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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235522/an-optogenetic-arrhythmia-model-to-study-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-mutations
#1
Elisabeth Fischer, Alexander Gottschalk, Christina Schüler
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a condition of abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia), induced by physical activity or stress. Mutations in ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), a Ca2+ release channel located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), or calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2), a SR Ca2+ binding protein, are linked to CPVT. For specific drug development and to study distinct arrhythmias, simple models are required to implement and analyze such mutations. Here, we introduced CPVT inducing mutations into the pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans, which we previously established as an optogenetically paced heart model...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234427/a-chinese-herbal-formula-gengnianchun-ameliorates-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-toxicity-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Fanhui Meng, Jun Li, Yanqiu Rao, Wenjun Wang, Yan Fu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, and the few drugs that are currently available only treat the symptoms. Traditional medicine or phytotherapy has been shown to protect against AD. In our previous studies, Gengnianchun (GNC), a traditional Chinese medicine formula with a prolongevity effect, protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12 cells) and hippocampal cells. Here, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which GNC protected against Aβ toxicity using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans CL4176...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234171/the-mutational-decay-of-male-male-and-hermaphrodite-hermaphrodite-competitive-fitness-in-the-androdioecious-nematode-c-elegans
#3
Shu-Dan Yeh, Ayush Shekhar Saxena, Timothy A Crombie, Dorian Feistel, Lindsay M Johnson, Isabel Lam, Jennifer Lam, Sayran Saber, Charles F Baer
Androdioecious Caenorhabditis have a high frequency of self-compatible hermaphrodites and a low frequency of males. The effects of mutations on male fitness are of interest for two reasons. First, when males are rare, selection on male-specific mutations is less efficient than in hermaphrodites. Second, males may present a larger mutational target than hermaphrodites because of the different ways in which fitness accrues in the two sexes. We report the first estimates of male-specific mutational effects in an androdioecious organism...
January 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234054/antagonistic-effect-of-dopamine-structural-analogues-on-human-gaba%C3%AF-1-receptor
#4
Alfredo Alaniz-Palacios, Ataulfo Martínez-Torres
GABAergic and dopaminergic pathways are co-localized in several areas of the central nervous system and recently several reports have shown co-release of both neurotransmitters. The GABA-A receptor (β and ρ1 subunits) is modulated by dopamine (DA) and, interestingly, GABAρ1 can be modulated by several biogenic amines. Here we explored the effects of the metabolites of the dopaminergic pathway and other structural analogues of DA on GABAρ1 and the DA gated ion channel (LGC-53) from Caenorhabditis elegans expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232700/sygl-1-and-lst-1-link-niche-signaling-to-puf-rna-repression-for-stem-cell-maintenance-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Heaji Shin, Kimberly A Haupt, Aaron M Kershner, Peggy Kroll-Conner, Marvin Wickens, Judith Kimble
Central questions in regenerative biology include how stem cells are maintained and how they transition from self-renewal to differentiation. Germline stem cells (GSCs) in Caenorhabditis elegans provide a tractable in vivo model to address these questions. In this system, Notch signaling and PUF RNA binding proteins, FBF-1 and FBF-2 (collectively FBF), maintain a pool of GSCs in a naïve state. An open question has been how Notch signaling modulates FBF activity to promote stem cell self-renewal. Here we report that two Notch targets, SYGL-1 and LST-1, link niche signaling to FBF...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230398/insulin-signaling-deficiency-produces-immobility-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-that-models-diminished-motivation-states-in-man-and-responds-to-antidepressants
#6
Julie Dagenhardt, Angeline Trinh, Halen Sumner, Jeffrey Scott, Eric Aamodt, Donard S Dwyer
Defects in insulin signaling have been reported in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, which also share certain negative symptoms such as avolition, anhedonia, and apathy. These symptoms reflect diminished motivational states, which have been modeled in rodents as increased immobility in the forced swimming test. We have discovered that loss-of-function mutations in the insulin receptor (daf-2) and syntaxin (unc-64) genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, brief food deprivation, and exposure to DMSO produce immobility and avolition in non-dauer adults...
November 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228038/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-in-heat-stressed-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Katharina Jovic, Mark G Sterken, Jacopo Grilli, Roel P J Bevers, Miriam Rodriguez, Joost A G Riksen, Stefano Allesina, Jan E Kammenga, L Basten Snoek
There is considerable insight into pathways and genes associated with heat-stress conditions. Most genes involved in stress response have been identified using mutant screens or gene knockdowns. Yet, there is limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of global gene expression in stressful environments. Here, we studied global gene expression profiles during 12 hours of heat stress in the nematode C. elegans. Using a high-resolution time series of increasing stress exposures, we found a distinct shift in gene expression patterns between 3-4 hours into the stress response, separating an initially highly dynamic phase from a later relatively stagnant phase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225236/microfluidic-platform-for-analyzing-the-thermotaxis-of-c-elegans-in-a-linear-temperature-gradient
#8
Sunhee Yoon, Hailing Piao, Tae-Joon Jeon, Sun Min Kim
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares a considerable amount of characteristics with human genes is one of the important model organisms for the study of behavioral responses. Thermotaxis is a representative behavior response of C. elegans; C. elegans stores the cultivation temperature in thermosensory neurons and moves to the cultivation temperature region in a temperature variation. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system for effective thermotaxis analysis of C. elegans. The microfluidic channel was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by soft lithography process...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223977/growth-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-defined-media-is-dependent-on-presence-of-particulate-matter
#9
Matthew R Flavel, Adam Mechler, Mahdi Shahmiri, Elizabeth R Mathews, Ashley E Franks, Weisan Chen, Damien Zanker, Bo Xian, Shan Gao, Jing Luo, Surafel Tegegne, Christian Doneski, Markandeya Jois
Caenorhabditis elegans are typically cultured in a monoxenic medium consisting of live bacteria. However, this introduces a secondary organism to experiments and restricts the manipulation of the nutritional environment. Due to the intricate link between genes and environment, greater control and understanding of nutritional factors are required to push the C. elegans field into new areas. For decades, attempts to develop a chemically defined, axenic medium as an alternative for culturing C. elegans have been made...
December 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223747/an-automated-high-throughput-system-for-phenotypic-screening-of-chemical-libraries-on-c-elegans-and-parasitic-nematodes
#10
Frederick A Partridge, Anwen E Brown, Steven D Buckingham, Nicky J Willis, Graham M Wynne, Ruth Forman, Kathryn J Else, Alison A Morrison, Jacqueline B Matthews, Angela J Russell, David A Lomas, David B Sattelle
Parasitic nematodes infect hundreds of millions of people and farmed livestock. Further, plant parasitic nematodes result in major crop damage. The pipeline of therapeutic compounds is limited and parasite resistance to the existing anthelmintic compounds is a global threat. We have developed an INVertebrate Automated Phenotyping Platform (INVAPP) for high-throughput, plate-based chemical screening, and an algorithm (Paragon) which allows screening for compounds that have an effect on motility and development of parasitic worms...
December 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222621/lifespan-extension-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-butyricicoccus-pullicaecorum-and-megasphaera-elsdenii-with-probiotic-potential
#11
Gayeung Kwon, Jiyun Lee, Jong-Ho Koh, Young-Hee Lim
Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum and Megasphaera elsdenii inhabit the human intestine and have probiotic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of B. pullicaecorum and M. elsdenii on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. They significantly (P < 0.05) extended the lifespan of C. elegans compared with Escherichia coli OP50, a standard food for the worm. Analysis of age-related biomarkers such as lipofuscin, body size, and locomotory activity showed that they retarded aging. They all failed to extend the lifespan of daf-12 or dbl-1 loss-of-function C...
December 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222342/regulation-of-crossover-frequency-and-distribution-during-meiotic-recombination
#12
Takamune T Saito, Monica P Colaiácovo
Crossover recombination is essential for generating genetic diversity and promoting accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. The process of crossover recombination is tightly regulated and is initiated by the formation of programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The number of DSBs is around 10-fold higher than the number of crossovers in most species, because only a limited number of DSBs are repaired as crossovers during meiosis. Moreover, crossovers are not randomly distributed. Most crossovers are located on chromosomal arm regions and both centromeres and telomeres are usually devoid of crossovers...
December 8, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222184/phosphorylation-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-protein-syp-1-promotes-meiotic-chromosome-segregation
#13
Aya Sato-Carlton, Chihiro Nakamura-Tabuchi, Stephane Kazuki Chartrand, Tomoki Uchino, Peter Mark Carlton
Chromosomes that have undergone crossing over in meiotic prophase must maintain sister chromatid cohesion somewhere along their length between the first and second meiotic divisions. Although many eukaryotes use the centromere as a site to maintain cohesion, the holocentric organism Caenorhabditis elegans instead creates two chromosome domains of unequal length termed the short arm and long arm, which become the first and second site of cohesion loss at meiosis I and II. The mechanisms that confer distinct functions to the short and long arm domains remain poorly understood...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222174/phosphatase-pp2a-and-microtubule-mediated-pulling-forces-disassemble-centrosomes-during-mitotic-exit
#14
Stephen J Enos, Martin Dressler, Beatriz Ferreira Gomes, Anthony A Hyman, Jeffrey B Woodruff
Centrosomes are microtubule-nucleating organelles that facilitate chromosome segregation and cell division in metazoans. Centrosomes comprise centrioles that organize a micron-scale mass of protein called pericentriolar material (PCM) from which microtubules nucleate. During each cell cycle, PCM accumulates around centrioles through phosphorylation-mediated assembly of PCM scaffold proteins. During mitotic exit, PCM swiftly disassembles by an unknown mechanism. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to determine the mechanism and importance of PCM disassembly in dividing cells...
December 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218439/characterization-and-expression-of-lin-28a-involved-in-lin28-let-7signal-pathway-during-early-development-of-p-olivaceus
#15
Yuanshuai Fu, Lina Gao, Zhiyi Shi, Feng You, Junling Zhang, Wenjuan Li
Heterochronic lin-28 is a conserved RNA-binding protein that plays a key role in the timing of developmental events in organisms. As a crucial heterochronic gene, the protein controls developmental events of the second of four larval stages in Caenorhabditi elegans. Heterochronic let-7 miRNAs are often present in various species and highly conserved in sequence and biological function and are required for various biological processes. Previous studies showed that ten let-7 miRNAs were identified in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and that they were primarily expressed during metamorphosis...
December 7, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218323/sap97-binding-partner-cript-promotes-dendrite-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Lei Zhang, Angela Marie Jablonski, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Hua Ding, Steven Seeholzer, Ian Paterson Newton, Inke Nathke, Rachael Neve, JinBin Zhai, Yuan Shang, Mingjie Zhang, Robert Gordon Kalb
The dendritic tree is a key determinant of neuronal information processing. In the motor system, the dendritic tree of spinal cord neurons undergoes dramatic remodeling in an activity-dependent manner during early postnatal life. This leads to the proper segmental spinal cord connectivity that subserves normal locomotor behavior. One molecular system driving the establishment of dendrite architecture of mammalian motor neurons relies on AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) assembled with the GluA1 subunit, and this occurs in an NMDA receptor (NMDA-R)-independent manner...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214707/movement-decline-across-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-mutants-in-the-insulin-insulin-like-signaling-pathway
#17
Breanne L Newell Stamper, James R Cypser, Katerina Kechris, David Alan Kitzenberg, Patricia M Tedesco, Thomas E Johnson
Research in aging biology has identified several pathways that are molecularly conserved across species that extend lifespan when mutated. The insulin/insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway is one of the most widely studied of these. It has been assumed that extending lifespan also extends healthspan (the period of life with minimal functional loss). However, data supporting this assumption conflict and recent evidence suggest that life extension may, in and of itself, extend the frail period. In this study, we use Caenorhabditis elegans to further probe the link between lifespan and healthspan...
December 7, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212816/complete-suppression-of-htt-fibrilization-and-disaggregation-of-htt-fibrils-by-a-trimeric-chaperone-complex
#18
Annika Scior, Alexander Buntru, Kristin Arnsburg, Anne Ast, Manuel Iburg, Katrin Juenemann, Maria Lucia Pigazzini, Barbara Mlody, Dmytro Puchkov, Josef Priller, Erich E Wanker, Alessandro Prigione, Janine Kirstein
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Molecular chaperones have been implicated in suppressing or delaying the aggregation of mutant Htt. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we have identified a trimeric chaperone complex (Hsc70, Hsp110, and J-protein) that completely suppresses fibrilization of HttExon1Q48 The composition of this chaperone complex is variable as recruitment of different chaperone family members forms distinct functional complexes...
December 6, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211722/enhancing-mitochondrial-proteostasis-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-proteotoxicity
#19
Vincenzo Sorrentino, Mario Romani, Laurent Mouchiroud, John S Beck, Hongbo Zhang, Davide D' Amico, Norman Moullan, Francesca Potenza, Adrien W Schmid, Solène Rietsch, Scott E Counts, Johan Auwerx
Alzheimer's disease is a common and devastating disease characterized by aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide. However, we know relatively little about the underlying molecular mechanisms or how to treat patients with Alzheimer's disease. Here we provide bioinformatic and experimental evidence of a conserved mitochondrial stress response signature present in diseases involving amyloid-β proteotoxicity in human, mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans that involves the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and mitophagy pathways...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208474/caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-system-for-target-identification-and-drug-screening-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Liang Ma, Yudan Zhao, Yuchen Chen, Biao Cheng, Anlin Peng, Kun Huang
Over the past decades, C. elegans has been widely used as a model system because of its small size, transparent body, short generation time and lifespan (~3 days and 3 weeks, respectively), completely sequenced genome and tractability to genetic manipulation. Protein misfolding and aggregation are key pathological features in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Animal models, including Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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