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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719610/a-decade-of-hiv-care-in-rural-tanzania-trends-in-clinical-outcomes-and-impact-of-clinic-optimisation-in-an-open-prospective-cohort
#1
Fiona Vanobberghen, Emilio Letang, Anna Gamell, Dorcas K Mnzava, Diana Faini, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Kim Mwamelo, George Sikalengo, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Hansjakob Furrer, Manuel Battegay, Tracy R Glass
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe trends in enrolment and clinical outcomes in the open, prospective Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in the Morogoro region of southern Tanzania, and identify strengths and areas for improvement in the care of HIV-positive individuals in rural Tanzania. METHODS: We included adults (≥15 years) and children (<15 years) enrolled in the cohort in 2005-2014. The cohort underwent significant changes from autumn 2012 to optimise care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719501/evaluation-of-the-adequacy-of-the-2010-revised-world-health-organization-recommended-dosages-of-the-first-line-antituberculosis-drugs-for-children
#2
Hongmei Yang, Anthony Enimil, Fizza S Gillani, Sampson Antwi, Albert Dompreh, Antoinette Ortsin, Eugene Adu Awhireng, Maxwell Owusu, Lubbe Wiesner, Charles A Peloquin, Awewura Kwara
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommended increased dosages of the first-line antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs for children in 2010. We examined the frequency of and factors associated with low plasma maximum concentration (Cmax) of each drug in children treated with the revised dosages. METHODS: Children on anti-TB therapy for at least 4 weeks underwent pharmacokinetic testing. Plasma Cmax below the lower limit of proposed reference range was considered low...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719495/late-onset-hiv-encephalopathy-in-children-with-long-standing-virologic-suppression-followed-by-slow-spontaneous-recovery-despite-no-change-in-antiretroviral-therapy-four-case-reports
#3
Steve Innes, Ronald van Toorn, Kennedy Otwombe, Els Dobbels, Gert van Zyl, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton
We describe four CHER (Children with HIV Early antiRetroviral therapy) trial participants with late-onset HIV encephalopathy despite long-standing viral suppression in blood and undetectable HIV DNA and RNA PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Extensive investigations revealed no alternative etiology. Reassuringly, all four experienced slow spontaneous recovery despite no change in antiretroviral therapy. Virally-suppressed HIV-infected children remain at risk for fluctuating neurologic signs and symptoms.
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718515/impact-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-plasma-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-in-chinese-children-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#4
Xia Liu, Qing Ma, Yan Zhao, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Yuewu Cheng, Huiping Zhang, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode the cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have been reported to influence antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics. While primarily metabolized by CYP2B6 and -3A, efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are substrates of P-glycoprotein and solute carrier organic (SLCO) anion transporter, respectively OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SNPs and efavirenz (EFV) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) concentrations in Chinese children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) METHODS: Genotyping was performed on CYP2B6 516G→T, -1459C→T, and -983T→C, ABCB1 3435C→T, and SLCO1B1 521T→C in 229 HIV-infected Chinese pediatric patients with an age range from 4...
July 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718499/-meeting-contraceptive-needs-of-hiv-positive-women-effect-on-elimination-of-vertical-transmission-of-hiv
#5
Marcela Gómez-Suárez
Nearly 38% of unplanned pregnancies occur because of unmet contraceptive needs. In HIV-positive women, these figures triple, a phenomenon explained by social determinants such as poverty, access to health services, violence, and forced displacement, all of which are frequent elements in the lives of these women. Unplanned pregnancies represent a psychological burden related to women's fear of transmitting the infection to their children, orphanhood, and assuming risks during pregnancy, in addition to family and social consequences that are expressed in lack of prenatal care, neglect of their health, and an increased likelihood of vertical transmission...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718492/-hiv-and-syphilis-coinfection-in-pregnancy-and-vertical-hiv-transmission-a-study-based-on-epidemiological-surveillance-data
#6
Lisiane M W Acosta, Tonantzin Ribeiro Gonçalves, Nêmora Tregnago Barcellos
Objective: To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. Method: This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718488/infectious-disease-morbidity-and-growth-among-young-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-jamaica
#7
Russell B Pierre, Toni-Anne Fulford, Kaye Lewis, Paulette Palmer, Christine Walters, Celia D C Christie
Objective: There is a growing body of data that demonstrates increased infectious disease outcomes for HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants as compared to their HIV-unexposed (HU) counterparts. We hypothesized that these HIV-EU infants are at greater risk for infectious morbidity and mortality when compared to the general childhood population. We therefore aimed to characterize infections and growth outcomes among HIV-EU infants in Jamaica during their first two years of life. By identifying these outcomes, specific interventions could be implemented to mitigate this risk of morbidity and mortality...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715158/loss-to-follow-up-among-children-and-adolescents-growing-up-with-hiv-infection-age-really-matters
#8
Katharina Kranzer, John Bradley, Joseph Musaazi, Mary Nyathi, Hilary Gunguwo, Wedu Ndebele, Mark Dixon, Mbongeni Ndhlovu, Andrea Rehman, Palwasha Khan, Florian Vogt, Tsitsi Apollo, Rashida Abbas Ferrand
INTRODUCTION: Globally, increasing numbers of HIV-infected children are reaching adolescence due to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated rates of loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) from HIV care services among children as they transition from childhood through adolescence. METHODS: Individuals aged 5-19 years initiated on ART in a public-sector HIV clinic in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between 2005 and 2009 were included in a retrospective cohort study. Participants were categorized into narrow age-bands namely: 5-9 (children), 10-14 (young adolescents) and 15-19 (older adolescents)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713662/subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-in-a-child-suffering-from-human-immunodeficiency-virus-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-can-this-be-another-instance-of-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#9
Ashutosh Gupta, Suman Kushwaha, Mushbiq Manzoor, Shah Faisal Ahmad Tarfarosh
We report a 12-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who presented with rapidly progressive difficulty in ambulation. The symptoms started to worsen when he was put on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our findings show that the dynamics of HIV-related immune suppression and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have an impact on the clinical course of Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Slow progression is expected in children on HAART but in our case, we observe a complex interaction of the virus with the immune system and modification of disease course of SSPE with ART...
June 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709161/roles-of-medication-responsibility-executive-and-adaptive-functioning-in-adherence-for-children-and-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv
#10
Patricia A Garvie, Sean S Brummel, Susannah M Allison, Kathleen M Malee, Claude A Mellins, Megan L Wilkins, Lynnette L Harris, E Doyle Patton, Miriam C Chernoff, Richard M Rutstein, Mary E Paul, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is a critical but challenging developmental task for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV). Understanding how medication responsibility, executive functions (EFs) and adaptive functioning (AF) influence adherence may help prepare adolescents for transition to adulthood. METHODS: Participants included PHIV children and adolescents 7-16 years of age enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Adolescent Master Protocol, who were prescribed antiretroviral medications...
August 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708808/hiv-viral-load-suppression-in-adults-and-children-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-results-from-the-iedea-collaboration
#11
Awachana Jiamsakul, Azar Kariminia, Keri N Althoff, Carina Cesar, Claudia P Cortes, Mary-Ann Davies, Viet Chau Do, Brian Eley, John Gill, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Daisy Maria Machado, Richard Moore, Hans Prozesky, Elizabeth Zaniewski, Matthew Law
BACKGROUND: Having 90% of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and achieving an undetectable viral load (VL) is one of the 90:90:90 by 2020 targets. In this global analysis, we investigated the proportions of adult and paediatric patients with VL suppression in the first three years after ART initiation. METHODS: Patients from the IeDEA cohorts who initiated ART between 2010 and 2014 were included. Proportions with VL suppression (<1000 copies/mL) were estimated using: (i) strict intention-to-treat (ITT) - loss to follow-up (LTFU) and dead patients counted as having detectable VL; and (ii) modified ITT - LTFU and dead patients were excluded...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707345/the-cascade-of-care-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-1996-2013-improving-but-still-some-way-to-go
#12
Cristina Barroso Hofer, Matthias Egger, Mary-Ann Davies, Ana Cristina Cisne Frota, Ricardo Hugo de Oliveira, Thalita Fernandes Abreu, Lúcia Evangelista Araújo, Bernardo Bastos Witthlin, Alice Weber Carvalho, Janaína Rivas Cordeiro, Giulia Pasqualini Lima, Olivia Keiser
OBJECTIVE: To describe the cascade of care to HIV mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) in a Rio de Janeiro reference pediatric clinic, and evaluate the main factors possibly associated with HIV transmission. METHODS: Data on antenatal care, perinatal and neonatal assistance to HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children assisted in the clinic from 1996-2013 were collected. The cascade of care was graphically demonstrated, and possible factors associated with HIV infection were described using regression models for bivariate and multivariate analysis...
July 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706763/comparison-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-educated-and-uneducated-adults-regarding-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-karachi-pakistan
#13
Zainab Ahmad, Sara Sadiq, Mariam Asghar, Alizay Rashid Khan, Omer Arif, Syed Hamza Shah, Shahrukh Nadeem, Yamna Waseem, Rafi Aibani, Ammar Salman Syed, Rabia M Mustafa, Zainab Abdulrahman, Kaneez Fatima
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Pakistan, no prior work has been done to specifically highlight the importance of education as a social vaccine against HIV. Therefore, our study focuses on differences in knowledge and practices regarding HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among educated and uneducated adults. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out in which data was collected from all over Karachi...
June 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706209/mountain-gorilla-lymphocryptovirus-has-epstein-barr-virus-like-epidemiology-and-pathology-in-infants
#14
Tierra Smiley Evans, Linda J Lowenstine, Kirsten V Gilardi, Peter A Barry, Benard J Ssebide, Jean Felix Kinani, Fred Nizeyimana, Jean Bosco Noheri, Michael R Cranfield, Antoine Mudakikwa, Tracey Goldstein, Jonna A K Mazet, Christine Kreuder Johnson
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects greater than 90% of humans, is recognized as a significant comorbidity with HIV/AIDS, and is an etiologic agent for some human cancers. The critically endangered mountain gorilla population was suspected of infection with an EBV-like virus based on serology and infant histopathology similar to pulmonary reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (PRLH), a condition associated with EBV in HIV-infected children. To further examine the presence of EBV or an EBV-like virus in mountain gorillas, we conducted the first population-wide survey of oral samples for an EBV-like virus in a nonhuman great ape...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704560/performance-characteristics-of-finger-stick-dried-blood-spots-dbs-on-the-determination-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-treatment-failure-in-a-pediatric-population-in-mozambique
#15
Joy Chang, Amina de Sousa, Jennifer Sabatier, Mariamo Assane, Guoqing Zhang, Dulce Bila, Paula Vaz, Charity Alfredo, Loide Cossa, Nilesh Bhatt, Emilia H Koumans, Chunfu Yang, Emilia Rivadeneira, Ilesh Jani, James C Houston
Quantitative plasma viral load (VL) at 1000 copies /mL was recommended as the threshold to confirm antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure by the World Health Organization (WHO). Because of ongoing challenges of using plasma for VL testing in resource-limited settings (RLS), especially for children, this study collected 717 DBS and paired plasma samples from children receiving ART ≥1 year in Mozambique and compared the performance of DBS using Abbott's VL test with a paired plasma sample using Roche's VL test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703726/motherhood-and-risk-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-female-sex-workers-in-the-mexico-us-border-region
#16
Argentina E Servin, Elizabeth Reed, Kimberly C Brouwer, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Sabrina Boyce, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jay G Silverman
BACKGROUND: Globally, female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, as women of reproductive age, FSWs also have children. Few studies have investigated if financial responsibilities associated with motherhood increase women's vulnerability to HIV and STIs among FSWs. METHODS: From March 2013 to March 2014, 603 FSWs aged ≥18 years were recruited from Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico) to participate in a study assessing HIV/STI risk environments...
August 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700727/longitudinal-increases-of-brain-metabolite-levels-in-5-10-year-old-children
#17
Martha J Holmes, Frances C Robertson, Francesca Little, Steven R Randall, Mark F Cotton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Barbara Laughton, Ernesta M Meintjes
Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies reveal significant changes in brain structure and structural networks that occur together with cognitive and behavioral maturation in childhood. However, the underlying cellular changes accompanying brain maturation are less understood. Examining regional age-related changes in metabolite levels provides insight into the physiology of neurodevelopment. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures localize brain metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696188/evolution-of-cross-neutralizing-antibodies-and-mapping-epitope-specificity-in-plasma-of-chronic-hiv-1-infected-antiretroviral-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-children-from-india
#18
Muzamil A Makhdoomi, Lubina Khan, Sanjeev Kumar, Heena Aggarwal, Ravinder Singh, Rakesh Lodha, Mohit Singla, Bimal K Das, Sushil K Kabra, Kalpana Luthra
Delineating the factors leading to the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) during natural HIV-1 infection and dissecting their epitope specificities generates useful information for vaccine design. This is the first longitudinal study to assess the plasma-neutralizing antibody response and neutralizing determinants in HIV-1-infected children from India. We enrolled 26 and followed up 20 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve, asymptomatic, chronic HIV-1-infected children. Five (19.2 %) baseline and 10 (50 %) follow-up plasma samples neutralized ≥50 % of subtypes A, B and C tier 2 viruses at an ID50 titre ≥150...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695551/cohort-profile-the-kilombero-and-ulanga-antiretroviral-cohort-kiularco-a-prospective-hiv-cohort-in-rural-tanzania
#19
Emilio Letang, Aneth Vedastus Kalinjuma, Tracy R Glass, Anna Gamell, Herry Mapesi, George Rocky Sikalengo, Lameck Bonaventure Luwanda, Dorcas Mnzava, Alex J Ntamatungiro, Regina Ndaki, Gideon Francis, Fiona Vanobberghen, Hansjakob Furrer, Thomas Klimkait, Ingrid Felger, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Maja Weisser, Manuel Battegay, Kiularco Study Group
BACKGROUND: The Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) is a single-site, open and ongoing prospective cohort of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) established in 2005 at the Chronic Diseases Clinic of Ifakara (CDCI), within the Saint Francis Referral Hospital (SFRH) in Ifakara, Tanzania. The objectives of KIULARCO are to (i) provide patient and cohort-level information on the outcomes of HIV treatment; (ii) provide cohort-level information on opportunistic infections and comorbidities; (iii) evaluate aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and treatment that have national or international policy relevance; (iv) provide a platform for studies on improving HIV care and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa; and (v) contribute to generating local capacity to deal with the challenges posed by the HIV/AIDS pandemic in this region...
July 11, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695282/host-genetic-variation-and-hiv-disease-from-mapping-to-mechanism
#20
REVIEW
Vivek Naranbhai, Mary Carrington
This review aims to provide a summary of current knowledge of host genetic effects on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Mapping of simple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) has been largely successful in HIV, but more complex genetic associations involving haplotypic or epigenetic variation, for example, remain elusive. Mechanistic insights explaining SNP associations are incomplete, but continue to be forthcoming. The number of robust immunogenetic correlates of HIV is modest and their discovery mostly predates the genome-wide era...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
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