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Caenorhabditis elegans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681853/caffeine-promotes-conversion-of-palmitic-acid-to-palmitoleic-acid-by-inducing-expression-of-fat-5-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-scd1-in-mice
#1
Xiaocui Du, Qin Huang, Yun Guan, Ming Lv, Xiaofang He, Chongye Fang, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
The synthesis and metabolism of fatty acids in an organism is related to many biological processes and is involved in several diseases. The effects of caffeine on fatty acid synthesis and fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice were studied. After 6 h of food deprivation, adult C. elegans were treated with 0.1 mg/mL caffeine for 24 h. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that, among all the genes involved in fat accumulation, the mRNA expression of fat-5 in caffeine-treated C...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681740/new-nematicidal-and-antimicrobial-secondary-metabolites-from-a-new-species-in-the-new-genus-pseudobambusicola-thailandica
#2
Zeljka Rupcic, Clara Chepkirui, Margarita Hernández-Restrepo, Pedro W Crous, Janet Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Marc Stadler
During the course of a study on the functional biodiversity of the mycobiota inhabiting rainforests in Thailand, a fungal strain was isolated from a plant sample and shown to represent an undescribed species, as inferred from a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on four DNA loci, revealed a phylogenetic tree with the newly generated sequences clustering in a separate branch, together with members of the Sulcatisporaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota)...
2018: MycoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680931/cinnamic-acid-attenuates-quorum-sensing-associated-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#3
Jobina Rajkumari, Subhomoi Borkotoky, Ayaluru Murali, Kitlangki Suchiang, Saswat Kumar Mohanty, Siddhardha Busi
OBJECTIVE: Anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm efficacy of Cinnamic acid against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was comparatively assessed with respect to potent quorum sensing inhibitor, Baicalein. RESULTS: At sub-lethal concentration, Cinnamic acid effectively inhibited both the production of the QS-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa without affecting the viability of the bacterium. The phytocompound interfered with the initial attachment of planktonic cells to the substratum thereby causing reduction in biofilm development...
April 21, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678816/four-specific-ig-domains-in-unc-52-perlecan-function-with-nid-1-nidogen-during-dendrite-morphogenesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Kevin Celestrin, Carlos Díaz-Balzac, Leo T H Tang, Brian D Ackley, Hannes E Bülow
The extracellular matrix is essential for various aspects of nervous system patterning. For example, sensory dendrites in flies, worms and fish have been shown to rely on coordinated interactions of tissues with extracellular matrix proteins. Here we show that the conserved basement membrane protein UNC-52/Perlecan is required for establishing the correct number of the highly ordered dendritic trees in the somatosensory neuron PVD in Caenorhabditis elegans. This function of UNC-52/Perlecan is dependent on four conserved immunoglobulin domains, but independent of the known functions of UNC-52/Perlecan in mediating muscle-skin attachment...
April 20, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678692/nucpospred-predicting-species-specific-genomic-nucleosome-positionin-g-via-four-different-modes-of-general-pseknc
#5
Cangzhi Jia, Qing Yang, Quan Zou
The nucleosome is the basic structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells, with essential roles in the regulation of many biological processes, such as DNA transcription, replication and repair, and RNA splicing. Because of the importance of nucleosomes, the factors that determine their positioning within genomes should be investigated. High-resolution nucleosome-positioning maps are now available for organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, enabling the identification of nucleosome positioning by application of computational tools...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673961/metabolic-effects-of-manganese-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-daergic-pathway-and-transcription-factors-activation
#6
Priscila Gubert, Bruna Puntel, Tassia Lehmen, Joshua P Fessel, Pan Cheng, Julia Bornhorst, Lucas Siqueira Trindade, Daiana S Avila, Michael Aschner, Felix A A Soares
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element for physiological functions since it acts as an enzymatic co-factor. Nevertheless, overexposure to Mn has been associated with a pathologic condition called manganism. Furthermore, Mn has been reported to affect lipid metabolism by mechanisms which have yet to be established. Herein, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to examine Mn's effects on the dopaminergic (DAergic) system and determine which transcription factors that regulate with lipid metabolism are affected by it...
April 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672544/stress-pre-conditioning-with-temperature-uv-and-gamma-radiation-induces-tolerance-against-phosphine-toxicity
#7
Saad M Alzahrani, Paul R Ebert
Phosphine is the only general use fumigant for the protection of stored grain, though its long-term utility is threatened by the emergence of highly phosphine-resistant pests. Given this precarious situation, it is essential to identify factors, such as stress preconditioning, that interfere with the efficacy of phosphine fumigation. We used Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to test the effect of pre-exposure to heat and cold shock, UV and gamma irradiation on phosphine potency. Heat shock significantly increased tolerance to phosphine by 3-fold in wild-type nematodes, a process that was dependent on the master regulator of the heat shock response, HSF-1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672024/agglomeration-of-escherichia-coli-with-positively-charged-nanoparticles-can-lead-to-artifacts-in-a-standard-caenorhabditis-elegans-toxicity-assay
#8
Shannon K Hanna, Antonio R Montoro Bustos, Alexander W Peterson, Vytas Reipa, Leona D Scanlan, Sanem Hosbas Coskun, Tae Joon Cho, Monique E Johnson, Vincent A Hackley, Bryant C Nelson, Michael R Winchester, John T Elliott, Elijah J Petersen
The increased use and incorporation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products requires a robust assessment of their potential environmental implications. However, a lack of standardized methods for nanotoxicity testing has yielded results that are sometimes contradictory. Standard ecotoxicity assays may work appropriately for some ENPs with minimal modification, but produce artifactual results for others. Therefore, understanding the robustness of assays for a range of ENPs is critical. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a standard Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670680/gengnianchun-extends-the-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-via-the-insulin-igf-1-signalling-pathway
#9
Fanhui Meng, Jun Li, Yanqiu Rao, Wenjun Wang, Yan Fu
Gengnianchun (GNC), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is believed to have beneficial effects on ageing-related diseases, such as antioxidant properties and effects against A β -induced toxicity. We previously found that GNC extended the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans . However, the mechanism underlying this effect was unclear. In this study, we further explored the mechanisms of GNC using a C. elegans model. GNC significantly increased the lifespan of C. elegans and enhanced oxidative and thermal stress resistance...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669598/classification-and-prediction-of-toxicity-of-chemicals-using-an-automated-phenotypic-profiling-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Shan Gao, Weiyang Chen, Yingxin Zeng, Haiming Jing, Nan Zhang, Matthew Flavel, Markandeya Jois, Jing-Dong J Han, Bo Xian, Guojun Li
BACKGROUND: Traditional toxicological studies have relied heavily on various animal models to understand the effect of various compounds in a biological context. Considering the great cost, complexity and time involved in experiments using higher order organisms. Researchers have been exploring alternative models that avoid these disadvantages. One example of such a model is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. There are some advantages of C. elegans, such as small size, short life cycle, well defined genome, ease of maintenance and efficient reproduction...
April 18, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668718/the-caenorhabditis-elegans-gene-ham-1-regulates-daughter-cell-size-asymmetry-primarily-in-divisions-that-produce-a-small-anterior-daughter-cell
#11
Jerome Teuliere, Ismar Kovacevic, Zhirong Bao, Gian Garriga
C. elegans cell divisions that produce an apoptotic daughter cell exhibit Daughter Cell Size Asymmetry (DCSA), producing a larger surviving daughter cell and a smaller daughter cell fated to die. Genetic screens for mutants with defects in apoptosis identified several genes that are also required for the ability of these divisions to produce daughter cells that differ in size. One of these genes, ham-1, encodes a putative transcription factor that regulates a subset of the asymmetric cell divisions that produce an apoptotic daughter cell...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668010/molecular-evolution-and-functional-divergence-of-alcohol-dehydrogenases-in-animals-fungi-and-plants
#12
Claudia E Thompson, Loreta B Freitas, Francisco M Salzano
Alcohol dehydrogenases belong to the large superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, which occur throughout the biological world and are involved with many important metabolic routes. We considered the phylogeny of 190 ADH sequences of animals, fungi, and plants. Non-class III Caenorhabditis elegans ADHs were seen closely related to tetrameric fungal ADHs. ADH3 forms a sister group to amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian non-class III ADHs. In fishes, two main forms are identified: ADH1 and ADH3, whereas in amphibians there is a new ADH form (ADH8)...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666795/cell-chirality-drives-left-right-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Mikiko Inaki, Takeshi Sasamura, Kenji Matsuno
Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666474/the-cisd-gene-family-regulates-physiological-germline-apoptosis-through-ced-13-and-the-canonical-cell-death-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Skylar D King, Chipo F Gray, Luhua Song, Rachel Nechushtai, Tina L Gumienny, Ron Mittler, Pamela A Padilla
Programmed cell death, which occurs through a conserved core molecular pathway, is important for fundamental developmental and homeostatic processes. The human iron-sulfur binding protein NAF-1/CISD2 binds to Bcl-2 and its disruption in cells leads to an increase in apoptosis. Other members of the CDGSH iron sulfur domain (CISD) family include mitoNEET/CISD1 and Miner2/CISD3. In humans, mutations in CISD2 result in Wolfram syndrome 2, a disease in which the patients display juvenile diabetes, neuropsychiatric disorders and defective platelet aggregation...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666286/viable-but-nonculturable-listeria-monocytogenes-and-salmonella-enterica-serovar-thompson-induced-by-chlorine-stress-remain-infectious
#15
Callum J Highmore, Jennifer C Warner, Steve D Rothwell, Sandra A Wilks, C William Keevil
The microbiological safety of fresh produce is monitored almost exclusively by culture-based detection methods. However, bacterial food-borne pathogens are known to enter a viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) state in response to environmental stresses such as chlorine, which is commonly used for fresh produce decontamination. Here, complete VBNC induction of green fluorescent protein-tagged Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson was achieved by exposure to 12 and 3 ppm chlorine, respectively...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663166/anthelmintic-efficacy-of-glycolipid-biosurfactant-produced-by-pseudomonas-plecoglossicida-an-insight-from-mutant-and-transgenic-forms-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Sabarinathan Devaraj, Mohankumar Amirthalingam, Poorna Chandrika Sabapathy, Shanmugam Govindan, Sundararaj Palanisamy, Preethi Kathirvel
The current research focuses on the production and characterization of glycolipid biosurfactant (GB) from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and its anthelmintic activity against Caenorhabditis elegans. The GB was purified and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Anthelmintic activity of GB was studied at six different pharmacological doses from 10 to 320 µg/mL on C. elegans. Exposure of different developmental stages (L1, L2, L3, L4 and adult) of C...
April 16, 2018: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661263/a-new-microsporidium-percutemincola-moriokae-gen-nov-sp-nov-from-oscheius-tipulae-a-novel-model-of-microsporidia-nematode-associations
#17
Kenji Nishikori, Davin H E Setiamarga, Takahiro Tanji, Eisuke Kuroda, Hirohisa Shiraishi, Ayako Ohashi-Kobayashi
Here, we describe a new microsporidium Percutemincola moriokae gen. nov., sp. nov., which was discovered in the intestinal and hypodermal cells of a wild strain of the nematode Oscheius tipulae that inhabits in the soil of Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The spores of Pe. moriokae had an average size of 1.0 × 3.8 µm and 1.3 × 3.2 µm in the intestine and hypodermis, respectively, and electron microscopy revealed that they exhibited distinguishing features with morphological diversity in the hypodermis...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656577/efficacy-of-7-benzyloxyindole-and-other-halogenated-indoles-to-inhibit-candida-albicans-biofilm-and-hyphal-formation
#18
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee
Certain pathogenic bacteria and yeast form biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces including medical devices and implants. Hence, the development of antibiofilm coating materials becomes relevant. The virulence of those colonizing pathogens can be reduced by inhibiting biofilm formation rather than killing pathogens using excessive amounts of antimicrobials, which is touted as one of the main reasons for the development of drug resistance. Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, and the transition of yeast cells to hyphal cells is believed to be a crucial virulence factor...
April 15, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656019/proteomic-identification-of-virulence-related-factors-in-young-and-aging-c-elegans-infected-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Christina D King, Daljeet Singh, Kyle Holden, Annie B Govan, Scott A Keith, Arjumand Ghazi, Renã A S Robinson
The molecular mechanisms that distinguish immunosenescence from general age-related decline are poorly understood. We addressed this by exposing Day 1 and Day 5 adults of Caenorhabditis elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01, an opportunistic pathogen. Day 5 adult C. elegans exhibited greater vulnerability to infection as compared to Day 1 C. elegans. Using TMT6 -plex isobaric labeling and reductive dimethylation, we identified 55 proteins whose levels were altered following infection of Day 1 and Day 5 adults...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651983/comment-on-magnetosensitive-neurons-mediate-geomagnetic-orientation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Lukas Landler, Simon Nimpf, Tobias Hochstoeger, Gregory C Nordmann, Artemis Papadaki-Anastasopoulou, David A Keays
A diverse array of species on the planet employ the Earth's magnetic field as a navigational aid. As the majority of these animals are migratory, their utility to interrogate the molecular and cellular basis of the magnetic sense is limited. Vidal-Gadea and colleagues recently argued that the worm Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a magnetic sense that guides their vertical movement in soil. In making this claim, they relied on three different behavioral assays that involved magnetic stimuli. Here, we set out to replicate their results employing blinded protocols and double wrapped coils that control for heat generation...
April 13, 2018: ELife
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