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Vagal nerve stimulator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803834/transcutaneous-auricular-vagal-nerve-stimulation-tavns-might-be-a-mechanism-behind-the-analgesic-effects-of-auricular-acupuncture
#1
Taras Usichenko, Henriette Hacker, Martin Lotze
BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials (RCT) demonstrated that auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in treatment of acute and chronic pain, although the mechanisms behind AA are not elucidated. METHODS: The data concerning the localization of AA points, which are commonly used to treat pain, were extracted from the meta-analysis of 17 RCTs and evaluated using the anatomical map of auricular afferent nerve supply. RESULTS: Fifteen out of 20 specific AA points, used in the treatment of pain, are situated in areas innervated mostly by the auricular branch of the vagal nerve (ABVN), whereas sham stimulation was applied at the helix of the auricle, innervated by cervical nerves...
August 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797983/rationalisation-of-the-irrational-neuropathological-basis-of-hypothyroidism-olfaction-disorders-paradox-experimental-study
#2
Nazan Aydin, Leyla Ramazanoglu, Mehmet Resid Onen, Ilhan Yilmaz, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Konca Altinkaynak, Muhammet Calik
OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is defined as an underactive thyroid gland and one of the reasons for inadequate stimulation of thyroid is dysfunction of the hormone regulating brain centers. Olfaction disorders have been considered as a problem in hypothyroidism. It has been hypothesised that olfaction disorders reduce olfactory stimulation and diminished olfactory stimulus may trigger hypothyroidism. In this study an examination was made of the thyroid hormone levels, histological features of thyroid glands and vagal nerve network degradation in an experimental animal model of olfactory bulbectomy (OBX)...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766392/vagal-influences-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
S E Rasmussen, M Pfeiffer-Jensen, A M Drewes, A D Farmer, B W Deleuran, K Stengaard-Pedersen, B Brock, C Brock
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease with a prevalence of 0.5-1% in Western populations. Conventionally, it is treated with therapeutic interventions that include corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and biological agents. RA exerts a significant socio-economic burden and despite the use of existing treatments some patients end up with disabling symptoms. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain-body interface that serves to regulate homeostasis by integrating the external environment with the internal milieu...
August 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745812/neuronal-control-of-experimental-colitis-occurs-via-sympathetic-intestinal-innervation
#4
R A Willemze, O Welting, H P van Hamersveld, S L Meijer, J H A Folgering, H Darwinkel, J Witherington, A Sridhar, M J Vervoordeldonk, J Seppen, W J de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation is currently clinically evaluated as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanism by which this therapeutic intervention can have an immune-regulatory effect in colitis remains unclear. We determined the effect of intestine-specific vagotomy or intestine-specific sympathectomy of the superior mesenteric nerve (SMN) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Furthermore, we tested the efficacy of therapeutic SMN stimulation to treat DSS-induced colitis in rats...
July 26, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745303/extracellular-ph-monitoring-for-use-in-closed-loop-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#5
Simon C Cork, Amir Eftekhar, Khalid B Mirza, James V Gardiner, Stephen R Bloom, Christofer Toumazou
OBJECTIVE: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has shown potential benefits for obesity treatment; however current devices lack physiological feedback, which limit their efficacy. Changes in extracellular pH (pH<sub>e</sub>) have shown to be correlated with neural activity, but have traditionally been measured with glass microelectrodes, which limit their in vivo applicability. APPROACH: Iridium oxide has previously been shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in pH and is biocompatible...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737621/baroreflex-activation-therapy-a-new-approach-to-the-management-of-advanced-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#6
Edoardo Gronda, Darrel Francis, Faiez Zannad, Christian Hamm, Josep Brugada, Emilio Vanoli
: Chronic heart failure is a common clinical condition characterized by persistent excessive sympathetic nervous system activation. The derangement of the sympathetic activity has relevant implications for disease progression and patient survival. Aiming to positively impact patient outcome, autonomic nervous system modulatory therapies have been developed and tested in animal and clinical studies. As a general gross assumption, direct vagal stimulation and baroreflex activation are considered equivalent. This assumption does not take into account the fact that direct cervical vagal nerve stimulation involves activation of both afferent and efferent fibers innervating not only the heart, but the entire visceral system, leading to undesired responses to and from this compartment...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719827/mixed-evidence-for-the-potential-of-non-invasive-transcutaneous-vagal-nerve-stimulation-to-improve-the-extinction-and-retention-of-fear
#7
A M Burger, B Verkuil, H Fenlon, L Thijs, L Cools, H C Miller, B Vervliet, I Van Diest
Extinction memories are fragile and their formation has been proposed to partially rely on vagus nerve activity. We tested whether stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus (transcutaneous VNS; tVNS) accelerates extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of fear. Forty-two healthy students participated in a 3-day fear conditioning study, where we tested fear acquisition (day 1), fear extinction (day 2) and the retention of the extinction memory (day 3). During extinction, participants were randomly allocated to receive tVNS or sham stimulation concurrently with each CS presentation...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705925/management-of-hiccups-in-palliative-care-patients
#8
REVIEW
Yong Suk Jeon, Alison Mary Kearney, Peter Graham Baker
Persistent hiccups are a frustrating experience for palliative care patients, and can have a profound impact on their quality of life. This article provides an evidence-based approach overview of the causes and treatment of this not infrequently debilitating condition for such patients, with a management algorithm. In situations where no readily reversible cause is identified, or where simple physical manoeuvres, such as breath holding have failed, a systematic approach is required. Hiccups can be broadly divided into central and peripheral types...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694158/implication-of-the-vagus-nerve-in-breathing-pattern-during-sequential-swallowing-in-rats
#9
Yacine Ouahchi, Celia Duclos, Jean Paul Marie, Eric Verin
The ventilatory pattern during sequential swallowing is influenced by the vagal activity. As the vagus nerve is paired and mixed, we aimed (1) to determine if vagal implication in swallowing and breathing coordination is symmetric. (2) to study the importance of vagal afferences in swallowing and breathing coordination. Sixty two Wistar rats (7-11weeks, 260-400g) were studied by barometric plethysmography. In the first part of the study, we determined the effects of a right cervical vagotomy and the effects of a left cervical vagotomy on ventilatory pattern at rest and during sequential swallowing (14 rats with right vagotomy, 14 rats with left vagotomy and 14 rats with sham surgery)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693820/central-glucagon-like-peptide-1-inhibits-reflex-swallowing-elicited-by-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-via-caudal-brainstem-in-the-rat
#10
Motoi Kobashi, Satoshi Mizutani, Masako Fujita, Yoshihiro Mitoh, Yuichi Shimatani, Ryuji Matsuo
The effects of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on reflex swallowing were examined using anaesthetized rats. GLP-1 was injected into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) using glass micropipettes. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated in the mylohyoide muscle through bipolar electrodes. Microinjection of GLP-1 into the medial DVC (M-DVC) increased the frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN and extended the latency of the first swallowing...
July 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690686/vagus-nerve-stimulation-as-a-potential-adjuvant-to-behavioral-therapy-for-autism-and-other-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Crystal T Engineer, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard
BACKGROUND: Many children with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders undergo expensive, time-consuming behavioral interventions that often yield only modest improvements. The development of adjunctive interventions that can increase the benefit of rehabilitation therapies is essential in order to improve the lives of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. MAIN TEXT: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an FDA approved therapy that is safe and effective in reducing seizure frequency and duration in individuals with epilepsy...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663046/long-term-vagal-stimulation-for-heart-failure-eighteen-month-results-from-the-neural-cardiac-therapy-for-heart-failure-nectar-hf-trial
#12
Gaetano M De Ferrari, Craig Stolen, Anton E Tuinenburg, D Jay Wright, Josep Brugada, Christian Butter, Helmut Klein, Petr Neuzil, Cornelis Botman, Maria Angeles Castel, Antonio D'Onofrio, Gert J de Borst, Scott Solomon, Kenneth M Stein, Bernd Schubert, Kevin Stalsberg, Nicholas Wold, Stephen Ruble, Faiez Zannad
BACKGROUND: The NECTAR-HF study evaluated safety and feasibility of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of heart failure patients. The first six-month randomized phase of the study did not show improvement in left ventricular remodelling in response to VNS. This study reports the 18-month results and provides novel findings aiming to understand the lack of efficacy of VNS, including a new technique assessing the effects of VNS. METHODS: Ninety-six patients were randomized 2:1 to active or inactive VNS for 6months, thereafter VNS was activated for all patients...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659824/hypersensitivity-of-vagal-pulmonary-afferents-induced-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-mice
#13
Ruei-Lung Lin, Qihai Gu, Lu-Yuan Lee
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Inhalation of TNFα also induces airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy human subjects, and the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A recent study reported that TNFα caused airway inflammation and a sustained elevation of pulmonary chemoreflex responses in mice, suggesting a possible involvement of heightened sensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers. To investigate this possibility, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of a pretreatment with TNFα on the sensitivity of vagal pulmonary afferents in anesthetized mice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648089/evidence-of-activation-of-vagal-afferents-by-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-an-electrophysiological-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#14
Romain Nonis, Kevin D'Ostilio, Jean Schoenen, Delphine Magis
Background Benefits of cervical non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) devices have been shown in episodic cluster headache and preliminarily suggested in migraine, but direct evidence of vagus nerve activation using such devices is lacking. Vagal somatosensory evoked potentials (vSEPs) associated with vagal afferent activation have been reported for invasive vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) and non-invasive auricular vagal stimulation. Here, we aimed to show and characterise vSEPs for cervical nVNS. Methods vSEPs were recorded for 12 healthy volunteers who received nVNS over the cervical vagus nerve, bipolar electrode/DS7A stimulation over the inner tragus, and nVNS over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643050/application-of-transoral-continuous-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-in-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-for-thyroid-disease-a-preliminary-study
#15
Han-Kun Chen, Chun-Liang Chen, Kuo-Shan Wen, Yi-Feng Lin, Kai-Yuan Lin, Yih-Huei Uen
BACKGROUND: The novel concept of continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (Cont-IONM) through stimulation of the vagal nerve has been used in thyroidectomies to prevent imminent injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This article reports on this technology and the results of using transoral Cont-IONM in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for thyroid disease. METHODS: Cont-IONM of the RLN was achieved through automatic cyclical stimulation of the vagal nerve using a C2 monitor and delta stimulating electrode...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620379/neuroimmune-interactions-in-schizophrenia-focus-on-vagus-nerve-stimulation-and-activation-of-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#16
REVIEW
Fabiana Maria das Graças Corsi-Zuelli, Fernanda Brognara, Gustavo Fernando da Silva Quirino, Carlos Hiroji Hiroki, Rafael Sobrano Fais, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Luis Ulloa, Helio Cesar Salgado, Alexandre Kanashiro, Camila Marcelino Loureiro
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619068/late-onset-jaw-and-teeth-pain-mimicking-trigeminal-neuralgia-associated-with-chronic-vagal-nerve-stimulation-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Gabriela Timarova, Andrej Šteňo
BACKGROUND: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for refractory epilepsy is well established. Trigeminal neuralgia itself is a common disease in adults, and thus, late-onset pain in the trigeminal region under VNS, which is extremely rare, may not be recognized as caused by VNS. CASE PRESENTATION: Two patients with drug-resistant symptomatic epilepsy treated with chronic VNS experienced stimulation-related pain in the lower and upper jaw and teeth on the side of stimulation...
June 15, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#18
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606851/cardiorespiratory-action-of-opioid-tachykinin-agonist-peptide-hybrid-in-anaesthetized-rats-transduction-pathways
#19
Piotr Wojciechowski, Małgorzata Szereda-Przestaszewska, Andrzej Wojciech Lipkowski
AWL3106 composed of opioid (dermorphin) and tachykinin (substance P7-11) pharmacophores is a new compound with high analgesic potency and markedly reduced ability to induce tolerance and dependence. The present study aimed to determine the respiratory and cardiovascular responses evoked by this peptide in urethane-chloralose anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in the presence or absence of vagal connection. Intravenous injection of AWL3106 at a dose of 0.3μmol/kg in intact rats resulted in apnoea lasting 5...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585221/vagal-nerve-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#20
REVIEW
Flavia R Carreno, Alan Frazer
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent. Although standards antidepressants are more effective than placebo, up to 35% of patients do not respond to 4 or more conventional treatments and are considered to have treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Considerable effort has been devoted to trying to find effective treatments for TRD. This review focuses on vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), approved for TRD in 2005 by the Food and Drugs Administration. Stimulation is carried by bipolar electrodes on the left cervical vagus nerve, which are attached to an implanted stimulator generator...
July 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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