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Adrienne J Bartlett, Amanda M Hedges, Kyna D Intini, Lisa R Brown, France J Maisonneuve, Stacey A Robinson, Patricia L Gillis, Shane R de Solla
Neonicotinoid insecticides are environmentally persistent and highly water-soluble, and thus are prone to leaching into surface waters where they may negatively affect non-target aquatic insects. Most of the research to date has focused on imidacloprid, and few data are available regarding the effects of other neonicotinoids or their proposed replacements (butenolide insecticides). The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of six neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran) and one butenolide (flupyradifurone) to Hexagenia spp...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ekaterina M Savelieva, Vladimir E Oslovsky, Dmitry S Karlov, Nikolay N Kurochkin, Irina A Getman, Sergey N Lomin, Georgy V Sidorov, Sergey N Mikhailov, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Georgy A Romanov
Biological effects of hormones in both plants and animals are based on high-affinity interaction with cognate receptors resulting in their activation. The signal of cytokinins, classical plant hormones, is perceived in Arabidopsis by three homologous membrane receptors: AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1/AHK4. To study the cytokinin-receptor interaction, we used 25 derivatives of potent cytokinin N6 -benzyladenine (BA) with substituents in the purine heterocycle and/or in the side chain. The study was focused primarily on individual cytokinin receptors from Arabidopsis...
March 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
Wenge Chen, Yunlong Cheng, Jianzhong Chen, Jiahang Chen, Kai Jiang, Yuyang Zhou, Lee Jia
Mifepristone (RU486) is developed originally as a contraceptive used by hundreds of millions of women world-wide, and also reported as a safe and long-term psychotic depressant, or as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent used by both sexes. In our preliminary study aimed at developing mifepristone as a cancer metastatic chemopreventive, we coincidentally observed that blood mifepristone concentrations in female rats seem to be higher than those in male ones post administration. To substantiate if the pharmacokinetic differences between sexes exist, we established a fast UPLC-MS/MS method to determine mifepristone concentrations in plasma, and analyzed blood concentrations of mifepristone over time in rats and dogs of both sexes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Guo-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Yang, Xin-Xin Guan, Wen-Jing Zhong, Yong-Ping Liu, Ming-Yuan Du, Xiao-Qin Luo, Yong Zhou, Cha-Xiang Guan
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the lungs with various biological characters. We have reported that VIP inhibited the expressions of TREM-1 and IL-17A, which are involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the overall effect of VIP on ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of VIP mediated by lentivirus (Lenti-VIP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI. We found that the expression of intrapulmonary VIP peaked at day7 after the intratracheal injection of Lenti-VIP...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Marian L Miller, Aleksey Porollo, Susan Wert
Alveolar type II cells from seven mammalian species were examined for a protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), which showed a multi-layered, repeating motif. Each motif, 100nm in width, comprised two parallel outer dense layers, a less dense central layer, and often 1-3 faint layers on either side of the latter. Outer layers showed periodicities at 3-4 densities/100nm of width, while layers on either side of the central layer showed 5-7 densities/100nm of width. RER membranes were ribosome-free when parallel to these layers, but showed 4 ribosomes per motif at the growing ends: one ribosome at each outer dense layer, and one on either side of the less dense central layer...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Cheng-Han Wu, Bang-Hung Yang, Yuan-Hwa Chou, Shyh-Jen Wang, Jyh-Cheng Chen
99mTc-TRODAT-1 is a type of drug that can bind to dopamine transporters in living organisms and is often used in SPCT imaging for observation of changes in the activity uptake of dopamine in the striatum. Therefore, it is currently widely used in studies on clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and movement-related disorders. In conventional 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT image evaluation, visual inspection or manual selection of ROI for semiquantitative analysis is mainly used to observe and evaluate the degree of striatal defects...
2018: PloS One
Christopher Ebsch, Robert Rosenbaum
Understanding the relationship between external stimuli and the spiking activity of cortical populations is a central problem in neuroscience. Dense recurrent connectivity in local cortical circuits can lead to counterintuitive response properties, raising the question of whether there are simple arithmetical rules for relating circuits' connectivity structure to their response properties. One such arithmetic is provided by the mean field theory of balanced networks, which is derived in a limit where excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents precisely balance on average...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Enda F Whyte, Chris Richter, Siobhan O'Connor, Kieran A Moran
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries frequently occur during side cutting maneuvers when fatigued or reacting to the sporting environment. Trunk and hip biomechanics are proposed to influence ACL loading during these activities. However, the effects of fatigue and unanticipation on the biomechanics of the kinetic chain may be limited by traditional discrete point analysis. We recruited twenty-eight male, varsity, Gaelic footballers (21.7±2.2 years; 178.7±14.6m; 81.8±11.4kg) to perform anticipated and unanticipated side cutting maneuvers pre- and post- a high intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Young Hak Roh, Young Do Koh, Jong Oh Kim, Kyu Ho Lee, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pillar pain (deep-seated wrist pain worsened by leaning on the heel of the hand) sometimes occurs after carpal tunnel release (CTR), leading to weakness in the hand and delayed return to work. Increased pain sensitivity has been found to be associated with worse symptoms and poorer treatment response in a number of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, but few studies have investigated the association of pain sensitization with pillar pain after CTR. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is preoperative pain sensitization in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with increased severity of pillar pain after open CTR? (2) What other demographic, electrophysiological, or preoperative clinical characteristics are associated with pillar pain after CTR? METHODS: Over a 35-month period, one surgeon performed 162 open carpal tunnel releases...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Enrique Bernal, Jose Miguel Gómez, Inma Jarrín, Alfredo Cano, Angeles Muñoz, Antonia Alcaraz, Arkaitz Imaz, Jose Antonio Iribarren, María Rivero, Piedad Arazo, Félix Gutiérrez, CoRIS Study Group
BACKGROUND: The objetive was investigate the long-term impact of low level viremia (LLV) on all-cause mortality, AIDS and non-AIDS events (NAEs), and virological failure in patients receiving ART. METHODS: We analyzed ART-naïve adults from the cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) who initiated ART from 2004 to 2015 and achieved plasma viral load (VL) below 50 copies/ml. LLV50-199 was defined as two consecutive VL between 50 and 199 copies/ml, and LLV200-499 as two consecutive VL between 50 and 499 copies/ml with at least one between 200 and 499 copies/ml...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jenifer E Clapp, Sarah A Niederman, Elizabeth Leonard, Christine J Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 60% of the American diet comes from processed foods, which makes improving their nutritional quality important for Americans' health. The objective of this study was to measure changes in serving sizes, calories, and sodium in top-selling processed foods that were on the market in 2009 and 2015. METHODS: We analyzed products in the top 80% of sales in the 54 processed food categories with consistent serving sizes and sales metrics that were on the market in both 2009 and 2015...
March 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Jeffrey E Stokes
OBJECTIVES: Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Sreetama Pal, Nirnay Samanta, Debasish Das Mahanta, Rajib Kumar Mitra, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Biological membranes are highly organized supramolecular assemblies of lipids and proteins. The membrane interface separates the outer (bulk) aqueous phase from the hydrophobic membrane interior. In this work, we have explored the microstructure and collective dynamics of the membrane interfacial hydration shell in zwitterionic and negatively charged phospholipid membrane bilayers using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We show here that the relaxation time constants of water hydrogen bond network exhibit a unique "rise and dip" pattern with increasing lipid concentration...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Oksoo Kim, Mi Sun Kim, Hee Jung Jang, Hyangkyu Lee, Younhee Kang, Yanghee Pang, Heeja Jung
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the current state of radiation safety education and its influence on nurses' compliance with safety procedures. BACKGROUND: Use of radiation in therapy and diagnosis has prolonged and improved millions of lives, but it presents potential hazards for healthcare professionals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. METHODS: Participants included 1,672 female nurses of childbearing age who had recently been exposed to radiation emitting generators or radiation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Benoit Talbot, Maarten J Vonhof, Hugh G Broders, Brock Fenton, Nusha Keyghobadi
Parasite-host relationships create strong selection pressures that can lead to adaptation and increasing specialization of parasites to their hosts. Even in relatively loose host-parasite relationships, such as between generalist ectoparasites and their hosts, we may observe some degree of specialization of parasite populations to one of the multiple potential hosts. Salivary proteins are used by blood-feeding ectoparasites to prevent hemostasis in the host and maximize energy intake. We investigated the influence of association with specific host species on allele frequencies of salivary protein genes in Cimex adjunctus, a generalist blood-feeding ectoparasite of bats in North America...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Laurence Dufourny, Oona Delmas, Ana-Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Caroline Decourt, Joanna H Sliwowska
Somatostatin (SST) a neuropeptide involved in the central modulation of several physiological functions, is co-distributed in the same hypothalamic areas as kisspeptin (KP), the most potent secretagogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion known to date. As SST infused intracerebroventricularly (icv) evoked a potent inhibition of GnRH release, we explored neuroanatomical relationships between KP and SST populations in male and female rats. For that, intact males and ovariectomised oestradiol-replaced females were killed and their brains processed in order to simultaneously detect KP, SST and synapsin, a marker for synapses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Sami M Aloush, Faris A Alsaraireh
OBJECTIVE:  To assess nurses' compliance with central line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention guidelines related to maintenance of the central line and the predictors of compliance. Method: This was an observational study that used a descriptive cross-sectional design. A sample of 171 intensive care unit (ICU) nurses were observed and their compliance was recorded on a structured observational sheet. The study was conducted in the ICUs of 15 hospitals located in 5 cities in Jordan...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Suyoung Seo
This paper presents a method of modeling edge profiles with two blur parameters, and estimating and predicting those edge parameters with varying brightness combinations and camera-to-object distances (COD). First, the validity of the edge model is proven mathematically. Then, it is proven experimentally with edges from a set of images captured for specifically designed target sheets and with edges from natural images. Estimation of the two blur parameters for each observed edge profile is performed with a brute-force method to find parameters that produce global minimum errors...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Shannon O'Donnell, Christopher M Beaven, Matthew Driller
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of match-day napping and duration of naps on perceptual and performance indices in elite female netball players over two consecutive netball seasons. METHODS: Fourteen elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yr) participated in an observational study over 26 competition matches. On each match day, athletes provided information on their napping habits, perceived energy levels, and then performed 3 countermovement jumps (CMJ) 3h30 prior to the start of the match...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Matthew Buican, Zoltan Laczko
In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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