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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102900/metabolic-theory-predicts-animal-self-thinning
#1
Tomas Jonsson
1.The Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE's quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level. 2.Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning slope for animal populations might be, or if it exists...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102846/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-promotes-the-stem-like-properties-of-ov6-cancer-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Chao Wang, Ming-da Wang, Peng Cheng, Hai Huang, Wei Dong, Wei-Wei Zhang, Peng-Peng Li, Chuan Lin, Ze-Ya Pan, Meng-Chao Wu, Wei-Ping Zhou
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have both been implicated in the occurrence and development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBx contributes to the stem-like properties of OV6(+) CSCs in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we showed that the concomitant expression of HBx and OV6 was closely associated with the clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with HBV-related HCC. HBx was required for the stem-like properties of OV6(+) liver CSCs, including self-renewal, stem cell-associated gene expression, tumorigenicity and chemoresistance...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102834/basis-of-catalytic-assembly-of-the-mitotic-checkpoint-complex
#3
Alex C Faesen, Maria Thanasoula, Stefano Maffini, Claudia Breit, Franziska Müller, Suzan van Gerwen, Tanja Bange, Andrea Musacchio
Accurate genome inheritance by daughter cells requires that sister chromatids in the mother attach to microtubules emanating from opposite poles of the mitotic spindle (bi-orientation). A surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors the microtubule attachment process, temporarily halting sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit until completion of bi-orientation1. SAC failure results in abnormal chromosome numbers (aneuploidy), a hallmark of many tumours. The HORMA domain protein MAD2 is a subunit of the SAC effector mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC)...
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102507/-44-sc-psma-617-for-radiotheragnostics-in-tandem-with-177-lu-psma-617-preclinical-investigations-in-comparison-with-68-ga-psma-11-and-68-ga-psma-617
#4
Christoph A Umbricht, Martina Benešová, Raffaella M Schmid, Andreas Türler, Roger Schibli, Nicholas P van der Meulen, Cristina Müller
BACKGROUND: The targeting of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is of particular interest for radiotheragnostic purposes of prostate cancer. Radiolabeled PSMA-617, a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-functionalized PSMA ligand, revealed favorable kinetics with high tumor uptake, enabling its successful application for PET imaging ((68)Ga) and radionuclide therapy ((177)Lu) in the clinics. In this study, PSMA-617 was labeled with cyclotron-produced (44)Sc (T 1/2 = 4...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102342/neural-activity-in-the-dorsal-medial-superior-temporal-area-of-monkeys-represents-retinal-error-during-adaptive-motor-learning
#5
Aya Takemura, Tomoyo Ofuji, Kenichiro Miura, Kenji Kawano
To adapt to variable environments, humans regulate their behavior by modulating gains in sensory-to-motor processing. In this study, we measured a simple eye movement, the ocular following response (OFR), in monkeys to study the neuronal basis of adaptive motor learning in the visuomotor processing stream. The medial superior temporal (MST) area of the cerebral cortex is a critical site for contextual gain modulation of the OFR. However, the role of MST neurons in adaptive gain modulation of the OFR remains unknown...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102013/the-effect-of-potassium-diclofenac-and-dexamethasone-on-mmp-1-gene-transcript-levels-during-experimental-tooth-movement-in-rats
#6
G P Molina Da Silva, O M Tanaka, D F Campos Navarro, C E Repeke, G P Garlet, O Guariza-Filho, P C Trevilatto
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze MMP-1 transcript levels in periodontal tissues of rats that underwent orthodontic treatment using potassium diclofenac and dexamethasone at different stages of tooth movement. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: The sample comprised of ninety male Wistar rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A closed nickel-titanium coil spring was used to apply a force of 50 cN to move the maxillary right first molars mesially...
February 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101843/postprandial-glp-2-levels-are-increased-after-biliopancreatic-diversion-in-diabetic-individuals-with-class-i-obesity-a-prospective-study
#7
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Bruno Geloneze, Elinton Adami Chaim, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a predominantly malabsorptive procedure. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) plays predominantly trophic effects on the gut. A significant increase in GLP-2 after BPD in rats was previously observed, but there are no studies investigating the effect of BPD in GLP-2 levels in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of BPD on the release of GLP-2. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study that evaluated diabetic individuals with class I obesity which underwent BPD (Scopinaro operation) and were followed up for 12 months...
January 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101829/autism-spectrum-disorders%C3%A2-diagnosis-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Sharmila Banerjee Mukherjee
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder commonly seen in children. It is characterized by age inappropriate, impaired social communication and the presence of stereotypic behavior. This disorder is hypothesized to result from cerebral dysfunction arising from a complex interaction between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. ASD should be suspected in children failing ASD specific screening tests, in the presence of red flags in social, language and/or play domains, in children with developmental or language delay, abnormal behavior, poor school performance or in those who are at high risk...
January 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101654/cell-viability-and-shock-wave-amplitudes-in-the-endothelium-of-porcine-cornea-exposed-to-ultrashort-laser-pulses
#9
Syed Asad Hussain, Carles Milián, Caroline Crotti, Laura Kowalczuk, Fatima Alahyane, Zacaria Essaïdi, Arnaud Couairon, Marie-Claire Schanne-Klein, Karsten Plamann
PURPOSE: Some forms of keratoplasty assisted by ultrashort-pulse lasers require performing laser cuts close to the endothelium, which requires the knowledge of "safe" values concerning incision depth and pulse energy preserving endothelial cell viability. Our study aims to determine the thresholds for cell death in porcine corneas exposed to ultrashort laser pulses, in terms of laser pulse energy and nearness of the impacts to the endothelium. METHODS: Using a laboratory laser set-up, lamellar cuts were induced while varying pulse energies and distances from the endothelium...
January 18, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101536/host-range-restriction-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-occurs-at-several-levels-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#10
Sandra Junglen, Marvin Korries, Wolfgang Grasse, Janett Wieseler, Anne Kopp, Kyra Hermanns, Moises León-Juárez, Christian Drosten, Beate Mareike Kümmerer
The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101310/effectiveness-and-safety-of-sitagliptin-in-patients-with-beta-thalassaemia-major-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-series
#11
Shahrzad Zonoozi, Maria Barnard, Emma Prescott, Romilla Jones, Farrukh T Shah, Ploutarchos Tzoulis
Sitagliptin, a modern antidiabetic agent which is weight neutral and associated with low rate of hypoglycaemias, is being increasingly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there is a paucity of data about its efficacy and safety in beta-thalassaemia major (β-TM). This retrospective case series of five patients (mean age of 45 years) is the first study evaluating the use of sitagliptin in patients with β-TM and DM. Four patients responded well to sitagliptin, as evidenced by a decrease in fructosamine by 77 and 96μmol/L (equivalent reduction in HbA1c of 1...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101209/significance-of-interstitial-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-the-progression-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#12
Bing-Sheng Sun, Bao-Xiang Pei, Kang Zhang, Lu-Chang Zhang, Guang-Jing Zhang, Ji-Kuan Liu, Hong-Wei Cui, Fen Pan, Zhen-Fa Zhang
Stepwise progression from adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) to lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) was proposed by various scholars. Interstitial tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and various potential chemokines involved in the progression from AIS/MIA to LPA were hypothesized. In the present study, immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescent double staining was used to detect the expression of the TAMs marker cluster of differentiation (CD) 68, tumor-derived colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, E-cadherin and Snail in lung adenocarcinoma specimens, including AIS/MIA, LPA and other types...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101180/acute-renal-injury-induced-by-valacyclovir-hydrochloride-a-case-report
#13
Yanning Zhang, Yuxi Cong, Yan Teng
Acyclovir has been a frequently used antiviral agent in the clinical treatment of leukemia, acute encephalitis, malignant tumor and herpes simplex. The adverse effects of this drug have been widely described in clinical practice. In the present study, a case of a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed with herpes simplex, who developed acute renal injury following treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride, is described. Kidney biopsy, light microscopy and laboratory examination were performed, and all findings revealed the signs of evident vacuolar degeneration of capillary endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells, erythrocyte aggregation in partial renal tubule and microvilli exfoliation from epithelial cells...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101162/correlation-between-high-perfusion-syndrome-and-stent-restenosis-after-stent-implantation
#14
Yingyi Li, Lingtao Tang, Dong Qi, Chunlei Wang, Suxia Zhang, Pengfei Hu, Yun Wang, Bogang Zhang, Kunxi Zhang
The present study was conducted to determine the correlation between high perfusion syndrome and stent restenosis after cerebral vascular stent implantation. A total of 146 patients diagnosed with cerebral vascular stenosis and stent implantation were selected. A total of 55 cases (37.67%) of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome patients were diagnosed by xenon-enhanced computer tomography (Xe-CT) examination and clinical symptoms within 3 days after surgery and were chosen as the observation group. A total of 91 cases were selected as the control group...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100788/genomic-infectious-disease-epidemiology-in-partially-sampled-and-ongoing-outbreaks
#15
Xavier Didelot, Christophe Fraser, Jennifer Gardy, Caroline Colijn
Genomic data is increasingly being used to understand infectious disease epidemiology. Isolates from a given outbreak are sequenced, and the patterns of shared variation are used to infer which isolates within the outbreak are most closely related to each other. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic trees typically used to represent this variation are not directly informative about who infected whom - a phylogenetic tree is not a transmission tree. However, a transmission tree can be inferred from a phylogeny while accounting for within-host genetic diversity by colouring the branches of a phylogeny according to which host those branches were in...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100642/isoform-specific-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-modulation-by-the-prototoxin-lynx1
#16
Andrew A George, Abigail Bloy, Julie M Miwa, Jon M Lindstrom, Ronald J Lukas, Paul Whiteaker
This study investigates-for the first time to our knowledge-the existence and mechanisms of functional interactions between the endogenous mammalian prototoxin, lynx1, and α3- and β4-subunit-containing human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α3β4*-nAChRs). Concatenated gene constructs were used to express precisely defined α3β4*-nAChR isoforms (α3β4)2β4-, (α3β4)2α3-, (α3β4)2α5(398D)-, and (α3β4)2α5(398N)-nAChR in Xenopus oocytes. In the presence or absence of lynx1, α3β4*-nAChR agonist responses were recorded by using 2-electrode voltage clamp and single-channel electrophysiology, whereas radioimmunolabeling measured cell-surface expression...
January 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100521/perioperative-%C3%AE-receptor-blockade-in-phaeochromocytoma-surgery-an-observational-case-series
#17
H Groeben, B J Nottebaum, P F Alesina, A Traut, H P Neumann, M K Walz
BACKGROUND: Mortality associated with surgery for phaeochromocytoma has dramatically decreased over the last decades. Many factors contributed to the dramatic decline of the mortality rate, and the influence of an α-receptor blockade is unclear and has never been tested in a randomized trial. We evaluated intraoperative haemodynamic conditions and the incidence of complications in patients with and without α-receptor blockade undergoing surgery for catecholamine producing tumours. METHODS: Haemodynamic conditions and perioperative complications were assessed in 110 patients with (B) and 166 without (N) α-receptor blockade...
February 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100494/quantification-of-bk-virus-standards-by-quantitative-real-time-pcr-and-droplet-digital-pcr-is-confounded-by-multiple-virus-populations-in-the-who-bkv-international-standard
#18
Allen C Bateman, Alexander L Greninger, Ederlyn E Atienza, Ajit P Limaye, Keith R Jerome, Linda Cook
BACKGROUND: The WHO recently released a BK virus (BKV) international standard. This study evaluated the WHO international standard and commercially available BKV standards by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). METHODS: WHO, Exact Diagnostics, Acrometrix, and Zeptometrix BKV standards were tested by qPCR and ddPCR. Two preparations of NIST BKV clones were also tested. Nucleic acid was extracted with the Roche MP96 and MPLC, followed by quantification in duplicate...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100488/kinetic-analyses-of-vasculogenesis-inform-mechanistic-studies
#19
Kaela M Varberg, Seth Winfree, Chenghao Chu, Wanzhu Tu, Emily K Blue, Cassandra R Gohn, Kenneth W Dunn, Laura S Haneline
Vasculogenesis is a complex process by which endothelial stem and progenitor cells undergo de novo vessel formation. Quantitative assessment of vasculogenesis is a central readout of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) functionality. However, current assays lack kinetic measurements. To address this issue, new approaches were developed to quantitatively assess in vitro endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) network formation in real time. Eight parameters of network structure were quantified using novel Kinetic Analysis of Vasculogenesis (KAV) software...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100471/valve-thrombosis-following-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-significance-of-blood-stasis-on-the-leaflets
#20
Koohyar Vahidkhah, Mohammed Barakat, Mostafa Abbasi, Shahnaz Javani, Peyman N Azadani, Anwar Tandar, Danny Dvir, Ali N Azadani
OBJECTIVES: Leaflet thrombosis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and valve-in-valve (ViV) procedures has been increasingly recognized. However, the factors affecting the post-TAVR/ViV thrombosis are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the geometric confinement of transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) on blood residence time (BRT) on the TAV leaflets and in turn on the post-TAVR valve thrombosis. METHODS: Two computational models, representing a surgical bioprosthesis and a TAV, were developed to study the effect of the geometric confinement on BRT on the leaflets in ViV setting/TAVR Intra-annular positioning...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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