Read by QxMD icon Read

Vagal nerve stimulator

Hirotaka Ueda, Mayu Suga, Takakazu Yagi, Ikue Kusumoto-Yoshida, Hideki Kashiwadani, Tomoyuki Kuwaki, Shouichi Miyawaki
The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of vagal afferent activation on salivation and swallowing-like events. Salivation is part of a reflex induced by stimulation of the oral area during feeding or chewing. Recently, we reported that nausea induced by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) activation produced salivation and swallowing in humans. Here, we investigated the ability of visceral sensation to enhance salivation and swallowing in rodents in order to inform the mechanism of GER-mediated stomatognathic activation...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
James Winter, Alexandra R Cook, Dawn H Patient, Stevan R Emmett, John Tattersall, Michael J Shattock
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
José Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García, María Luisa Martín, Nélida Eleno, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates the cardiac parasympathetic neurotransmission, inhibiting the bradyarrhythmia by 5-HT2 receptor activation. We aimed to determine whether the chronic selective 5-HT2 blockade (sarpogrelate) could modify the serotonergic modulation on vagal cardiac outflow in pithed rat. Bradycardic responses in rats treated with sarpogrelate (30 mg/; p.o.) were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or i.v. injections of acetylcholine (ACh; 1, 5, and 10 μg/kg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Mohsen Moslehpour, Toru Kawada, Kenji Sunagawa, Masaru Sugimachi, Ramakrishna Mukkamala
The total baroreflex arc is the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP). The nonlinear dynamics of this system were recently characterized. First, Gaussian white noise CSP stimulation was employed in open-loop conditions in normotensive and hypertensive rats with sectioned vagal and aortic depressor nerves. Then, nonparametric system identification was applied to measured CSP and AP to establish a second-order nonlinear Uryson model. The aim in this study was to assess the importance of higher-order nonlinear dynamics via development and evaluation of a third-order nonlinear model of the total arc using the same experimental data...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, Jean-Philippe Longpré, John Andrew Armour, Alain Vinet, Vincent Jacquemet, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons. This study evaluated whether pre-emptive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) impacts MNS-induced evoked changes in IC neural network activity to thereby alter susceptibility to AF. METHODS: IC neuronal activity in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was directly recorded in anesthetized canines (n=8) using a linear microelectrode array concomitant with right atrial electrical activity in response to: 1) epicardial touch or great vessel occlusion vs (2) stellate or vagal stimulation...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Colin Reardon
Communication between the nervous and immune systems can significantly alter immune cell function in a number of inflammatory diseases. Elegant studies have defined a basic functional circuit in a "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" that highlights a unique role for the vagus nerve, and has brought about a resurgence in the field of neuro-immunology. This research has further identified that in addition to tonic signals that can restrain immune cell activation; the anti-inflammatory reflex arc is amiable to targeted stimulation as a therapeutic modality...
October 2016: Immunology Letters
Inuka Kishara Gooneratne, Alexander L Green, Patricia Dugan, Arjune Sen, Angelo Franzini, Tipu Aziz, Binith Cheeran
For patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy in whom surgical resection of the epileptogenic focus fails or was not feasible in the first place, there were few therapeutic options. Increasingly, neurostimulation provides an alternative treatment strategy for these patients. Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is well established. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and cortical responsive stimulation (CRS) are newer neurostimulation therapies with recently published long-term efficacy and safety data. In this literature review, we introduce these therapies to a non-specialist audience...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Fabrice Bartolomei, Francesca Bonini, Elsa Vidal, Agnes Trébuchon, Stanislas Lagarde, Isabelle Lambert, Aileen McGonigal, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Christian G Benar
An effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on cortical synchronization has been postulated but remains to be verified. In this study we investigated the impact of VNS on functional connectivity (Fc) using direct intracerebral recordings (stereotactic EEG, SEEG). Five patients with epilepsy who underwent SEEG recordings during ongoing VNS therapy were investigated. Interdependencies between twenty-six selected bipolar SEEG channels were estimated by nonlinear regression analysis during ON and OF periods of stimulation...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Run-Qing Xue, Lei Sun, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Dong-Ling Li, Wei-Jin Zang
Mitochondrial dynamics-fission and fusion-are associated with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). This study explored the protective effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischaemia in a rat model and tested whether VNS plays a role in preventing disorders of mitochondrial dynamics and function. Isoproterenol not only caused cardiac injury but also increased the expression of mitochondrial fission proteins [dynamin-related peptide1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial fission protein1 (Fis-1)) and decreased the expression of fusion proteins (optic atrophy-1 (OPA1) and mitofusins1/2 (Mfn1/2)], thereby disrupting mitochondrial dynamics and leading to increase in mitochondrial fragments...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Fernando Pérez de Los Cobos Pallares, Tara G Bautista, Davor Stanić, Veronica Egger, Mathias Dutschmann
The trigeminal and olfactory systems interact during sensory processing of odor. Here, we investigate odor-evoked modulations of brainstem respiratory networks in a decerebrated perfused brainstem preparation of rat with intact olfactory bulbs. Intranasal application of non-trigeminal odors (rose) did not evoke respiratory modulation in absence of cortico-limbic circuits. Conversely, trigeminal odors such as menthol or lavender evoked robust respiratory modulations via direct activation of preserved brainstem circuits...
November 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Brian J Dlouhy, Brandon Miller, Anna Jeong, Mary E Bertrand, David D Limbrick, Matthew D Smyth
PURPOSE: Dravet syndrome (DS), also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a rare genetic disorder that results in severe childhood-onset epilepsy. Children with DS initially present with seizures in the first year of life that are often associated with fevers. With age, multiple seizure types develop. There are few reports and no guidelines regarding palliative surgical treatment for DS. Therefore, we reviewed our surgical experience with DS. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with genetically confirmed DS who underwent either vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation or corpus callosotomy (CC) from May 2001 to April 2014 at our institution...
September 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Brigitte Farizon, Marie Gavid, Alexandre Karkas, Jean-Marc Dumollard, Michel Peoc'h, Jean-Michel Prades
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the thyroarytenoid muscle response during bilateral thyroid surgery using vagal nerve stimulation. 195 patients (390 nerves at risk) underwent a total thyroidectomy. The recurrent laryngeal nerve's function was checked by analyzing the amplitude and the latency of the thyroarytenoid muscle's responses after a vagal nerve's stimulation (0.5 and 1 mA) using the NIM3 Medtronic system. All patients were submitted to preoperative and postoperative laryngoscopy. 20 patients get no thyroarytenoid muscle response to the vagal nerve stimulation, and 14 postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies were confirmed (3...
July 15, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Adrian P Burgess, Nathalie C Fouquet, Stefano Seri, Malcolm B Hawken, Andrew Heard, David Neasham, Mark P Little, Paul Elliott
BACKGROUND: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a telecommunications system widely used by police and emergency services around the world. The Stewart Report on mobile telephony and health raised questions about possible health effects associated with TETRA signals. This study investigates possible effects of TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in human volunteers. METHODS: Blinded randomized provocation study with a standardized TETRA signal or sham exposure...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Frank M Smith, Michel Vermeulen, René Cardinal
Long-term spinal cord stimulation (SCS) applied to cranial thoracic SC segments exerts antiarrhythmic and cardioprotective actions in the canine heart in situ. We hypothesized that remodeling of intrinsic cardiac neuronal and synaptic properties occur in canines subjected to long-term SCS, specifically that synaptic efficacy may be preferentially facilitated at high presynaptic nerve stimulation frequencies. Animals subjected to continuous SCS for 5-8 weeks (long-term SCS: n = 17) or for 1 h (acute SCS: n = 4) were compared with corresponding control animals (long-term: n = 15, acute: n = 4)...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
Patrick Aïdan, Woong Youn Chung, Balazs B Lörincz
Automatic periodic stimulation (APS) of the vagus nerve during thyroid surgery may provide the patient with increased safety to prevent impending thermal or stretch-related injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). APS is of particular interest in remote access robotic thyroid surgery, where the RLN may be exposed to significant conducted heat due to the exclusive use of the ultrasonic energy dissection. Bilateral vagal APS is feasible and safe during single-incision transaxillary robotic total thyroidectomy, and may contribute to prevent impending injury to the RLN by allowing the console surgeon to adjust their dissection technique according to the signal changes...
July 6, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Markus Gschwind, Margitta Seeck
INTRODUCTION: Neuromodulation (NM) is a complementary therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Vagal nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamus are established techniques and have shown their efficacy in lowering seizure frequency, but they are invasive and rarely render patients seizure-free. Non-invasive NM techniques are therefore increasingly investigated in a clinical context. AREAS COVERED: Current knowledge about transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) and other non-invasive NM in patients with epilepsy, based on the available animal and clinical studies from PubMed search...
July 18, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Whitney Liddy, Samuel R Barber, Matteo Cinquepalmi, Brian M Lin, Stephanie Patricio, Natalia Kyriazidis, Carlo Bellotti, Dipti Kamani, Sadhana Mahamad, Henning Dralle, Rick Schneider, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Marcin Barczynski, Che-Wei Wu, Feng Yu Chiang, Gregory Randolph
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Correlation of physiologically important electromyographic (EMG) waveforms with demonstrable muscle activation is important for the reliable interpretation of evoked waveforms during intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) of the vagus nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), and external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) in thyroid surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Data were reviewed retrospectively for thyroid surgery patients with laryngeal nerve IONM from January to December, 2015...
July 4, 2016: Laryngoscope
Fu L Ng, Manish Saxena, Felix Mahfoud, Atul Pathak, Melvin D Lobo
Hypertension continues to be a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, fuelled by an abundance of patients with uncontrolled blood pressure despite the multitude of pharmacological options available. This may occur as a consequence of true resistant hypertension, through an inability to tolerate current pharmacological therapies, or non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion of device-based therapies proposed as novel non-pharmacological approaches to treating resistant hypertension...
August 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
Hanna Schweighöfer, Christoph Rummel, Joachim Roth, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the vagus nerve has modulating, anti-inflammatory effects on the cellular immune response in the blood and the spleen, stabilizing brain function. Here, we aimed to investigate its potential effects on immune-to-brain communication focusing on neurophysiological readouts and leukocyte migration to the brain during severe sepsis-like endotoxemia. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg)...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Firas Fahoum, Nurit Omer, Svetlana Kipervasser, Tal Bar-Adon, Miri Neufeld
The yield of monitoring patients at an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) depends on the recording of paroxysmal events in a timely fashion, however, increasing the risk of safety adverse events (AEs). We aimed to retrospectively study the frequency and risk factors for AE occurrences in all consecutive admissions to an adult EMU in a tertiary medical center. We also compared our findings with published data from other centers. Between January 2011 and June 2014, there were 524 consecutive admissions to the adult EMU at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"