histogenesis...
October 2001: Nature Biotechnology
A C Coscioni, H D Reichenbach, J Schwartz, V S LaFalci, J L Rodrigues, A Brandelli
Frozen semen from bulls was used in artificial insemination programs was submitted to swim-up in Sperm Talp media containing different calcium (1.8, 2.6, 3.6 mM) or caffeine (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 microM) concentrations. The following sperm variables were evaluated: sperm recovery, motility, vigor, morphology, alterations in the pattern of capacitation by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining, and alterations in lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC)-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Sperm obtained from swim-up under different conditions were also tested for in vitro embryo production...
July 3, 2001: Animal Reproduction Science
E A Zahalka, F J Seidler, S E Lappi, J Yanai, T A Slotkin
During critical developmental periods, cholinergic activity plays a key role in programming the development of target cells. In the current study, ontogeny of cholinergic terminals and their activity were contrasted in 4 brain regions of the fetal and neonatal rat using choline acetyltransferase activity, which is unresponsive to changes in impulse flow, and [3H]hemicholinium-3 binding, which labels the high-affinity choline transporter that upregulates in response to increased neuronal stimulation. In all 4 regions (cerebral cortex, midbrain + brainstem, striatum, hippocampus) choline acetyltransferase activity increased markedly from late gestation through young adulthood, but generally did so in parallel with the expansion of total membrane protein, reflective of axonal outgrowth and synaptic proliferation...
January 22, 1993: Brain Research
R H Perelman, P M Farrell, M J Engle, J W Kemnitz
From this review, it is evident that multiple maternal/fetal endogenous or completely exogenous factors have been associated with the complex process regulating fetal lung development. Recent in vitro experiments with human fetal lung explants are especially noteworthy and may establish a perspective for future research. Snyder et al (108) and Medelson et al (74) have found that lung explants from 16-22-week abortuses show differentiated type II cells and augmented PC synthesis within 4 days of culture, rather than the minimum 10- to 15-week period expected in utero...
1985: Annual Review of Physiology
K F Barald
Although neural crest cells are known to be very responsive to environmental cues during their development, recent evidence indicates that at least some subpopulations may be committed to a specific differentiation program prior to migration. Because the neural crest is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of cells that contributes to many vertebrate cell lineages, assessing the properties of specific subpopulations and the effect of the environment on their development has been difficult. To address this problem, we have isolated a pure subpopulation of chick mesencephalic neural crest cells by fluorescence no-flow cytometry after labeling them with monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to a 75-kDa cell surface antigen that is associated with high affinity choline uptake...
October 1989: Developmental Biology
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