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Caenorhabditis elegans

Ru-Yue Xiao, Junjun Hao, Yi-Hong Ding, Yan-Yun Che, Xiao-Ju Zou, Bin Liang
Due to misbalanced energy surplus and expenditure, obesity has become a common chronic disorder that is highly associated with many metabolic diseases. Pu-erh tea, a traditional Chinese beverage, has been believed to have numerous health benefits, such as anti-obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms of its anti-obesity effect are yet to be understood. Here, we take the advantages of transcriptional profile by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to view the global gene expression of Pu-erh tea. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was treated with different concentrations of Pu-erh tea water extract (PTE, 0 g/mL, 0...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Emily R Troemel
Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi that infect virtually all animals. Recently, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed as a convenient model for studying microsporidia infection in a whole-animal host through the identification and characterization of a natural microsporidian pathogen of this commonly studied laboratory organism. The C. elegans natural microsporidian pathogen is named Nematocida parisii, and it causes a lethal intestinal infection in C...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Chao-Jun Lu, Bao-Yu Tian, Yi Cao, Cheng-Gang Zou, Ke-Qin Zhang
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a diverse class of transcription factors, which are involved in regulating a large number of physiological events in metazoans. However, the function of NRs is poorly understood in plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, members of the NR1J+K group of NRs in nematodes, including the free-living and plant parasites, were examined and phylogenetically analyzed. We found that the number of members of the NR1J+K group in plant-parasitic nematodes was less than that in the free-living nematodes, suggesting this reduction of NR1J+K group members in plant parasites maybe arose during the separation of the free-living and intermediately plant parasitic nematodes (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mi-Sun Kwon, Jaewon Min, Hee-Yeon Jeon, Kwangwoo Hwang, Chuna Kim, Junho Lee, Je-Gun Joung, Woong-Yang Park, Hyunsook Lee
BRCA2 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor involved in homologous recombination (HR), mitotic checkpoint regulation, and telomere homeostasis. Absence of Brca2 in mice results in progressive shortening of telomeres and senescence, yet cells are prone to neoplastic transformation with elongated telomeres, suggesting that BRCA2 has positive and negative effects on telomere length regulation along the path to tumorigenesis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we show here that depletion of BRC-2, an ortholog of BRCA2, paradoxically delays senescence in telomerase-deficient mutant worms...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Jacques Pécréaux, Stefanie Redemann, Zahraa Alayan, Benjamin Mercat, Sylvain Pastezeur, Carlos Garzon-Coral, Anthony A Hyman, Jonathon Howard
Precise positioning of the mitotic spindle is important for specifying the plane of cell division, which in turn determines how the cytoplasmic contents of the mother cell are partitioned into the daughter cells, and how the daughters are positioned within the tissue. During metaphase in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, the spindle is aligned and centered on the anterior-posterior axis by a microtubule-dependent machinery that exerts restoring forces when the spindle is displaced from the center. To investigate the accuracy and stability of centering, we tracked the position and orientation of the mitotic spindle during the first cell division with high temporal and spatial resolution...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Antonia Piazzesi, Dražen Papić, Fabio Bertan, Paolo Salomoni, Pierluigi Nicotera, Daniele Bano
Chromatin structure orchestrates the accessibility to the genetic material. Replication-independent histone variants control transcriptional plasticity in postmitotic cells. The life-long accumulation of these histones has been described, yet the implications on organismal aging remain elusive. Here, we study the importance of the histone variant H3.3 in Caenorhabditis elegans longevity pathways. We show that H3.3-deficient nematodes have negligible lifespan differences compared to wild-type animals. However, H3...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
S Sun, Y Wang, H Chen, L Fang, Y Cui, X Han, D Wu, H Li, M Ye, X Zhao, J Liu
BACKGROUND: Sip1/Tuftelin Interacting Protein (STIP) is highly conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens and has essential biological functions. However, its function in leukemia remains unknown. METHODS: Clinic Samples and cell model were used in this article to investigate the expression of STIP in lymphoblastic leukemia. The functional research of STIP was performed in ARH-77 by siRNA transfection, Immunofluorescence, cell count, cell cycle analysis, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Sub-cellular Fractionation assays, Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting...
October 18, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
Mark D Mathew, Neal D Mathew, Angela Miller, Mike Simpson, Vinci Au, Stephanie Garland, Marie Gestin, Mark L Edgley, Stephane Flibotte, Aruna Balgi, Jennifer Chiang, Guri Giaever, Pamela Dean, Audrey Tung, Michel Roberge, Calvin Roskelley, Tom Forge, Corey Nislow, Donald Moerman
BACKGROUND: The lack of new anthelmintic agents is of growing concern because it affects human health and our food supply, as both livestock and plants are affected. Two principal factors contribute to this problem. First, nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs is increasing worldwide and second, many effective nematicides pose environmental hazards. In this paper we address this problem by deploying a high throughput screening platform for anthelmintic drug discovery using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for infectious nematodes...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Carmen Jiménez-Castells, Jorick Vanbeselaere, Sonja Kohlhuber, Bärbel Ruttkowski, Anja Joachim, Katharina Paschinger
BACKGROUND: The porcine nodule worm Oesophagostomum dentatum is a strongylid class V nematode rather closely related to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. However, in contrast to the non-parasitic C. elegans, the parasitic O. dentatum is an obligate sexual organism, which makes both a gender and developmental glycomic comparison possible. METHODS: Different enzymatic and chemical methods were used to release N-glycans from male and female O. dentatum as well as from L3 and L4 larvae...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Lu Kong, Xiaojie Gao, Jiaqian Zhu, Ting Zhang, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
To investigate the reproductive toxicity and underlying mechanism of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs), Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were treated with/without 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg cm(-2) of Ni NPs or nickel microparticles (Ni MPs). Generation time, fertilized egg numbers, spermatide activation and motility were detected. Results indicated, under the same treatment doses, that Ni NPs induced higher reproductive toxicity to C. elegans than Ni MPs. Reproductive toxicities observed in C. elegans included a decrease in brood size, fertilized egg and spermatide activation, but an increase in generation time and out-of-round spermatids...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Marion A David, Stéphane Orlowski, Roger K Prichard, Shaima Hashem, François André, Anne Lespine
Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are important anthelmintics used in animals and humans against parasite nematodes, but their therapeutic success is compromised by the spread of ML resistance. Some ABC transporters, such as p-glycoproteins (Pgps), are selected and overexpressed in ML-resistant nematodes, supporting a role for some drug efflux proteins in ML resistance. However, the role of such proteins in ML transport remains to be clarified at the molecular level. Recently, Caenorhabditis elegans Pgp-1 (Cel-Pgp-1) has been crystallized, and its drug-modulated ATPase function characterized in vitro revealed Cel-Pgp-1 as a multidrug transporter...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Cornelia Habacher, Yanwu Guo, Richard Venz, Pooja Kumari, Anca Neagu, Dimos Gaidatzis, Eva B Harvald, Nils J Færgeman, Heinz Gut, Rafal Ciosk
Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
Cheryl Li, Olivia Casanueva
Abundant evidence shows that the genome is not as static as once thought and that gene expression can be reversibly modulated by the environment. In some cases, these changes can be transmitted to the next generation even if the environment has reverted. Such transgenerational epigenetic inheritance requires that information be stored in the germline in response to exogenous stressors. One of the most elusive questions in the field of epigenetic inheritance is the identity of such inherited factor(s). Answering this question would allow us to understand how the environment can shape human populations for multiple generations and may help to explain the rapid rise in obesity and neurodegenerative diseases in modern society...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
Gaurav V Sanghvi, Praveen Baskaran, Waltraud Röseler, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
Nematodes, the earth's most abundant metazoa are found in all ecosystems. In order to survive in diverse environments, they have evolved distinct feeding strategies and they can use different food sources. While some nematodes are specialists, including parasites of plants and animals, others such as Pristionchus pacificus are omnivorous feeders, which can live on a diet of bacteria, protozoans, fungi or yeast. In the wild, P. pacificus is often found in a necromenic association with beetles and is known to be able to feed on a variety of microbes as well as on nematode prey...
2016: PloS One
Yunhui Li, Minhui Zhang, Shaojun Li, Rongrong Lv, Pan Chen, Ran Liu, Geyu Liang, Lihong Yin
There is increasing evidence that epoxiconazole exposure can affect reproductive function, but few studies have investigated adverse effects on spermatogenesis. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used in our study to assess effects of epoxiconazole on spermatogenesis in male nematodes after 48 h of exposure to concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 μg/L. The results demonstrated that epoxiconazole exposure affected spermatogenesis, decreasing the number of total germ cells, mitotic cells, meiotic cells and spermatids, spermatid diameter, and cross-sectional area, and inducing mitotic germ cell proliferation arrest, premature entry into meiosis, and sperm activation inhibition; however, sperm transfer showed no abnormal changes...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alexey Petrushin, Lorenzo Ferrara, Axel Blau
OBJECTIVE: In light of recent progress in mapping neural function to behavior, we briefly and selectively review past and present endeavors to reveal and reconstruct nervous system function in Caenorhabditis elegans through simulation. APPROACH: Rather than presenting an all-encompassing review on the mathematical modeling of C. elegans, this contribution collects snapshots of pathfinding key works and emerging technologies that recent single- and multi-center simulation initiatives are building on...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jeffrey J Coleman, Tomomi Komura, Julia Munro, Michael P Wu, Rakhee R Busanelli, Angela N Koehler, Méryl Thomas, Florence F Wagner, Edward B Holson, Eleftherios Mylonakis
AIM: Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) phenethyl ester (CAPE), the major constituent of propolis, is able to increase the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans after infection with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. RESULTS: CAPE increases the expression of several antimicrobial proteins involved in the immune response to C. albicans. Structural derivatives of CAPE were synthesized to identify structure-activity relationships and decrease metabolic liability, ultimately leading to a compound that has similar efficacy, but increased in vivo stability...
October 14, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Jason L J Lin, Chyuan-Chuan Wu, Wei-Zen Yang, Hanna S Yuan
Endonuclease G (EndoG) is an evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial protein in eukaryotes that digests nucleus chromosomal DNA during apoptosis and paternal mitochondrial DNA during embryogenesis. Under oxidative stress, homodimeric EndoG becomes oxidized and converts to monomers with diminished nuclease activity. However, it remains unclear why EndoG has to function as a homodimer in DNA degradation. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans EndoG homologue, CPS-6, in complex with single-stranded DNA at a resolution of 2...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Shaoxiao Wang, Siyuan Zhang, Chuan Xu, Addie Barron, Floyd Galiano, Dhaval Patel, Yong Joo Lee, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell, Stephan N Witt
We have been investigating the role that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) content plays in modulating the solubility of the Parkinson's disease protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. One enzyme that synthesizes PE is the conserved enzyme phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (Psd1/yeast; PSD-1/worms), which is lodged in the inner mitochondrial membrane. We previously found that decreasing the level of PE due to knockdown of Psd1/psd-1 affects the homeostasis of α-syn in vivo...
2016: PloS One
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