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Rho GTPase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214845/simulated-microgravity-promotes-angiogenesis-through-rhoa-dependent-rearrangement-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#1
Fei Shi, Yong-Chun Wang, Ze-Bing Hu, Hong-Yu Xu, Jing Sun, Yuan Gao, Xiao-Tao Li, Chang-Bin Yang, Chao Xie, Cheng-Fei Li, Shu Zhang, Jiang-Dong Zhao, Xin-Sheng Cao, Xi-Qing Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microgravity leads to hydrodynamic alterations in the cardiovascular system and is associated with increased angiogenesis, an important aspect of endothelial cell behavior to initiate new vessel growth. Given the critical role of Rho GTPase-dependent cytoskeleton rearrangement in cell migration, small GTPase RhoA might play a potential role in microgravity-induced angiogenesis. METHODS: We examined the organization of actin filaments by FITC-conjugated phalloidin staining, as well as the expression and activity of RhoA by quantitative PCR and Western blot, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under normal gravity and simulated microgravity...
January 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212799/rho-mancing-to-sensitize-calcium-signaling-for-contraction-in-the-vasculature-role-of-rho-kinase
#2
T Szasz, R C Webb
Vascular smooth muscle contraction is an important physiological process contributing to cardiovascular homeostasis. The principal determinant of smooth muscle contraction is the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by activated myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in response to increased Ca(2+) is the main pathway by which vasoconstrictor stimuli induce crossbridge cycling of myosin and actin filaments. A secondary pathway for vascular smooth muscle contraction that is not directly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration, but rather mediating Ca(2+) sensitization, is the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209772/maternal-smoke-exposure-decreases-mesenchymal-proliferation-and-modulates-rho-gtpase-dependent-actin-cytoskeletal-signaling-in-fetal-lungs
#3
Uchenna Unachukwu, Jordis Trischler, Monica Goldklang, Rui Xiao, Jeanine D'Armiento
The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal smoke exposure results in fetal lung growth retardation due to dysregulation in various signaling pathways, including the Wnt (wingless-related integration site)/β-catenin pathway. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (100-150 mg/m(3)) or room air, and offspring were humanely killed on 12.5, 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 d post coitum (dpc). We assessed lung stereology with Cavalieri estimation; apoptosis with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, TUNEL, and caspase assays; and gene expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and RNA sequencing on lung epithelium and mesenchyme retrieved by laser capture microdissection...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208589/association-of-lpp-and-tagap-polymorphisms-with-celiac-disease-risk-a-meta-analysis
#4
Shi-Qi Huang, Na Zhang, Zi-Xing Zhou, Chui-Can Huang, Cheng-Li Zeng, Di Xiao, Cong-Cong Guo, Ya-Jing Han, Xiao-Hong Ye, Xing-Guang Ye, Mei-Ling Ou, Bao-Huan Zhang, Yang Liu, Eddy Y Zeng, Guang Yang, Chun-Xia Jing
Background: Lipoma preferred partner (LPP) and T-cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP) polymorphisms might influence the susceptibility to celiac disease. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis by identifying relevant studies to estimate the risks of these polymorphisms on celiac disease. Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases were searched (up to October 2016) for LPP rs1464510 and TAGAP rs1738074 polymorphisms. Results: This meta-analysis included the same 7 studies for LPP rs1464510 and TAGAP rs1738074...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208438/crawling-and-turning-in-a-minimal-reaction-diffusion-cell-motility-model-coupling-cell-shape-and-biochemistry
#5
Brian A Camley, Yanxiang Zhao, Bo Li, Herbert Levine, Wouter-Jan Rappel
We study a minimal model of a crawling eukaryotic cell with a chemical polarity controlled by a reaction-diffusion mechanism describing Rho GTPase dynamics. The size, shape, and speed of the cell emerge from the combination of the chemical polarity, which controls the locations where actin polymerization occurs, and the physical properties of the cell, including its membrane tension. We find in our model both highly persistent trajectories, in which the cell crawls in a straight line, and turning trajectories, where the cell transitions from crawling in a line to crawling in a circle...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202690/a-rhog-mediated-signaling-pathway-that-modulates-invadopodia-dynamics-in-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Silvia M Goicoechea, Ashtyn Zinn, Sahezeel S Awadia, Kyle Snyder, Rafael Garcia-Mata
One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability of tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize. During metastasis, cancer cells degrade the extracellular matrix, which acts as a physical barrier, by developing a specialized actin-rich membrane protrusion structure called invadopodia. The formation of invadopodia is regulated by Rho GTPases, a family of proteins that regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we describe a novel role for RhoG in the regulation of invadopodia disassembly in human breast cancer cells...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196833/characterization-of-the-activation-of-small-gtpases-by-their-gefs-on-membranes-using-artificial-membrane-tethering
#7
François Peurois, Simon Veyron, Yann Ferrandez, Ilham Ladid, Sarah Benabdi, Mahel Zeghouf, Gérald Peyroche, Jacqueline Cherfils
Attachment of active, GTP-bound small GTPases to membranes by post-translational lipid modifications is pivotal for their ability to process and propagate information in cells. However, generating and manipulating lipidated GTPases has remained difficult, which has limited our quantitative understanding of their activation by GEFs and their termination by GAPs. Here we replaced the lipid modification by a histidine tag in eleven full-length, human small GTPases belonging to the Arf, Rho and Rab families, which allowed to tether them to nickel-lipid containing membranes and characterize the kinetics of their activation by GEFs...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196728/the-atypical-rho-gtpase-rhod-is-a-regulator-of-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-directed-cell-migration
#8
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Johan Heldin, Johan Kreuger, Pontus Aspenström
RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system...
February 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196297/targeting-invasive-properties-of-melanoma-cells
#9
REVIEW
Imanol Arozarena, Claudia Wellbrock
Melanoma is a skin cancer notorious for its metastatic potential. As an initial step of the metastatic cascade melanoma cells part from the primary tumour and invade the surrounding tissue, which is crucial for their dissemination and the formation of distant secondary tumours. Over the last two decades our understanding of both, general and melanoma specific mechanisms of invasion has significantly improved, but to date no efficient therapeutic strategy tackling the invasive properties of melanoma cells has reached the clinic...
February 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188861/functions-of-rho-family-of-small-gtpases-and-rho-associated-coiled-coil-kinases-in-bone-cells-during-differentiation-and-mineralization
#10
REVIEW
Agnieszka Strzelecka-Kiliszek, Saida Mebarek, Monika Roszkowska, René Buchet, David Magne, Slawomir Pikula
BACKGROUND: Members of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCKs) are effectors of Rho family of small GTPases. ROCKs have multiple functions that include regulation of cellular contraction and polarity, adhesion, motility, proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, maturation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: Here, we focus on the action of RhoA and RhoA effectors, ROCK1 and ROCK2, in cells related to tissue mineralization: mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes, pre-osteoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, lining cells and osteoclasts...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188273/the-rho-gtpase-ropgef2-rop7-rop2-pathway-activated-by-phyb-suppresses-red-light-induced-stomatal-opening
#11
Wei Wang, Zhao Liu, Li-Juan Bao, Sha-Sha Zhang, Chun-Guang Zhang, Xin Li, Hai-Xia Li, Xiao-Lu Zhang, Atle Magnar Bones, Zhenbiao Yang, Yu-Ling Chen
Circadian rhythm of stomatal aperture is mainly regulated by light/darkness. Blue and red light induce stomatal opening through different mechanisms that are mediated by special receptors. ROP2, a member of Rho GTPase family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis Thaliana), has been found to negatively regulate light-induced stomatal opening. However, the upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) RopGEFs have not been revealed, and it is unclear which photoreceptor is required for the action of RopGEFs-ROPs. Here, we showed that RopGEF2 acted as a negative regulator in phytochrome B (phyB)-mediated red light-induced stomatal opening...
February 10, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188228/time-resolved-phosphoproteome-analysis-of-paradoxical-raf-activation-reveals-novel-targets-of-erk
#12
Peter Kubiniok, Hugo Lavoie, Marc Therrien, Pierre Thibault
Small molecules targeting aberrant RAF activity, like Vemurafenib (PLX4032), are highly effective against cancers harboring the V600E BRAF mutation, and are now approved for clinical use against metastatic melanoma. However, in tissues showing elevated RAS activity and in RAS-mutant tumors, these inhibitors stimulate RAF dimerization, resulting in inhibitor resistance and downstream paradoxical ERK activation. To understand the global signaling response of cancer cells to RAF inhibitors, we profiled the temporal changes of the phosphoproteome of two colon cancer cell lines (Colo205 and HCT116) that respond differently to Vemurafenib...
February 10, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187905/role-of-rho-specific-guanine-nucleotide-dissociation-inhibitor-%C3%AE-regulation-in-cell-migration
#13
REVIEW
Fei Xie, Shuai Shao, Aziz Ur Rehman Aziz, Baohong Zhang, Hanqin Wang, Bo Liu
Cell migration is a vital process for many physiological and pathological events, and Rho GTPases have been confirmed as key factors in its regulation. The most studied negative regulator of Rho GTPases, Rho-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor α (RhoGDIα), mediates cell migration through altering the overall expression and spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases. The RhoGDIα-Rho GTPases dissociation can be mediated by signal pathways targeting RhoGDIα directly. This review summarizes the research about the regulation of RhoGDIα during cell migration, which can be in a Rho GTPases association independent manner...
February 7, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178039/rap1-in-endothelial-biology
#14
Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ubiquitously-expressed small GTPase Rap1 is a key modulator of integrin- and cadherin-regulated processes. In endothelium, Rap1 promotes angiogenesis and endothelial barrier function, acting downstream from cAMP-activated Rap1GEF, Epac. Recent in-vivo studies in mouse models have provided more information about the physiological role of Rap1 in vessel development and after birth under normal and pathologic conditions. Important molecular details of dynamic regulation of endothelial barrier are uncovered...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174275/rhoa-knockout-fibroblasts-lose-tumor-inhibitory-capacity-in-vitro-and-promote-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#15
Twana Alkasalias, Andrey Alexeyenko, Katharina Hennig, Frida Danielsson, Robert Jan Lebbink, Matthew Fielden, S Pauliina Turunen, Kaisa Lehti, Vladimir Kashuba, Harsha S Madapura, Benedek Bozoky, Emma Lundberg, Martial Balland, Hayrettin Guvén, George Klein, Annica K B Gad, Tatiana Pavlova
Fibroblasts are a main player in the tumor-inhibitory microenvironment. Upon tumor initiation and progression, fibroblasts can lose their tumor-inhibitory capacity and promote tumor growth. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this switch have not been defined completely. Previously, we identified four proteins overexpressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts and linked to Rho GTPase signaling. Here, we show that knocking out the Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) gene in normal fibroblasts decreased their tumor-inhibitory capacity, as judged by neighbor suppression in vitro and accompanied by promotion of tumor growth in vivo...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163190/rho-gtpase-activating-proteins-regulators-of-rho-gtpase-activity-in-neuronal-development-and-cns-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Guo-Hui Huang, Zhao-Liang Sun, Hong-Jiang Li, Dong-Fu Feng
The Rho family of small GTPases was considered as molecular switches in regulating multiple cellular events, including cytoskeleton reorganization. The Rho GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs) are one of the major families of Rho GTPase regulators. RhoGAPs were initially considered negative mediators of Rho signaling pathways via their GAP domain. Recent studies have demonstrated that RhoGAPs also regulate numerous aspects of neuronal development and are related to various neurodegenerative diseases in GAP-dependent and GAP-independent manners...
February 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160553/small-g-protein-rac-gtpases-regulate-the-maintenance-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Yun-Ju Lai, Jui-Cheng Tsai, Ying-Ting Tseng, Meng-Shih Wu, Wen-Shan Liu, Hoi-Ian Lam, Jei-Hwa Yu, Susan E Nozell, Etty N Benveniste
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor in adults. The existence of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) or stem-like cells (stemloids) may account for its invasiveness and high recurrence. Rac proteins belong to the Rho small GTPase subfamily which regulates cell movement, proliferation, and survival. To investigate whether Rac proteins can serve as therapeutic targets for glioblastoma, especially for GSCs or stemloids, we examined the potential roles of Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3 on the properties of tumorspheres derived from glioblastoma cell lines...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157227/association-of-vav2-and-vav3-polymorphisms-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#18
Nuria Perretta-Tejedor, Javier Fernández-Mateos, Luis García-Ortiz, Manuel A Gómez-Marcos, José I Recio-Rodríguez, Cristina Agudo-Conde, Emiliano Rodriguez-Sánchez, Ana I Morales, Francisco J López-Hernández, José M López-Novoa, Rogelio González-Sarmiento, Carlos Martínez-Salgado
Hypertension, diabetes and obesity are cardiovascular risk factors closely associated to the development of renal and cardiovascular target organ damage. VAV2 and VAV3, members of the VAV family proto-oncogenes, are guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for the Rho and Rac GTPase family, which is related with cardiovascular homeostasis. We have analyzed the relationship between the presence of VAV2 rs602990 and VAV3 rs7528153 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage (heart, vessels and kidney) in 411 subjects...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154894/actin-dynamics-in-the-regulation-of-endothelial-barrier-functions-and-neutrophil-recruitment-during-endotoxemia-and-sepsis
#19
REVIEW
Michael Schnoor, Alexander García Ponce, Eduardo Vadillo, Rosana Pelayo, Jan Rossaint, Alexander Zarbock
Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Increased vascular permeability is a major hallmark of sepsis. Dynamic alterations in actin fiber formation play an important role in the regulation of endothelial barrier functions and thus vascular permeability. Endothelial integrity requires a delicate balance between the formation of cortical actin filaments that maintain endothelial cell contact stability and the formation of actin stress fibers that generate pulling forces, and thus compromise endothelial cell contact stability...
February 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152068/aerobic-exercise-regulates-rho-cofilin-pathways-to-rescue-synaptic-loss-in-aged-rats
#20
Yan Li, Li Zhao, Boya Gu, Jiajia Cai, Yuanyuan Lv, Laikang Yu
PURPOSE: The role of exercise to prevent or reverse aging-induced cognitive decline has been widely reported. This neuroprotection is associated with changes in the synaptic structure plasticity. However, the mechanisms of exercise-induced synaptic plasticity in the aging brain are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the aging-related alterations of Rho-GTPase and the modulatory influences of exercise training. METHODS: Young and old rats were used in this study...
2017: PloS One
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