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Caenorhabditis elegans

Shuangshuang Dong, Man Qu, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
The possible adverse effects of nanoplastics have received the great attention recently; however, their effects at environmentally relevant concentration on organisms are still largely unclear. We here employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the combinational effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) and nanopolystyrene particles at environmentally relevant concentrations on organisms. In wild-type nematodes, prolonged exposure to nanopolystyrene particles (1 μg/L) could enhance the toxicity of TiO2 -NPs (1 μg/L) in decreasing locomotion behavior and in inducing intestinal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
June 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jiatao Huang, Sixi Chen, Li Hu, Huan Niu, Qianqian Sun, Wenna Li, Guoqian Tan, Jianghui Li, LongJin Jin, Jianxin Lyu, Huaibin Zhou
In mammals, mitoferrin-1and mitoferrin-2, two homologous proteins of the mitochondrial solute carrier family are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. However, there is only one kind, called W02B12 (mitoferrin-1 or mfn-1), in Caenorhabditis elegans and its regulatory mechanism is unknown. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans strains CL2006 and GMC101 as models to investigate what role mitoferrin-1 played in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that knockdown of mitoferrin-1 by feeding-RNAi treatment extended lifespans of both strains of C...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Pratik Kadekar, Rita Chaouni, Emily Clark, Anna Kazanets, Richard Roy
BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans can endure long periods of environmental stress by altering their development to execute a quiescent state called "dauer". Previous work has implicated LKB1 - the causative gene in the autosomal dominant, cancer pre-disposing disease called Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), and its downstream target AMPK, in the establishment of germline stem cell (GSC) quiescence during the dauer stage. Loss of function mutations in both LKB1/par-4 and AMPK/aak(0) result in untimely GSC proliferation during the onset of the dauer stage, although the molecular mechanism through which these factors regulate quiescence remains unclear...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Robert I Holbrook, Beth Mortimer
Mechanical sensing is important for all organisms, but is the least understood of the senses. As mechanical stimuli come in diverse forms, organisms often have sensors or sensory systems that specialise in a form of mechanical stimuli, such as touch or vibration. Here we tested the hypothesis that the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a behavioural response to vibration that is distinct from its responses to touch. We show that wild type strain worms respond to sustained low frequency vibration in a manner distinct from the known responses to non-localised mechanical stimuli...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Claire Maynard, Ian Cummins, Jacalyn Green, David Weinkove
BACKGROUND: To prevent folate deficiencies, many countries supplement various foodstuffs with folic acid. This compound is a synthetic oxidised folate that differs from naturally occurring reduced folates in its metabolism and uptake. Notably, safety reviews of folic acid supplementation have not considered interactions with gut bacteria. Here, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans - Escherichia coli animal- microbe model to examine a possible bacterial route for folic acid uptake. It has been assumed that supplements are taken up directly by the worm, especially because E...
June 15, 2018: BMC Biology
Prapaporn Jattujan, Pawanrat Chalorak, Tanapan Siangcham, Kant Sangpairoj, Saksit Nobsathian, Tanate Poomtong, Prasert Sobhon, Krai Meemon
Holothuria scabra is a sea cucumber that is mostly found in the Indo-Pacific region including Thailand. Extracts from many sea cucumbers possess pharmacological activities proposed to benefit human health. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-ageing activities of extracts from H. scabra by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Parts of H. scabra were solvent-extracted and divided into nine fractions including whole body-hexane (WBHE), whole body-ethyl acetate (WBEA), whole body-butanol (WBBU), body wall-hexane (BWHE), body wall-ethyl acetate (BWEA), body wall-butanol (BWBU), viscera-hexane (VIHE), viscera-ethyl acetate (VIEA), and viscera-butanol (VIBU)...
June 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Hai-Yin Li, Xian-Wu Lin, Shao-Lei Geng, Wei-Hua Xu
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily signaling pathway contains two general branches, known as TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), that regulate development in animals. It is well known that TGF-β superfamily signaling participates in the regulation of dauer (lifespan extension) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of lifespan extension in the pathway. Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest in insects, is similar to dauer in C. elegans...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Giovanna Brancati, Helge Großhans
MicroRNAs often occur in families whose members share an identical 5' terminal 'seed' sequence. The seed is a major determinant of miRNA activity, and family members are thought to act redundantly on target mRNAs with perfect seed matches, i.e. sequences complementary to the seed. However, recently sequences outside the seed were reported to promote silencing by individual miRNA family members. Here, we examine this concept and the importance of miRNA specificity for the robustness of developmental gene control...
April 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Ivan Gusarov, Evgeny Nudler
Glycogen is synthesized and stored to maintain postprandial blood glucose homeostasis and to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply between meals. Although the regulation of glycogen turnover has been well studied, the effects of glycogen on aging and disease development have been largely unexplored. In Caenorhabditis elegans fed a high sugar diet, glycogen potentiates resistance to oxidants, but paradoxically, shortens lifespan. Depletion of glycogen by oxidants or inhibition of glycogen synthesis extends the lifespan of worms by an AMPK-dependent mechanism...
June 13, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Caralina Marín de Evsikova
Environmental toxicants, chemical substances produced or introduced into the environment directly by humans or their activities, can act as teratogens during development that negatively impact health. Long-term ramifications of environmental exposures to sublethal doses of teratogens are often unrecognized and unknown. The round worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is an emerging model organism to investigate the long-term impacts of environmental teratogens upon health. This chapter describes a toxicant exposure paradigm integrated with phenotyping assays to screen adult worms, and their progeny, for effects on reproduction, growth and development, behavior, and energy balance...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sofia Alves-Pimenta, Bruno Colaço, Paula A Oliveira, Carlos Venâncio
During pregnancy fetus can be exposed to a variety of chemicals which may induce abortion and malformations. Due to the amounts of new substances coming into the market every year, a high demand for a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method to detect potential toxicity is necessary. Different species have been used as animal models for teratogen screening, most of them sharing similar development processes with humans. However, the application of embryology knowledge to teratology is hampered by the complexity of the reproduction processes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yee-Chin Wong, Moataz Abd El Ghany, Raeece N M Ghazzali, Soon-Joo Yap, Chee-Choong Hoh, Arnab Pain, Sheila Nathan
A Burkholderia cenocepacia infection usually leads to reduced survival and fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. The identification of B. cenocepacia essential genes for in vivo survival is key to designing new anti-infectives therapies. We used the Transposon-Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) approach to identify genes required for B. cenocepacia survival in the model infection host, Caenorhabditis elegans . A B. cenocepacia J2315 transposon pool of ∼500,000 mutants was used to infect C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guruprasada Reddy Sure, Anusheela Chatterjee, Nikhil Mishra, Vidur Sabharwal, Swathi Devireddy, Anjali Awasthi, Swetha Mohan, Sandhya P Koushika
We investigate the role of axonal transport in regulating neuronal mitochondrial density. We show that the density of mitochondria in the touch receptor neuron (TRN) of adult Caenorhabditis elegans is constant. Mitochondrial density and transport are controlled both by the Kinesin heavy chain and the Dynein-Dynactin complex. However, unlike in other models, the presence of mitochondria in C. elegans TRNs depends on a Kinesin light chain as well. Mutants in the three C. elegans miro genes do not alter mitochondrial density in the TRNs...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Javier J How, Saket Navlakha
Biological networks have long been known to be modular, containing sets of nodes that are highly connected internally. Less emphasis, however, has been placed on understanding how intermodule connections are distributed within a network. Here, we borrow ideas from engineered circuit design and study Rentian scaling, which states that the number of external connections between nodes in different modules is related to the number of nodes inside the modules by a power-law relationship. We tested this property in a broad class of molecular networks, including protein interaction networks for six species and gene regulatory networks for 41 human and 25 mouse cell types...
June 12, 2018: Neural Computation
Bhavya Ravi, Jessica Garcia, Kevin M Collins
Neuron activity accompanies synapse formation and maintenance, but how early circuit activity contributes to behavior development is not well understood. Here, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying motor circuit as a model to understand how coordinated cell and circuit activity develops and drives a robust two-state behavior in adults. Using calcium imaging in behaving animals, we find the serotonergic Hermaphrodite Specific Neurons (HSNs) and vulval muscles show rhythmic calcium transients in L4 larvae before eggs are produced...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Behnom Farboud, Erin Jarvis, Theodore L Roth, Jiyung Shin, Jacob E Corn, Alexander Marson, Barbara J Meyer, Nipam H Patel, Megan L Hochstrasser
Site-specific eukaryotic genome editing with CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems has quickly become a commonplace amongst researchers pursuing a wide variety of biological questions. Users most often employ the Cas9 protein derived from Streptococcus pyogenes in a complex with an easily reprogrammed guide RNA (gRNA). These components are introduced into cells, and through a base pairing with a complementary region of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome, the enzyme cleaves both strands to generate a double-strand break (DSB)...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Christopher W Williams, Jyoti Iyer, Yan Liu, Kevin F O'Connell
CDK11, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been implicated in a diverse array of functions including transcription, RNA processing, sister chromatid cohesion, spindle assembly, centriole duplication and apoptosis. Despite its involvement in many essential functions, little is known about the requirements for CDK11 and its partner Cyclin L in a developing multicellular organism. Here we investigate the function of CDK11 and Cyclin L during development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Worms express two CDK11 proteins encoded by distinct loci: CDK-11...
June 7, 2018: Developmental Biology
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Maria Gleiciane da Rocha, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Géssica Dos Santos Araújo, Jaime David Acosta España, Jamille Alencar Sales, Lara de Aguiar, Manoel de Araújo Neto Paiva, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira-Neto, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is a component of the microbiota of dogs and cats, however it can cause otitis and seborrheic dermatitis in these animals. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility, and evaluate virulence and pathogenicity of 25 M. pachydermatis strains from animals. Susceptibility to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. In addition, biofilm-forming ability, protease, phospholipase, hemolysin and melanin production and adhesion to epithelial cells by this yeast species were assessed...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Marcello Germoglio, Adele Adamo
The evolutionary conserved RAD-51 protein is essential for homologous recombination in the germ line as well as homologous repair of DNA double strand breaks in all eukaryotic cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the rad-51 gene is transcribed into messenger-RNAs potentially coding three alternative protein isoforms. Null rad-51 alleles display embryonic lethality, severe defects in chromosome structure and high level of germ line apoptosis. To dissect its functions, we genetically modified the C. elegans rad-51 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technology, obtaining a separation-of-function (sfi-) mutant allele that only disrupts the long transcript isoform...
June 8, 2018: Genetics
Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Antonio José de Jesus Evangelista, Rosana Serpa, Ana Raquel Colares de Andrade, Patrícia Bruna Leite Mendes, Jônatas da Silva Franco, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Jamille Alencar Sales, Lília Maria Carneiro Câmara, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
AIM: To investigate the direct effect of antibiotics on growth and virulence of the major Candida species associated with invasive infections. MATERIALS & METHODS: Cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin and vancomycin were tested at twofold the peak plasma concentration (2× PP) and the peak plasma concentration (PP). The effects of antibiotics on Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis were investigated by colony counting, flow cytometry, proteolytic activity and virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans...
June 8, 2018: Future Microbiology
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