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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651386/optical-and-electrical-characteristics-of-silicon-nanowires-prepared-by-electroless-etching
#1
Sabar D Hutagalung, Mohammed M Fadhali, Raed A Areshi, Fui D Tan
Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were fabricated by the electroless etching of an n-type Si (100) wafer in HF/AgNO3. Vertically aligned and high-density SiNWs are formed on the Si substrates. Various shapes of SiNWs are observed, including round, rectangular, and triangular. The recorded maximum reflectance of the SiNWs is approximately 19.2%, which is much lower than that of the Si substrate (65.1%). The minimum reflectance of the SiNWs is approximately 3.5% in the near UV region and 9.8% in the visible to near IR regions...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651245/high-resolution-hyperpolarized-in-vivo-metabolic-13-c-spectroscopy-at-low-magnetic-field-48-7mt-following-murine-tail-vein-injection
#2
Aaron M Coffey, Matthew A Feldman, Roman V Shchepin, Danila A Barskiy, Milton L Truong, Wellington Pham, Eduard Y Chekmenev
High-resolution (13)C NMR spectroscopy of hyperpolarized succinate-1-(13)C-2,3-d2 is reported in vitro and in vivo using a clinical-scale, biplanar (80cm-gap) 48.7mT permanent magnet with a high homogeneity magnetic field. Non-localized (13)C NMR spectra were recorded at 0.52MHz resonance frequency over the torso of a tumor-bearing mouse every 2s. Hyperpolarized (13)C NMR signals with linewidths of ∼3Hz (corresponding to ∼6ppm) were recorded in vitro (2mL in a syringe) and in vivo (over a mouse torso). Comparison of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) for (13)C NMR spectra acquired at 48...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651244/the-health-policy-implications-of-individual-adaptive-behavior-responses-to-smog-pollution-in-urban-china
#3
Jie Ban, Lian Zhou, Yi Zhang, G Brooke Anderson, Tiantian Li
Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM2...
June 23, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651222/assessing-habitat-quality-in-relation-to-the-spatial-distribution-of-protected-areas-in-italy
#4
Lorenzo Sallustio, Andrea De Toni, Andrea Strollo, Mirko Di Febbraro, Elena Gissi, Laura Casella, Davide Geneletti, Michele Munafò, Matteo Vizzarri, Marco Marchetti
The conservation of species and habitats is increasingly threatened by anthropogenic impacts, particularly land use change, from local to global scales. Although many efforts have been carried out so far to halt or at least reduce the biodiversity loss (e.g., the establishment of protected areas' networks), there are still both knowledge and policy gaps slowing the conservation of species and habitats in complex environments, such as the Mediterranean region. In particular, the human-driven impacts and threats on biodiversity need more careful analysis...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651218/urban-water-metabolism-indicators-derived-from-a-water-mass-balance-bridging-the-gap-between-visions-and-performance-assessment-of-urban-water-resource-management
#5
M A Renouf, S Serrao-Neumann, S J Kenway, E A Morgan, D Low Choy
Improving resource management in urban areas has been enshrined in visions for achieving sustainable urban areas, but to date it has been difficult to quantify performance indicators to help identify more sustainable outcomes, especially for water resources. In this work, we advance quantitative indicators for what we refer to as the 'metabolic' features of urban water management: those related to resource efficiency (for water and also water-related energy and nutrients), supply internalisation, urban hydrological performance, sustainable extraction, and recognition of the diverse functions of water...
May 29, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651107/how-seasonality-and-weather-affect-perinatal-health-comparing-the-experiences-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-mothers-in-kanungu-district-uganda
#6
Sarah MacVicar, Lea Berrang-Ford, Sherilee Harper, Vivienne Steele, Shuaib Lwasa, Didacus Namanya Bambaiha, Sabastien Twesigomwe, Grace Asaasira, Nancy Ross
Maternal and newborn health disparities and the health impacts of climate change present grand challenges for global health equity, and there remain knowledge gaps in our understanding of how these challenges intersect. This study examines the pathways through which mothers are affected by seasonal and meteorological factors in sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Kanungu District (Uganda), in particular. We conducted a community-based study consisting of focus group discussions with mothers and interviews with health care workers in Kanungu District...
June 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650915/the-brainstem-network-controlling-blood-pressure-an-important-role-for-pressor-sites-in-the-caudal-medulla-and-cervical-spinal-cord
#7
Michael G Z Ghali
: Although medullary control of blood pressure (BP) has been extensively studied, the contribution of critical regions, such as pressor sites in the caudal medulla and upper cervical spinal cord and the lateral tegmental field, remains controversial and underappreciated. A series of pressor sites caudal to the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including the caudal pressor area (CPA) and medullocervical pressor area, play an important role in control of BP. Activation and inhibition of these sites elicits pressor and depressor responses, respectively...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650878/leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-bridging-the-translational-gap
#8
Neringa Jurkute, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic disorder in the population. We address the clinical evolution of the disease, the secondary etiological factors that could contribute to visual loss, and the challenging task of developing effective treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: LHON is characterized by a preclinical phase that reflects retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction before rapid visual deterioration ensues...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650848/ser-thr-protein-kinase-b2-nadph-oxidase-2-signaling-in-thromboinflammation
#9
Jing Li, Jaehyung Cho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions between neutrophils and platelets contribute to the progression of thromboinflammatory disease. However, the regulatory mechanism governing these interactions is poorly understood. The present review focuses on the crucial role of Ser/Thr protein kinase B (AKT)2-NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) signaling in regulating neutrophil and platelet activation and their heterotypic interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Growing evidence has shown that platelets, leukocytes, and blood coagulation need to be considered to treat thromboinflammatory disease in which inflammation and thrombosis occur concurrently...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650803/challenges-in-improving-cochlear-implant-performance-and-accessibility
#10
Fan-Gang Zeng
Here I identify two gaps in cochlear implants that have been limiting their performance and acceptance. First, cochlear implant performance has remained largely unchanged, despite the number of publications tripling per decade in the last 30 years. Little has been done so far to address a fundamental limitation in the electrode-to-neuron interface, with the electrode size being a thousand times larger than the neuron diameter while the number of electrodes being a thousand times less. Both the small number and the large size of electrodes produce broad spatial activation and poor pitch resolution that limit current cochlear implant performance...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650798/coherent-semantic-visual-indexing-for-large-scale-image-retrieval-in-the-cloud
#11
Richang Hong, Lei Li, Junjie Cai, Dapeng Tao, Meng Wang, Qi Tian
The rapidly increasing number of images on the internet has further increased the need for efficient indexing for digital image searching of large databases. The design of a cloud service that provides high efficiency but compact image indexing remains challenging, partly due to the well-known semantic gap between user queries and the rich semantics of large-scale data sets. In this paper, we construct a novel joint semantic-visual space by leveraging visual descriptors and semantic attributes, which narrows the semantic gap by combining both attributes and indexing into a single framework...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650610/defect-emission-and-optical-gain-in-sicxoy-h-films
#12
Zhenxu Lin, Hongfei Li, Rui Huang, Yi Zhang, Jie Song, Hongliang Li, Yanqing Guo, Chao Song, John Robertson
Luminescent SiCxOy:H films,which are fabricated at different CH4 flow rates using very high-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique, exhibit strong photoluminescence (PL) with tuning from near-infrared to orange regions. The PL features an excitation wavelength independent recombination dynamic. The silicon dangling bond (DB) defects identified by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra are found to play a key role in the PL behavior. The first-principles calculation shows that the Si DB defects introduce a mid-gap state in the band gap, which is in good agreement with the PL energy...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650442/magnetic-brightening-and-control-of-dark-excitons-in-monolayer-wse2
#13
Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Ting Cao, Zhengguang Lu, Yu-Chuan Lin, Fan Zhang, Ying Wang, Zhiqiang Li, James C Hone, Joshua A Robinson, Dmitry Smirnov, Steven G Louie, Tony F Heinz
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide crystals, as direct-gap materials with strong light-matter interactions, have attracted much recent attention. Because of their spin-polarized valence bands and a predicted spin splitting at the conduction band edges, the lowest-lying excitons in WX2 (X = S, Se) are expected to be spin-forbidden and optically dark. To date, however, there has been no direct experimental probe of these dark excitons. Here, we show how an in-plane magnetic field can brighten the dark excitons in monolayer WSe2 and permit their properties to be observed experimentally...
June 26, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650412/pressure-injury-knowledge-in-critical-care-nurses
#14
Donna M Miller, Lisa Neelon, Kathleen Kish-Smith, Laura Whitney, Christopher J Burant
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify pressure injury knowledge in critical care nurses related to prevention and staging following multimodal education initiatives. DESIGN: Postintervention descriptive study. SETTING AND SAMPLE: The sample comprised 32 RNs employed in medical intensive care/coronary intensive care or surgical intensive care units. The study setting was a 237-bed Veterans Affairs acute care hospital in the Midwestern United States...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650168/semisoft-colloidal-crystals-in-ionic-liquids
#15
Yun Huang, Akisato Takata, Yoshinobu Tsujii, Kohji Ohno
We here introduce a technique for the direct formation of semisoft colloidal crystals of hybrid particles in non-volatile ionic liquid solvents. The hybrid particles are comprised of a silica core and a densely grafted polymer brush shell, which were synthesized by surface-initiated living radical polymerization. A phase transition of the suspensions from a disordered fluid to a crystallized system was observed within a narrow concentration range. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and UV-VIS spectrometry confirmed the highly ordered structure of the hybrid particles in ionic liquids...
June 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650158/stable-radical-cations-and-their-%C3%AF-dimers-prepared-from-ethylene-and-propylene-3-4-dioxythiophene-co-oligomers-combined-experimental-and-theoretical-investigations
#16
Tohru Nishinaga, Yusuke Sotome
Co-oligomers composed of two 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) units and two or three 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) units, i.e., 2E2PEt and 2E3PEt were newly synthesized together with the ProDOT trimer 3PMe. Based on cyclic voltammetry, the gaps between the first and second oxidation potentials (ΔE1-2) of 2E2PEt and 2E3PEt were found to be larger than that of the previously synthesized ProDOT tetramer 4PHex. These co-oligomers gave the fairly stable radical cations 2E2PEt•+ and 2E3PEt•+ by chemical oxidation with AgSbF6...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650079/a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-application-of-the-elecsys-%C3%A2-hiv-combi-pt-assay-in-southern-china
#17
Shaocong Liang, Guihua Deng, Shaosong Zhou, Jing Zeng, Weiqing Tan, Xiaopeng Yuan
BACKGROUND: Fourth-generation HIV assays have been implemented worldwide as a screening test for many years. Understanding the performance of fourth-generation assay in low HIV prevalence region is pivotal to interpret the test result correctly. In this study, retrospective analysis was used to evaluate application of the Elecsys(®) HIV combi PT assay. METHODS: A total of 85 043 specimens from a low prevalence setting were detected between June 2013 and October 2015...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650033/chloride-assisted-supramolecular-assembly-of-a-luminescent-gigantic-cluster-ag216s56cl7-c-triple-bond-length-as-m-dash-cph-98-h2o-12-with-pseudo-th-skeleton-and-five-shell-arrangement
#18
Zi-Yi Chen, Dennis Y S Tam, Thomas C W Mak
Using a chloride-assisted supramolecular building-block approach, we have employed the molecular Cl@Agm(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)n entity in the construction of a gigantic cluster namely [Ag216S56Cl7(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)98(H2O)12][Ag3(imidazole)(H2O)4](SbF6)2 (1), which contains the largest discrete organometallic cluster investigated by X-ray crystallography. Based on an icosahedral Cl@Ag12 kernel, this spheroidal cluster features an unprecedented five-shell structure Cl@Ag12@S12@Ag32@S44Cl6@Ag172 with idealized Th symmetry...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649972/excitonic-gap-generation-in-thin-film-topological-insulators
#19
Natalia Menezes, Cristiane Morais Smith, Giandomenico Palumbo
In this work, we analyze the excitonic gap generation in the strong-coupling regime of thin films of three-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators. We start by writing down the effective gauge theory in 2+1-dimensions from the projection of the 3+1-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. Within this method, we obtain a short-range interaction, which has the form of a Thirring-like term, and a long-range one. The interaction between the two surface states of the material induces an excitonic gap...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649961/optoelectronic-device-physics-and-technology-of-nitride-semiconductors-from-the-uv-to-the-terahertz-a-review
#20
Theodore D Moustakas, Roberto Paiella
This paper reviews the device physics and technology of optoelectronic devices based on semiconductors of the GaN family, operating in the spectral regions from deep UV to Terahertz. Such devices include LEDs, lasers, detectors, electroabsorption modulators and devices based on intersubband transitions in AlGaN quantum wells (QWs). After a brief history of the development of the field, we describe how the unique crystal structure, chemical bonding, and resulting spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations in heterostructures affect the design, fabrication and performance of devices based on these materials...
June 26, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
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