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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924578/discovering-functional-erk-substrates-regulating-caenorhabditis-elegans-germline-development
#1
Jessica Jie Chen, Swathi Arur
The Rat Sarcoma (RAS) GTPAse-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway regulates multiple biological processes across metazoans. In particular during Caenorhabditis elegans oogenesis, ERK signaling has been shown to regulate over seven distinct biological processes in a temporal and sequential manner. To fully elucidate how ERK signaling cascade orchestrates these different biological processes in vivo, identification of the direct functional substrates of the pathway is critical. This chapter describes the methods that were used to identify ERK substrates in a global manner and study their functions in the germline...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923661/cdc-25-2-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-ortholog-of-cdc25-is-required-for-male-tail-morphogenesis
#2
Sangmi Oh, Sunghee Yoon, Esther Youn, Ichiro Kawasaki, Yhong-Hee Shim
Cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) is an evolutionarily conserved phosphatase that promotes cell cycle progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) which are inactivated by Wee1/Myt1 kinases. It was previously reported that cdc-25.2 promotes oocyte maturation and intestinal cell divisions in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. Here, we report a novel function of cdc-25.2 in male tail development which was significantly deformed by cdc-25.2 RNAi depletion and in cdc-25.2 mutant males. The deformation was also observed after RNAi depletion of other cell cycle regulators, cdk-1, cyb-3, cyd-1, and cyl-1...
December 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919065/splicing-factor-1-modulates-dietary-restriction-and-torc1-pathway-longevity-in-c-elegans
#3
Caroline Heintz, Thomas K Doktor, Anne Lanjuin, Caroline C Escoubas, Yue Zhang, Heather J Weir, Sneha Dutta, Carlos Giovanni Silva-García, Gitte H Bruun, Ianessa Morantte, Gerta Hoxhaj, Brendan D Manning, Brage S Andresen, William B Mair
Ageing is driven by a loss of transcriptional and protein homeostasis and is the key risk factor for multiple chronic diseases. Interventions that attenuate or reverse systemic dysfunction associated with age therefore have the potential to reduce overall disease risk in the elderly. Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a fundamental link between gene expression and the proteome, and deregulation of the splicing machinery is linked to several age-related chronic illnesses. However, the role of splicing homeostasis in healthy ageing remains unclear...
December 5, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916661/tetrameric-assembly-of-k-channels-requires-er-located-chaperone-proteins
#4
Kai Li, Qiang Jiang, Xue Bai, Yi-Feng Yang, Mei-Yu Ruan, Shi-Qing Cai
Tetrameric assembly of channel subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential for surface expression and function of K(+) channels, but the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, we found through genetic screening that ER-located J-domain-containing chaperone proteins (J-proteins) are critical for the biogenesis and physiological function of ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG) K(+) channels in both Caenorhabditis elegans and human cells. Human J-proteins DNAJB12 and DNAJB14 promoted tetrameric assembly of ERG (and Kv4...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915107/association-between-the-agr-locus-and-the-presence-of-virulence-genes-and-pathogenesis-in-s-aureus-using-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-model
#5
Terissa A Thompson, Paul D Brown
BACKGROUND: S. aureus is a commensal pathogen with a virulon that is under agr control. agr dysfunction has been seen in clinical strains that do not respond positively to treatment. AIM: This study aimed to establish the association between the presence of genes in the virulon with agr present and to determine the relationship between agr presence or absence with pathogenicity. METHODS: PCR was used to identify the presence of the agr operon in 101 clinical S...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913619/the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nf2-merlin-molecule-nfm-1-non-autonomously-regulates-neuroblast-migration-and-interacts-genetically-with-the-guidance-cue-slt-1-slit
#6
Matthew P Josephson, Rana Aliani, Megan L Norris, Matthew E Ochs, Mahekta Gujar, Erik A Lundquist
During nervous system development, neurons and their progenitors migrate to their final destinations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the bilateral Q neuroblasts and their descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions, despite being born in the same posterior region. QR on the right migrates anteriorly and generates the AQR neuron positioned near the head, and QL on the left migrates posteriorly, giving rise to the PQR neuron positioned near the tail. In a screen for genes required for AQR and PQR migration, we identified an allele of nfm-1, which encodes a molecule similar to vertebrate NF2/Merlin, an important tumor suppressor in humans...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911941/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-impact-several-toxicological-endpoints-and-cause-neurodegeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Michael J Mashock, Tyler Zanon, Anthony D Kappell, Lisa N Petrella, Erik C Andersen, Krassimira R Hristova
Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly incorporated into technology and consumer products. In 2014, over 300 tons of copper oxide nanoparticles were manufactured in the United States. The increased production of nanoparticles raises concerns regarding the potential introduction into the environment or human exposure. Copper oxide nanoparticles commonly release copper ions into solutions, which contribute to their toxicity. We quantified the inhibitory effects of both copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911739/toward-whole-body-connectomics
#8
Chung-Chuan Lo, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Recent advances in neuro-technologies have revolutionized knowledge of brain structure and functions. Governments and private organizations worldwide have initiated several large-scale brain connectome projects, to further understand how the brain works at the systems levels. Most recent projects focus on only brain neurons, with the exception of an early effort to reconstruct the 302 neurons that comprise the whole body of the small worm, Caenorhabditis elegans However, to fully elucidate the neural circuitry of complex behavior, it is crucial to understand brain interactions with the whole body, which can be achieved only by mapping the whole-body connectome...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907064/nad-is-a-food-component-that-promotes-exit-from-dauer-diapause-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Mykola Mylenko, Sebastian Boland, Sider Penkov, Julio L Sampaio, Benoit Lombardot, Daniela Vorkel, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Teymuras V Kurzchalia
The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s) present in food, referred to as the "food signal", promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905396/atomic-structure-of-the-innexin-6-gap-junction-channel-determined-by-cryo-em
#10
Atsunori Oshima, Kazutoshi Tani, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi
Innexins, a large protein family comprising invertebrate gap junction channels, play an essential role in nervous system development and electrical synapse formation. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of Caenorhabditis elegans innexin-6 (INX-6) gap junction channels at atomic resolution. We find that the arrangements of the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops of the INX-6 monomeric structure are highly similar to those of connexin-26 (Cx26), despite the lack of significant sequence similarity...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903784/terrain-following-and-applications-caenorhabditis-elegans-swims-along-the-floor-using-a-bump-and-undulate-strategy
#11
Jinzhou Yuan, Hungtang Ko, David M Raizen, Haim H Bau
Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans are heavier than water. When submerged in water, they settle to the bottom surface. Observations reveal that the animals do not lie flat on the bottom surface, but remain substantially suspended above the surface through continuous collisions with the surface, while maintaining their swimming gaits. Consequently, the swimming animals follow the bottom surface topography. When the bottom surface is inclined, the animals swim up or down along the incline. As the magnitude of the gravitational force can be easily estimated, this behaviour provides a convenient means to estimate the animal's propulsive thrust...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903783/uncovering-the-mechanisms-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-ageing-from-global-quantification-of-the-underlying-landscape
#12
Lei Zhao, Jin Wang
Recent studies on Caenorhabditis elegans reveal that gene manipulations can extend its lifespan several fold. However, how the genes work together to determine longevity is still an open question. Here we construct a gene regulatory network for worm ageing and quantify its underlying potential and flux landscape. We found ageing and rejuvenation states can emerge as basins of attraction at certain gene expression levels. The system state can switch from one attractor to another driven by the intrinsic or external perturbations through genetics or the environment...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902921/complete-genome-sequence-of-fictibacillus-arsenicus-g25-54-a-strain-with-toxicity-to-nematodes
#13
Ziqiang Zheng, Jinshui Zheng, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) can infect almost all crops and cause huge economic losses in agriculture worldwide. An in-depth understanding of bacteria with nematicidal activity is essential for an effective and environmentally friendly control of RKNs. Fictibacillus arsenicus G25-54, a gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium isolated from a submerged sand bank, shows nematicidal activity against free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and RKNs. Here, we report the complete genome of F. arsenicus G25-54, which contains a circular chromosome and encodes ten potential nematicidal factors with twelve secondary metabolite gene clusters...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902410/inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-factors-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-murraya-koenigii-essential-oil-a-study-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-infectious-model
#14
P Sankar Ganesh, Ravishankar Vittal Rai
The global emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a major threat in hospital environments as well as in the community. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and it also infects a wide range of model organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Quorum sensing (QS) mediates cell-to-cell communication in bacteria and has an important role in regulating virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation which are crucial for establishment of the infection...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902402/pathogenic-properties-of-a-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-strain-isolated-from-a-case-of-osteomyelitis
#15
Renata Stavracakis Peixoto, Elena Hacker, Camila Azevedo Antunes, Dulanthi Weerasekera, Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira Dias, Carlos Alberto Martins, Raphael Hirata, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Andreas Burkovski, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is typically recognized as a colonizer of the upper respiratory tract (respiratory diphtheria) and the skin (cutaneous diphtheria). However, different strains of Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae can also cause invasive infections. In this study, the characterization of a non-toxigenic Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae strain (designated BR-INCA5015) isolated from osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of a patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma was performed. Pathogenic properties of the strain BR-INCA5015 were tested in a Caenorhabditis elegans survival assay showing strong colonization and killing by this strain...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901397/a-systems-toxicology-approach-reveals-the-wnt-mapk-crosstalk-pathway-mediated-reproductive-failure-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-exposed-to-graphene-oxide-go-but-not-to-reduced-graphene-oxide-rgo
#16
Nivedita Chatterjee, Young-Ho Kim, Jisu Yang, Carlos P Roca, Sang Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint)...
November 30, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900550/biogenesis-of-diverse-plant-phasirnas-involves-an-mirna-trigger-and-dicer-processing
#17
Reina Komiya
It has been almost 30 years since RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to silence genes via double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Fire et al. 1998). 20-30-nucleotide (nt) small non-coding RNAs are a key element of the RNAi machinery. Recently, phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs), small RNAs that are generated from a long RNA precursor at intervals of 21 to 26-nt, have been identified in plants and animals. In Drosophila, phasiRNAs are generated by the endonuclease, Zucchini (Zuc), in germlines...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897161/remodelling-germ-cells-by-intercellular-cannibalism
#18
Jennifer K Heppert, Bob Goldstein
Work from the early 1980s reported strange lobes protruding from Caenorhabditis elegans germ cell precursors. However, the fate and potential significance of these lobes remained unexplored for decades. Now, neighbouring endodermal cells are shown to sever and digest these lobes, in an unexpected process of 'intercellular cannibalism', which could play an important part in regulating primordial germ cells.
November 29, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896020/identification-of-phenolic-secondary-metabolites-from-schotia-brachypetala-sond-fabaceae-and-demonstration-of-their-antioxidant-activities-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Mansour Sobeh, Esraa ElHawary, Herbenya Peixoto, Rola M Labib, Heba Handoussa, Noha Swilam, Ahmed H El-Khatib, Farukh Sharapov, Tamer Mohamed, Sonja Krstin, Michael W Linscheid, Abdel Nasser Singab, Michael Wink, Nahla Ayoub
BACKGROUND: Schotia brachypetala Sond. (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree of Southern Africa whose phytochemistry and pharmacology were slightly studied. The present work aimed at profiling the major phenolics compounds present in the hydro-alcohol extract from S. brachypetala leaves (SBE) using LC/HRESI/MS/MS and NMR and prove their antioxidant capabilities using novel methods. METHODS: In vitro assays; DPPH, TEAC persulfate decolorizing kinetic and FRAP assays, and in vivo assays: Caenorhabditis elegans strains maintenance, Intracellular ROS in C...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893361/regulatory-changes-in-two-chemoreceptor-genes-contribute-to-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-qtl-for-foraging-behavior
#20
Joshua S Greene, May Dobosiewicz, Rebecca A Butcher, Patrick T McGrath, Cornelia I Bargmann
Natural isolates of C. elegans differ in their sensitivity to pheromones that inhibit exploratory behavior. Previous studies identified a QTL for pheromone sensitivity that includes alternative alleles of srx-43, a chemoreceptor that inhibits exploration through its activity in ASI sensory neurons. Here we show that the QTL is multigenic and includes alternative alleles of srx-44, a second chemoreceptor gene that modifies pheromone sensitivity. srx-44 either promotes or inhibits exploration depending on its expression in the ASJ or ADL sensory neurons, respectively...
November 28, 2016: ELife
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