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Immunosenescence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423084/immune-system-dysfunction-in-the-elderly
#1
Eduardo Fuentes, Manuel Fuentes, Marcelo Alarcón, Iván Palomo
Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty that profoundly affects the immune system. In this context aging is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity established as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence is a new concept that reflects the age-associated restructuring changes of innate and adaptive immune functions. Thus elderly individuals usually present chronic low-level inflammation, higher infection rates and chronic diseases. A study of alterations in the immune system during aging could provide a potentially useful biomarker for the evaluation of immune senescence treatment...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398592/tributyltin-alters-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-and-suppresses-b-cell-development
#2
Amelia H Baker, Ting Hua Wu, Alicia M Bolt, Louis C Gerstenfeld, Koren K Mann, Jennifer J Schlezinger
Organotins are industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides, and they contaminate both outdoor and indoor environments. Organotins are detectable in human sera at biologically active concentrations and are immuno-and neuro-toxicants. Triphenyltin, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) and promote adipogenesis. TBT also has been shown to suppress osteogenesis; osteoblasts not only support bone homeostasis but also support B lymphopoiesis...
April 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396185/from-lymphopoiesis-to-plasma-cells-differentiation-the-age-related-modifications-of-b-cell-compartment-are-influenced-by-inflamm-ageing
#3
REVIEW
Matteo Bulati, Calogero Caruso, Giuseppina Colonna-Romano
Ageing is a complex process characterized by a general decline in physiological functions with increasing morbidity and mortality. The most important aspect of ageing is the chronic inflammatory status, named "inflamm-ageing", strictly associated with the deterioration of the immune function, termed "immunosenescence". Both are causes of increased susceptibility of elderly to infectious diseases, cancer, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmunity, and of a decreased response to vaccination. It has been widely demonstrated that ageing has a strong impact on the remodelling of the B cell branch of immune system...
April 7, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395401/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-etiology-research-center-cmerc-cohort-the-study-protocol-and-results-of-first-3-years-enrollment
#4
Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Jung Hyun Lee, Seung Won Lee, Ji Hye Park, Dong Phil Choi, Myung Ha Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Sungha Park, Won-Woo Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Despite etiologies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been widely understood, it seems unrealistic to find an effective globally solution for disease prevention. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a community-based prospective study on the prevention and management of CVD of Korean adults. This study was designed to recruit 8,000 healthy adults during five years. Baseline assessment includes a wide-range of established CVD risk factors, including demographic characteristics, medical history, health behaviors, psychological condition, body size and composition, blood pressure, augmentation index, carotid ultrasonography, electrocardiogram, and biochemical indicators, and some novel factors, such as social network characteristics, environmental pollutants, inflammatory markers, hemostatic markers, and immunosenescent markers...
April 1, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391291/rejuvenation-of-mucosal-immunosenescence-by-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Akitoshi Tsuruhara, Kazuyoshi Aso, Daisuke Tokuhara, Junichiro Ohori, Masaki Kawabata, Yuichi Kurono, Jerry R McGhee, Kohtaro Fujihashi
Age-associated alterations in the mucosal immune system are generally termed mucosal immunosenescence. The major change seen in the aged mucosa is a failure to elicit an antigen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody response, which is a central player for host defense from various pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this regard, it would be a first priority to compensate for mucosal dysregulation in the elderly in order to maintain their health in aging. We have successfully established antigen-specific SIgA antibody responses in aged (2 years old) mice, which provide protective immunity from Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus infections, by using a new adjuvant system consisting of a plasmid encoding Flt3 ligand (pFL) and CpG ODN...
January 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387568/non-linear-patterns-in-age-related-dna-methylation-may-reflect-cd4-t-cell-differentiation
#6
Nicholas D Johnson, Howard W Wiener, Alicia K Smith, Shota Nishitani, Devin M Absher, Donna K Arnett, Stella Aslibekyan, Karen N Conneely
DNA methylation (DNAm) is an important epigenetic process involved in the regulation of gene expression. While many studies have identified thousands of loci associated with age, few have differentiated between linear and non-linear DNAm trends with age. Non-linear trends could indicate early- or late-life gene regulatory processes. Using data from the Illumina 450K array on 336 human peripheral blood samples, we identified 21 CpG sites that associated with age (P<1.03E-7) and exhibited changing rates of DNAm change with age (P<1...
April 7, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373129/role-of-spliceosome-proteins-in-the-regulation-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-isoforms-by-cortisol-and-dehydroepiandrosterone
#7
Erica Buoso, Marilisa Galasso, Melania Ronfani, Melania Maria Serafini, Cristina Lanni, Emanuela Corsini, Marco Racchi
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can counteract the activity of cortisol by modulating the glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) expression and antagonizing the binding of GRα to the glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) in RACK1 (Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1) promoter. These observations are important in the context of immunosenescence and can be extended to recognize a complex hormonal balance in the control of GR isoform expression and consequently in the expression of GR responsive genes. To elucidate the mechanism of DHEA on GR alternative splicing, we investigated its possible involvement in the expression of proteins such as the Serine/arginine (SR)-Rich Splicing Factors (SRSF) regulating GR splicing, specifically SRSF9 and SRSF3 also known as SRp30c and SRp20 respectively...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371013/aging-associated-dysregulation-of-homeostatic-immune-response-termination-and-not-initiation
#8
Goutham Pattabiraman, Karol Palasiewicz, John P Galvin, David S Ucker
Immunosenescence is a state of unbalanced immune responsiveness, characterized by a diverse repertoire of seemingly discreet and paradoxical alterations in all aspects of immunity arising in an aging-associated manner. We asked whether aging-associated alterations in the ability of apoptotic cells to elicit immunomodulatory responses (innate apoptotic immunity; IAI) or in IAI responses themselves might underlie the confounding aging-associated anomalies of immunosenescence. We explored this question by examining, as a function of animal age, responsiveness of murine macrophages on the single cell level...
March 30, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341876/consumption-of-green-tea-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-enhances-systemic-immune-response-antioxidative-capacity-and-hpa-axis-functions-in-aged-male-swiss-albino-mice
#9
Rohit Sharma, Anamika Sharma, Amita Kumari, Pankaj Markand Kulurkar, Rajneesh Raj, Ashu Gulati, Yogendra S Padwad
The present investigation assessed the potential of green tea phytochemical epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in alleviating age-associated aberrations in immunity, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and redox homeostasis using 16 months old male Swiss albino mice. Four groups of animals (n = 6 per group) were supplemented with either aqueous EGCG at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/animal or vehicle control for 6 weeks. A concurrent analysis of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes in splenocytes, differential leucocyte population, T cell differentiation markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), neutrophil functions, immunoglobulins profile in intestine, circulatory HPA axis hormonal levels as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress in the liver was performed...
March 24, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319893/role-of-macrophages-in-age-related-oxidative-stress-and-lipofuscin-accumulation-in-mice
#11
Carmen Vida, Irene Martínez de Toda, Julia Cruces, Antonio Garrido, Mónica Gonzalez-Sanchez, Mónica De la Fuente
The age-related changes in the immune functions (immunosenescence) may be mediated by an increase of oxidative stress and damage affecting leukocytes. Although the "oxidation-inflammation" theory of aging proposes that phagocytes are the main immune cells contributing to "oxi-inflamm-aging", this idea has not been corroborated. The aim of this work was to characterize the age-related changes in several parameters of oxidative stress and immune function, as well as in lipofuscin accumulation ("a hallmark of aging"), in both total peritoneal leukocyte population and isolated peritoneal macrophages...
March 9, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319836/a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-ethanol-related-cytokine-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-young-and-aged-fischer-344-rats
#12
Anny Gano, Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Terrence Deak
Our work in Sprague Dawley rats has shown rapid alterations in neuroimmune gene expression (RANGE) in the hippocampus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These manifest as increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IκBα, and suppressed IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha during acute ethanol intoxication. The present studies tested these effects across the lifespan (young adulthood at 2-3 months; senescence at 18 and 24 months), as well as across strain (Fischer 344) and sex. The hippocampus revealed age-dependent shifts in cytokine expression (IL-6, IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), but no changes were observed in the PVN at baseline or following ethanol...
March 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298208/looking-back-to-move-forward-a-twenty-year-audit-of-herpes-zoster-in-asia-pacific
#13
REVIEW
Liang-Kung Chen, Hidenori Arai, Liang-Yu Chen, Ming-Yueh Chou, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Birong Dong, Taro Kojima, Ki Tae Kwon, Hoe Nam Leong, Edward M F Leung, Chih-Kuang Liang, Xiaohong Liu, Dilip Mathai, Jiun Yit Pan, Li-Ning Peng, Eduardo Rommel S Poblete, Philip J H Poi, Stewart Reid, Terapong Tantawichien, Chang Won Won
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a prevalent viral disease that inflicts substantial morbidity and associated healthcare and socioeconomic burdens. Current treatments are not fully effective, especially among the most vulnerable patients. Although widely recommended, vaccination against HZ is not routine; barriers in Asia-Pacific include long-standing neglect of adult immunisation and sparse local data. To address knowledge gaps, raise awareness, and disseminate best practice, we reviewed recent data and guidelines on HZ from the Asia-Pacific region...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293557/sepsis-and-immunosenescence-in-the-elderly-patient-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Silvia Martín, Alba Pérez, Cesar Aldecoa
Sepsis is a prevalent, serious medical condition with substantial mortality and a significant consumption of health-care resources. Its incidence has increased around 9% annually in general population over the last years and specially in aged patients group. Several risk factors such as comorbidities, preadmission status, malnutrition, frailty, and an impared function in the immune system called immunosenescence are involved in the higher predisposition to sepsis in the elderly patients. Immunosenescence status consists in a functional impairment in both cell-mediated immunity and humoral immune responses and increases not only the risk for develop sepsis but also lead to more severe presentation of infection and may be is also related with a higher mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285577/the-in-vitro-influence-of-a-genetic-superoxide-hydrogen-peroxide-imbalance-on-immunosenescence
#15
Fernanda Barbisan, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Euler Esteves Ribeiro, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Ivana Cruz
As superoxide is a key molecule of inflammatory activation, superoxide- hydrogen peroxide (S-HP) imbalance genetically caused could to alter immunosenescence patterns. To test this hypothesis, we collect and cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells carrier´s different genotypes of a genetic polymorphism located in the superoxide dismutase manganese dependent gene (Val16Ala-SOD2). We used an in vitro genetic model based in prior studies, which suggested association between homozygous genotypes (AA and VV) and alterations in oxidative-inflammatory mediators...
March 12, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276994/immunosenescence-and-hurdles-in-the-clinical-management-of-older-hiv-patients
#16
Marco Ripa, Stefania Chiappetta, Giuseppe Tambussi
People living with HIV (PLWH) who are treated with effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have a similar life expectancy to the general population. Moreover, an increasing proportion of new HIV diagnoses are made in people older than 50 y. The number of older HIV-infected patients is thus constantly growing and it is expected that by 2030 around 70% of PLWH will be more than 50 y old. On the other hand, HIV infection itself is responsible for accelerated immunosenescence, a progressive decline of immune system function in both the adaptive and the innate arm, which impairs the ability of an individual to respond to infections and to give rise to long-term immunity; furthermore, older patients tend to have a worse immunological response to HAART...
February 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261208/t-cell-subpopulations-in-healthy-elderly-and-lung-cancer-patients-insights-from-cuban-studies
#17
REVIEW
Danay Saavedra, Beatriz Garcia, Agustin Lage
The senescence of the immune system and the risk of cancer increase with aging. Age itself entails changes in the immune system, which are related to a decrease in thymic output of naïve lymphocytes, an accumulation of chronic antigenic load, notably chronic viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), and replicative senescence of lymphocytes. These changes could eventually contribute to cancer risk and affect the response to cancer treatment. However, several confounding factors make it difficult to draw a picture of causal relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253901/the-intranasal-adjuvant-endocine%C3%A2-enhances-both-systemic-and-mucosal-immune-responses-in-aged-mice-immunized-with-influenza-antigen
#18
Tina Falkeborn, Jorma Hinkula, Marie Olliver, Alf Lindberg, Anna-Karin Maltais
Despite availability of annual influenza vaccines, influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This is at least in part a result of immunosenescence; the age-dependent decrease in immunological competence that results in greater susceptibility to infections and reduced responses to vaccination. To improve protective immune responses in this age group, new vaccines strategies, such as the use of adjuvants, are needed. Here, we evaluated the mucosal vaccine adjuvant Endocine™, formulated with split influenza antigen and administered intranasally in aged (20-month old) mice...
March 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250797/changes-in-peripheral-immune-cell-numbers-and-functions-in-octogenarian-walkers-an-acute-exercise-study
#19
Kornelis S M van der Geest, Qi Wang, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Hans J P Koenen, Irma Joosten, Elisabeth Brouwer, Maria T E Hopman, Joannes F M Jacobs, Annemieke M H Boots
BACKGROUND: Age-related changes of the immune system, termed immunosenescence, may underlie the increased risk of infections and morbidity in the elderly. Little is known about the effects of acute exercise on peripheral immune parameters in octogenarians. Therefore, we investigated acute exercise-induced changes in phenotype and function of the immune system in octogenarians participating in the 2013 edition of the Nijmegen Four Days Marches. Blood sampling was performed at baseline and immediately after 4 days of the walking exercise (30 km/day)...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246613/continuous-dual-resetting-of-the-immune-repertoire-as-a-basic-principle-of-the-immune-system-function
#20
REVIEW
Silvana Balzar
Idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions (ICIC) such as allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and various autoimmune conditions are a worldwide health problem. Understanding the pathogenesis of ICIC is essential for their successful therapy and prevention. However, efforts are hindered by the lack of comprehensive understanding of the human immune system function. In line with those efforts, described here is a concept of stochastic continuous dual resetting (CDR) of the immune repertoire as a basic principle that governs the function of immunity...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
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