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Immunosenescence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940385/chikungunya-virus-infection-why-should-u-s-geriatricians-be-aware-of-it
#1
Pierre Olivier Lang, Pierre Loulergue, Richard Aspinall
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was until recently perceived only as a tropical disease. Since the first report of a case in Saint Martin Island in 2013, it has spread to South, Central, and North America. The first local transmission in the continental United States was reported in Florida in July 2014. CHIV infection is known to cause debilitating rheumatologic disease. Older adults are particularly susceptible to severe and chronic infection. Without an effective vaccine and antiviral therapy to prevent and control CHIKV, U...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933175/-hiv-infection-a-new-disease-of-internal-medicine
#2
Svatava Snopková
Modern antiretroviral treatment belongs to the greatest success of current medicine. HIV infection has gone from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease which develops several decades. Thanks to treatment advances, people with HIV can and do live long and full lives. In the last two decades, the incidence AIDS defining illnesses have been dramatically reduced especially opportunistic infections and malignancies, whereas the role of non-infection comorbidities has risen than age-matched HIV uninfected adults...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928745/chronic-inflammation-in-immune-aging-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptor-crosstalk-with-the-telomere-complex
#3
REVIEW
Shyam Sushama Jose, Kamila Bendickova, Tomas Kepak, Zdenka Krenova, Jan Fric
Age-related decline in immunity is characterized by stem cell exhaustion, telomere shortening, and disruption of cell-to-cell communication, leading to increased patient risk of disease. Recent data have demonstrated that chronic inflammation exerts a strong influence on immune aging and is closely correlated with telomere length in a range of major pathologies. The current review discusses the impact of inflammation on immune aging, the likely molecular mediators of this process, and the various disease states that have been linked with immunosenescence...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916780/preserved-immune-functionality-and-high-cmv-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#4
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Elisabet García, Victor Urrea, Marta Massanella, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery after cART has been associated with skewed T-cell maturation, inflammation and immunosenescence; however, T-cell functionality in those individuals has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we assessed T-cell function by assessing cytokine production after polyclonal, CMV and HIV stimulations of T-cells from ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordants) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordants). A group of HIV-uninfected individuals were also included as controls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910544/human-microbiota-in-aging-and-infection-a-review
#5
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
In most developed countries, ageing of the population started more than a century ago and it seems to be emerged in a wide range of developing countries as well. Moreover, research into ageing has moved forward in extremely rapidly rhythms nowadays, and the scientific area is of great interest, as implications for nearly all sectors of society, including work, social, economic features, in addition to nutrition and health issues which are involved. The fragile elder population is affected and experienced more frequently infections than the younger population...
September 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905246/-immunizing-is-not-only-a-children-s-matter-why-vaccinations-are-also-important-for-adults
#6
REVIEW
Ursula Kunze, Ernest Groman
Vaccinations belong to the ten most effective public health achievements worldwide. While immunization programms for children are installed in Europe, vaccinations for adults are not established. However, adult vaccination is extremely meaningful: increasing age means a higher susceptibility to infectious diseases, health problems and multimorbidity will increase. The burden of vaccine-preventable diseases is still high in Europe. Due to immunosenescence (older) adults are less protected against pathogens, antibody titers after vaccinations are lower and immunity lasts shorter...
September 13, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904202/discrete-dynamical-modeling-of-influenza-infection-suggests-age-dependent-differences-in-immunity
#7
Ericka Keef, Li Ang Zhang, David Swigon, Alisa Urbano, G Bard Ermentrout, Michael Matuszewski, Franklin R Toapanta, Ted M Ross, Robert S Parker, Gilles Clermont
Immunosenescence, an age-related decline in immune function, is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Older hosts exhibit delayed onset of immunity and prolonged inflammation after an infection, leading to excess damage and greater likelihood of death. Our study applies a rule-based model to infer which components of immune response are most changed in an aged host. Two groups of BALB/c mice (age 12-16 wks and 72-76 wks) were infected at 2 inocula: a survivable 50 PFU dose and a lethal 500 PFU dose...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889085/immunosenescence-and-immunecheckpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-does-age-really-matter
#8
REVIEW
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Edouard Auclin, Nathalie Chaput, Benjamin Besse
Immunotherapy has dramatically changed the therapeutic scenario in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), extending overall survival, with a favorable safety profile. However, there is still a gap of knowledge about the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in elderly patients. Data from randomized clinical trials testing ICIs are conflicting and often lack adequate statistical power. Although two large meta-analyses suggested an absence of a significant survival benefit in patients older than 75years, expanded access programs and retrospective cohort studies of ICIs in the real-life setting, showed comparable survival outcomes and safety profiles between older and younger patients...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868129/does-the-human-immune-system-ever-really-become-senescent
#9
REVIEW
Graham Pawelec
Like all somatic tissues, the human immune system changes with age. This is believed to result in an increased frequency of, and susceptibility to, infectious disease and to contribute to a wide range of non-communicable age-associated diseases in later life, especially cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmunity. The majority of studies addressing immune ageing has been cross-sectional, but limited longitudinal studies are contributing to a better understanding of age-associated changes, as opposed to differences, and their clinical relevance...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861086/immunobiography-and-the-heterogeneity-of-immune-responses-in-the-elderly-a-focus-on-inflammaging-and-trained-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Claudio Franceschi, Stefano Salvioli, Paolo Garagnani, Magda de Eguileor, Daniela Monti, Miriam Capri
Owing to its memory and plasticity, the immune system (IS) is capable of recording all the immunological experiences and stimuli it was exposed to. The combination of type, dose, intensity, and temporal sequence of antigenic stimuli that each individual is exposed to has been named "immunobiography." This immunological history induces a lifelong continuous adaptation of the IS, which is responsible for the capability to mount strong, weak or no response to specific antigens, thus determining the large heterogeneity of immunological responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838148/serum-c-reactive-protein-and-congestive-heart-failure-as-significant-predictors-of-herpes-zoster-vaccine-response-in-elderly-nursing-home-residents
#11
Chris P Verschoor, Alina Lelic, Robin Parsons, Carole Evelegh, Jonathan L Bramson, Jennie Johnstone, Mark B Loeb, Dawn M E Bowdish
Background: Elderly long-term care residents often exhibit a myriad of risk factors for immune dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and multiple comorbid conditions, which undoubtedly contribute to their enhanced susceptibility to infection. Hence, understanding the factors required for optimal vaccine responsiveness is critical. Methods: We examined 187 elderly nursing home residents (aged 80-102 years) and 50 community-dwelling seniors (aged 60-75 years) immunized with the live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832609/distinct-aging-profiles-of-cd8-t-cells-in-blood-versus-gastrointestinal-mucosal-compartments
#12
Jeffrey Dock, Christina M Ramirez, Lance Hultin, Mary Ann Hausner, Patricia Hultin, Julie Elliott, Otto O Yang, Peter A Anton, Beth D Jamieson, Rita B Effros
A hallmark of human immunosenescence is the accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD8+ T cells with features of replicative senescence, such as inability to proliferate, absence of CD28 expression, shortened telomeres, loss of telomerase activity, enhanced activation, and increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, oligoclonal expansions of these cells are associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk in elderly humans. Currently, most information on the adaptive immune system is derived from studies using peripheral blood, which contains approximately only 2% of total body lymphocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815289/-aggressive-primary-cutaneous-b-cell-lymphomas-and-novel-ebv-entities
#13
REVIEW
C Lamos, E Dippel
Primary cutaneous large B‑cell lymphomas (PCBLT), EBV-positive large B‑cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified (EBV+ DLBCL, NOS), and primary cutaneous intravascular large B‑cell lymphomas (PCIVLBL) are recognized as cutaneous lymphomas with intermediate to poor prognosis. Differentiation from indolent B‑cell lymphomas or other pathologies of the skin can be complex, both clinically and histologically, but vital for the outcome of the patient. The combination of immunotherapy and polychemotherapy regimens, such as R‑CHOP, has led to significant improvements in prognosis, especially in diffuse large B‑cell lymphomas...
August 16, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796199/markers-of-t-cell-senescence-in-humans
#14
REVIEW
Weili Xu, Anis Larbi
Many countries are facing the aging of their population, and many more will face a similar obstacle in the near future, which could be a burden to many healthcare systems. Increased susceptibility to infections, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease, cancer as well as reduced efficacy of vaccination are important matters for researchers in the field of aging. As older adults show higher prevalence for a variety of diseases, this also implies higher risk of complications, including nosocomial infections, slower recovery and sequels that may reduce the autonomy and overall quality of life of older adults...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791614/age-as-a-risk-factor-for-early-onset-of-natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#15
Luca Prosperini, Cristina Scarpazza, Luisa Imberti, Cinzia Cordioli, Nicola De Rossi, Ruggero Capra
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but potentially fatal opportunistic infection that arises almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients or in those treated with monoclonal antibodies, especially natalizumab. Here, we aimed at exploring if age at treatment start affects the time to onset of natalizumab-related PML. PubMed was searched for the terms "natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy" in articles published from January 2005 to March 2017. We collected information on each identified PML case, including demographic and clinical variables at natalizumab start and at PML onset...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790368/signs-of-innate-immune-activation-and-premature-immunosenescence-in-psoriasis-patients
#16
Liisi Šahmatova, Elena Sügis, Marina Šunina, Helen Hermann, Ele Prans, Maire Pihlap, Kristi Abram, Ana Rebane, Hedi Peterson, Pärt Peterson, Külli Kingo, Kai Kisand
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects skin and is associated with systemic inflammation and many serious comorbidities ranging from metabolic syndrome to cancer. Important discoveries about psoriasis pathogenesis have enabled the development of effective biological treatments blocking the T helper 17 pathway. However, it has not been settled whether psoriasis is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease or an autoinflammatory disorder that is driven by exaggerated innate immune signalling. Our comparative gene expression and hierarchical cluster analysis reveal important gene circuits involving innate receptors...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782588/impact-of-aging-immune-system-on-neurodegeneration-and-potential-immunotherapies
#17
REVIEW
Zhanfeng Liang, Yang Zhao, Linhui Ruan, Linnan Zhu, Kunlin Jin, Qichuan Zhuge, Dong-Ming Su, Yong Zhao
The interaction between the nervous and immune systems during aging is an area of avid interest, but many aspects remain unclear. This is due, not only to the complexity of the aging process, but also to a mutual dependency and reciprocal causation of alterations and diseases between both the nervous and immune systems. Aging of the brain drives whole body systemic aging, including aging-related changes of the immune system. In turn, the immune system aging, particularly immunosenescence and T cell aging initiated by thymic involution that are sources of chronic inflammation in the elderly (termed inflammaging), potentially induces brain aging and memory loss in a reciprocal manner...
August 4, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774724/human-endogenous-retrovirus-herv-k-hml-2-env-expression-is-not-associated-with-markers-of-immunosenescence
#18
Saara Marttila, Tapio Nevalainen, Juulia Jylhävä, Laura Kananen, Marja Jylhä, Antti Hervonen, Mikko Hurme
Ageing of the human immune system, or immunosenescence, is characterised by distinct changes in the proportion of the various cell types, e.g., increase of the CD14+ monocytic cells, decrease of CD19+ B lymphocytes, and changes in T cell subpopulations, namely increase of CD4+ and CD8+ cells which have lost the costimulatory CD28 antigen. Currently, it is believed that the lifelong antigenic burden may be one of the inducers of immunosenescence. Thus far, only one exogenous stimulus, cytomegalovirus infection, has shown to be a major factor in this respect...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774561/personalized-vaccinology-a-review
#19
G A Poland, I G Ovsyannikova, R B Kennedy
At the current time, the field of vaccinology remains empirical in many respects. Vaccine development, vaccine immunogenicity, and vaccine efficacy have, for the most part, historically been driven by an empiric "isolate-inactivate-inject" paradigm. In turn, a population-level public health paradigm of "the same dose for everyone for every disease" model has been the normative thinking in regard to prevention of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. In addition, up until recently, no vaccines had been designed specifically to overcome the immunosenescence of aging, consistent with a post-WWII mentality of developing vaccines and vaccine programs for children...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768292/assessing-inflammageing
#20
Ursula Müller-Werdan, Sebastian Nuding, Mario Ost
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunosenescence has been scrutinized in detail, and evidence that inflammation and ageing are interrelated is consistent. Still, a gold standard for assessing the biological age of the immune function in an individual patient is lacking, so that immunosenescence is still not a quantifiable criterion in clinical decision-making processes. RECENT FINDINGS: This review highlights recent (partly ongoing) studies into biomarkers of inflammation to assess immunosenescence, including large-scale studies, and quotes expert opinion statements...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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