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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923290/use-of-adult-sensory-panel-to-study-individual-differences-in-the-palatability-of-a-pediatric-hiv-treatment-drug
#1
Julie A Mennella, Phoebe S Mathew, Elizabeth D Lowenthal
PURPOSE: The recommended first-line treatment for young children infected with HIV includes the liquid formulation of the co-formulated protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra(®) [Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois]). Clinical reports indicate that some children readily accept the taste of Kaletra, whereas others strongly reject it, which can deter therapeutic adherence and outcomes. METHODS: As a proof-of-concept approach, a sensory panel of genotyped adults was used to document the range of individual differences in the taste and palatability (hedonics) of the liquid formulation of Kaletra and other taste stimuli, including common excipients...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922974/the-achilles-heel-of-prevention-to-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-protocol-implementation-uptake-and-sustainability
#2
Violeta J Rodriguez, Richard P LaCabe, C Kyle Privette, K Marie Douglass, Karl Peltzer, Gladys Matseke, Audrey Mathebula, Shandir Ramlagan, Sibusiso Sifunda, Guillermo Willy Prado, Viviana Horigian, Stephen M Weiss, Deborah L Jones
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS proposed to reduce the vertical transmission of HIV from ∼72,200 to ∼8300 newly infected children by 2015 in South Africa (SA). However, cultural, infrastructural, and socio-economic barriers hinder the implementation of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) protocol, and research on potential solutions to address these barriers in rural areas is particularly limited. This study sought to identify challenges and solutions to the implementation, uptake, and sustainability of the PMTCT protocol in rural SA...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919821/prevalence-of-fertility-desire-and-its-associated-factors-among-15-to-49-year-old-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-design
#3
Takele Menna Adilo, Hirut Megerssa Wordofa
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of unprotected sex to satisfy the desire for fertility among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) may rise more due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in most HIV-affected countries. This could, however, have the risk of passing on HIV to sexual partners and children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with the fertility desire of reproductive-age PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for research-based and timely actions...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919115/global-regional-and-national-under-5-mortality-adult-mortality-age-specific-mortality-and-life-expectancy-1970-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#5
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915813/the-relationship-between-burden-of-childhood-disease-and-foreign-aid-for-child-health
#6
J Clay Bavinger, Paul Wise, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease. METHODS: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in children (0-5 years) were obtained from the World Health Organization for 2000 and 2012...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913332/the-impact-of-disclosure-on-health-and-related-outcomes-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-a-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Angela Odiachi
This review explores the association between pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure and health and related outcomes among children living with HIV. A multi-stage process was used to search for relevant articles on the ISI Web of Knowledge database. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Five major outcomes emerged from children's knowledge of their HIV-seropositive status: physical/physiological outcomes; adherence to antiretroviral therapy; psychosocial outcomes; sexual and reproductive health, including HIV prevention outcomes; and disclosure of status by the children...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912368/neurodevelopment-of-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-unexposed-uninfected-children-at-24-months
#8
Sumona Chaudhury, Paige L Williams, Gloria K Mayondi, Jean Leidner, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Sharon Nichols, Jane Magetse, Maureen Sakoi, Kebaiphe Moabi, Joseph Makhema, Charlotte Mdluli, Haruna Jibril, George R Seage, Betsy Kammerer, Shahin Lockman
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine if HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children had worse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months compared with HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children in Botswana. METHODS: HIV-infected and uninfected mothers enrolled in a prospective observational study ("Tshipidi") in Botswana from May 2010 to July 2012. Child neurodevelopment was assessed at 24 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III: cognitive, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, and receptive language domains) and the Development Milestones Checklist (DMC), a caregiver-completed questionnaire (locomotor, fine motor, language and personal-social domains)...
September 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910924/-a-survey-of-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-infections-in-children-aged-1-13-years-in-yi-ethnic-area-sichuan-province
#9
Y Yang, Y B Zhou, W T Cheng, X Pan, X X Song, Q W Jiang
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections in children aged 1-13 years in Yi ethnic area in Sichuan province. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the form of field survey in four townships selected from Yi ethnic area of Sichuan during 2014-2015. Participants were children aged 1-13 years by sample size of 900 and were screened for HIV antibody, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody, and laboratory comfirmation was conducted. The area, age, gender and ethnic group specific infection rates were compared by using Fisher's exact test, and multiple comparisons were corrected by using Bonferroni correction...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910308/pulmonary-hypertension-among-5-to-18-year-old-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia-in-nigeria
#10
Ogochukwu J Sokunbi, Ekanem N Ekure, Edamisan O Temiye, Roosevelt Anyanwu, Christy A N Okoromah
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is a significant cause of mortality in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Few studies on PHT in SCD have been carried out in children. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of PHT in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and determine its clinical and laboratory correlates. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, evaluation involved obtaining bio-data, history and physical examination findings in 175 SCA subjects with haemoglobin genotype SS aged 5 to 18 years and 175 age and sex matched controls with haemoglobin genotype AA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904186/stool-culture-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children
#11
Elisabetta Walters, Anne-Marie Demers, Marieke M van der Zalm, Andrew Whitelaw, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Heather R Draper, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
Bacteriological confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is achieved in the minority of young children with tuberculosis (TB), as specimen collection is resource-intensive and respiratory secretions are mostly paucibacillary, leading to limited sensitivity of available diagnostic tests. Although molecular tests are increasingly available globally, mycobacterial culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of drug susceptibility and is more sensitive than molecular methods for paucibacillary TB...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902004/antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-with-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#13
Giorgia Sulis, Silvia Amadasi, Anna Odone, Martina Penazzato, Alberto Matteelli
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the major cause of mortality in HIV-infected children globally. Current guidelines about the management of antiretroviral therapy in children with tuberculosis are based on a limited number of non-randomized studies involving small numbers of participants. The aim of the study was to systematically retrieve and critically appraise available evidence on the efficacy and safety of different antiretroviral regimens in children with HIV infection who are receiving treatment for active tuberculosis...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#14
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899439/psychological-morbidity-and-parenting-stress-in-mothers-of-primary-school-children-by-timing-of-acquisition-of-hiv-infection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-rural-south-africa
#15
T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland
Longitudinal maternal mental health data are needed from high HIV prevalence settings. The Siyakhula Cohort (SC) is a population-based cohort of HIV-positive and negative mothers (n=1506) with HIV-negative children (n=1536) from rural South Africa. SC includes 767 HIV-negative mothers; 465 HIV-positive in pregnancy; 272 HIV-positive since pregnancy (n=2 missing HIV status). A subgroup (n=890) participated in a non-randomized breastfeeding intervention [Vertical Transmission Study (VTS)]; the remaining (n=616) were resident in the same area and received antenatal care at the time of the VTS, but were not part of the VTS, instead receiving the standard of care Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899415/the-experiences-of-caregivers-of-children-living-with-hiv-and-aids-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#16
Joseph Osafo, Birthe Loa Knizek, James Mugisha, Eugene Kinyanda
BACKGROUND: Home-based care for HIV patients is popular in contexts severely affected by the epidemic and exacts a heavy toll on caregivers. This study aimed at understanding the experiences of caregivers and their survival strategies. METHODS: A total of 18 caregivers (3 males and 15 females) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Analysis suggests that the caregivers are burdened with insecure provisions for food and difficulties in accessing health care...
September 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899102/community-based-antiretroviral-treatment-in-rural-zimbabwe
#17
Benjamin Chimukangara, Justen Manasa, Rebecca Mitchell, Georgina Nyabadza, David Katzenstein, Collen Masimirembwa
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving ART has increased rapidly. However, access to treatment monitoring tools such as viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. We assessed virologic treatment outcomes among ART recipients in Nyamutora, a rural community receiving bimonthly ART and prevention services...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895024/tuberculosis-meningitis
#18
REVIEW
Kassem Bourgi, Christina Fiske, Timothy R Sterling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), TB meningitis disproportionately affects developing countries and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In this report, we review recent updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of TB meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Young children and people living with HIV continue to be at highest risk for TB meningitis. Early diagnosis remains challenging, especially since conventional diagnostic tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity...
September 11, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894986/fertility-intentions-pregnancy-and-use-of-prep-and-art-for-safer-conception-among-east-african-hiv-serodiscordant-couples
#19
Renee Heffron, Kerry Thomson, Connie Celum, Jessica Haberer, Kenneth Ngure, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth Bukusi, Elly Katabira, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Jared M Baeten
African HIV serodiscordant couples often desire pregnancy, despite sexual HIV transmission risk during pregnancy attempts. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce HIV risk and can be leveraged for safer conception but how well these strategies are used for safer conception is not known. We conducted an open-label demonstration project of the integrated delivery of PrEP and ART among 1013 HIV serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda followed quarterly for 2 years. We evaluated fertility intentions, pregnancy incidence, the use of PrEP and ART during peri-conception, and peri-conception HIV incidence...
September 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893759/values-and-preferences-of-women-living-with-hiv-who-are-pregnant-postpartum-or-considering-pregnancy-on-choice-of-antiretroviral-therapy-during-pregnancy
#20
Lyubov Lytvyn, Reed A Siemieniuk, Sophie Dilmitis, Allyson Ion, Yaping Chang, Malgorzata M Bala, Veena Manja, Reza Mirza, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Hassan Mir, Laura Banfield, Per Olav Vandvik, Susan Bewley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate women's values and preferences regarding antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy to inform a BMJ Rapid Recommendation. SETTING: Primary studies reporting patient-reported outcomes relevant to decision-making regarding ART in any clinical and geographical setting. PARTICIPANTS: Women living with HIV who are pregnant, postpartum or considering pregnancy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative measurements and qualitative descriptions of values and preferences in relation to ART during pregnancy...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
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