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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330384/detection-of-apparent-cell-free-m-tuberculosis-dna-from-plasma
#1
E S Click, W Murithi, G S Ouma, K McCarthy, M Willby, S Musau, H Alexander, E Pevzner, J Posey, K P Cain
New diagnostics are needed to improve clinicians' ability to detect tuberculosis (TB) disease in key populations such as children and persons living with HIV and to rapidly detect drug resistance. Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in plasma is a diagnostic target in new obstetric and oncologic applications, but its utility for diagnosing TB is not known. Here we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA can be detected in plasma of persons with sputum smear-positive TB, even in the absence of mycobacteremia...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329299/multi-drug-resistant-non-typhoidal-salmonella-associated-with-invasive-disease-in-western-kenya
#2
Adam Akullian, Joel M Montgomery, Grace John-Stewart, Samuel I Miller, Hillary S Hayden, Matthew C Radey, Kyle R Hager, Jennifer R Verani, John Benjamin Ochieng, Jane Juma, Jim Katieno, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Allan Audi, Judd Walson
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000) between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327419/treatment-interruption-in-hiv-positive-patients-followed-up-in-cameroon-s-antiretroviral-treatment-program-individual-and-healthcare-supply-related-factors-anrs-12288-evolcam-survey
#3
Christelle Tong, Marie Suzan-Monti, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Mohamed Mimi, Christian Laurent, Gwenaëlle Maradan, Marie-Thérèse Mengue, Bruno Spire, Christopher Kuaban, Laurent Vidal, Sylvie Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Decreasing international financial resources for HIV and increasing numbers of antiretroviral treatment (ART) treated patients may jeopardize treatment continuity in low income settings. Using data from the EVOLCam ANRS-12288 survey, this study aimed to document the prevalence of unplanned treatment interruption for more than 2 consecutive days (TI>2d) and investigate associated individual and healthcare supply-related factors within the Cameroonian ART Program. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed methods survey was carried out between April and December 2014 in 19 HIV services of the Center and Littoral regions...
January 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327375/impact-of-hiv-aids-epidemic-on-human-capital-development-in-west-africa
#4
Rasaki Stephen Dauda
West Africa occupies the third position with respect to the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) globally, after Southern and East Africa. About 5 million adults and children are infected with the disease in the subregion, while HIV prevalence in the general population hovers around 2% and 5%. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development in 11 West African countries over the period 1990 to 2011. The study used a dynamic panel data modeling approach, using first difference, difference generalized methods of moment, and system generalized methods of moment estimating techniques...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326000/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-spain-results-obtained-by-the-national-epidemiological-surveillance-network-in-2015
#5
Rosa Cano-Portero, Rocío Amillategui-Dos Santos, Raquel Boix-Martínez, Amparo Larrauri-Cámara
The epidemiological surveillance data for tuberculosis in Spain in 2015 is analysed in this report. This information was gathered through cases reported to the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica [National Epidemiological Surveillance Network]. In addition, the update of the treatment of the cases reported in 2014 is included. The incidence rate of tuberculosis in 2015 was 10.59 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, 10% less than in 2014. This decrease was mainly due to the sustained decreased trend of pulmonary tuberculosis rates, from other locations and in adults, while for cases of tuberculous meningitis and in children the decrease is less marked, with a tendency to stabilization...
January 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324985/urine-tb-lipoarabinomannan-lam-predicts-mortality-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-children
#6
Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Judd L Walson, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart, Patricia Pavlinac
Despite diagnostic performance limitations, urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) predicts death in HIV-infected adults with TB. Pediatric data are limited. Among 137 hospitalized HIV-infected children, mortality was 4.9-fold higher among LAM-positives (127 vs. 31/100 py, aHR 4.92 [95%CI 1.79-13.49]; p=0.002). LAM identifies HIV-infected children at risk for death potentially missed by respiratory sampling.
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323556/modality-of-primary-hiv-disclosure-and-association-with-mental-health-stigma-and-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-tanzanian-youth-living-with-hiv
#7
Julia V Ramos, Blandina T Mmbaga, Elizabeth L Turner, Leonia L Rugalabamu, Severa Luhanga, Coleen K Cunningham, Dorothy E Dow
Disclosing HIV status to children before adolescence is a major challenge facing families and healthcare providers. This study used a mixed methods approach to explore the youth perspective of how youth living with HIV (YLHIV) found out their status and to quantify the association of disclosure modality with mental health, stigma, adherence, and HIV outcomes in adolescence. Youth 11-24 years of age attending adolescent HIV clinic in Moshi, Tanzania were included. Adolescents answered questions, including when and how they found out they had HIV, mental health surveys (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and modified University of California Los Angeles trauma screen), modified Berger's stigma scale, and self-reported adherence...
January 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323435/soluble-cd14-levels-in-plasma-and-breastmilk-of-malawian-hiv-women-lack-of-association-with-morbidity-and-mortality-in-their-exposed-infants
#8
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina M Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Fausto Ciccacci, Sandro Mancinelli, Victor T Tolno, Jane Gondwe, Roberta Amici, Maria C Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Marina Giuliano, Leonardo Palombi, Lucia Palmisano
PROBLEM: Data on soluble CD14 (sCD14) during pregnancy and lactation are scarce. We assessed the levels of sCD14 in plasma and breastmilk of Malawian HIV-positive women and evaluated the possible association with morbidity and mortality in the HIV-exposed children. METHOD OF STUDY: One hundred and forty-nine mother/child pairs were studied. Women received antiretroviral therapy from 26 weeks of gestation to at least 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. sCD14 concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320547/dyslipidemia-chronic-inflammation-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-children-and-adolescents-infected-with-hiv-the-posithive-health-study
#9
Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Edio Luiz Petroski, Yara Maria Franco Moreno, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Erasmo Benício de Moraes Santos Trindade, Aroldo Prohmann de Carvalho, Isabela de Carlos Back
HIV-infected children and adolescents may be at risk for cardiovascular disease due to chronic inflammation and exacerbation of risk factors. The aim of this study was as follows: 1) compare cardiovascular risk factors, chronic inflammation, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMTc) between the HIV and control groups; 2) determine the association of HIV and antiretroviral (ART) regimens with cardiovascular risk factors, chronic inflammation, and IMTc; and 3) identify variables associated with elevated IMTc...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320464/sti-knowledge-in-berlin-adolescents
#10
Frederik Tilmann von Rosen, Antonella Juline von Rosen, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider, Inken Damberg, Peter Tinnemann
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) pose a significant threat to individual and public health. They disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed self-rated and factual STI knowledge in a sample of 9th graders in 13 secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. Differences by age, gender, migrant background, and school type were quantified using bivariate and multivariable analyses. A total of 1177 students in 61 classes participated. The mean age was 14.6 (SD = 0...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318600/modern-contraceptive-use-among-women-living-with-hiv-aids-at-the-korle-bu-teaching-hospital-in-ghana
#11
Ali Samba, Kareem Mumuni, Joseph A Adu, Promise E Sefogah, William Kudzi, Edmund T Nartey
OBJECTIVE: To examine factors influencing contraceptive use among women living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study included a randomly selected sample of sexually active females aged 15-60 years who were living with HIV/AIDS and receiving care at the HIV Clinic, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, between September 1 and November 31, 2016. Data were collected via a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Among 202 women who completed the survey, 50 (24...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317556/hepatitis-b-vaccination-strategy-in-hiv-infected-children
#12
Pooja Dewan, Piyush Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317437/infant-feeding-practices-among-hiv-exposed-infants-less-than-6-months-of-age-in-bomet-county-kenya-an-in-depth-qualitative-study-of-feeding-choices
#13
Purity Chepkorir Lang'at, Irene Ogada, Audrey Steenbeek, Noni E MacDonald, Sophie Ochola, Wesley Bor, Godfrey Odinga
BACKGROUND: In children, HIV can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy, delivery and through breast milk. The WHO recommends exclusive breast feeding or exclusive replacement feeding for the first 6 months after birth for HIV-exposed infants. Barriers such as HIV-related stigma, inadequate resources, lack of access to safe water and negative cultural beliefs have been shown to influence infant feeding among HIV-exposed infants in some settings. In Kenya, there is limited literature on the barriers...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316511/young-africans-social-representations-of-rape-in-their-hiv-related-creative-narratives-2005-2014-rape-myths-and-alternative-narratives
#14
Robyn Singleton, Kate Winskell, Siphiwe Nkambule-Vilakati, Gaëlle Sabben
Sexual violence is both a major human rights issue and an important driver of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. While quantitative indicators of sexual violence have evolved to facilitate cross-national comparison and country-level decision making, qualitative findings typically remain constrained to single sites and populations. We analyzed social representations of sexual violence, specifically rape, in a sample of 1446 narratives about HIV written by young Africans between 2005 and 2014. The narratives were written at 5 discrete time points (2005, 2008, 2011, 2013 and 2014) by equal numbers of males and females aged 10-24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal...
December 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311233/characterization-and-protective-efficacy-of-type-three-secretion-proteins-as-a-broadly-protective-subunit-vaccine-against-salmonella-enterica-serovars
#15
Francisco J Martinez-Becerra, Prashant Kumar, Vikalp Vishwakarma, Jae Hyun Kim, Olivia Arizmendi, C Russell Middaugh, William D Picking, Wendy L Picking
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serotypes (NTS) are the leading cause of hospitalization and death due to foodborne illnesses. NTS are the costliest of the foodborne pathogens and cause ∼$4 billion annually in healthcare costs. In Africa, new invasive NTS are the leading cause of bacteremia especially in HIV-positive children and adults. Current vaccines against S. enterica are not broadly protective and most are directed at the typhoid causing serotypes, not the NTS. All S. enterica require two type III secretion systems (T3SS) for virulence...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306170/early-age-at-childhood-parental-incarceration-and-sti-hiv-related-drug-use-and-sex-risk-across-the-young-adult-lifecourse-in-the-us-heightened-vulnerability-of-black-and-hispanic-youth
#16
Maria R Khan, Joy D Scheidell, David L Rosen, Amanda Geller, Laurie M Brotman
BACKGROUND: We measured associations between parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk, assessing differences by race, age at first parental incarceration, and potential mediators of the relationship. METHODS: We used Waves I (adolescence), III (young adulthood), and IV (adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,884) to measure associations between age of parental incarceration (never; <8; 8-17; ≥18 years old) and marijuana and cocaine use, multiple partnerships, and STI in adolescence and adulthood among white, Black, and Hispanic participants and assessed mediation by sexual and physical abuse, mental disorder symptoms, and drug use...
November 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304247/resistance-and-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-tuberculosis-households-in-kampala-uganda
#17
Catherine M Stein, Sarah Zalwango, LaShaunda L Malone, Bonnie Thiel, Ezekiel Mupere, Mary Nsereko, Brenda Okware, Hussein Kisingo, Christina L Lancioni, Charles M Bark, Christopher C Whalen, Moses L Joloba, W Henry Boom, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major public health problem. Household contact studies identify children and adults along the spectrum from Mtb exposure to disease. In the Kawempe Community Health Study, conducted in Kampala, Uganda, 872 culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases and their 2,585 contacts were enrolled between 2002-2012 and followed for up to 2 years each. Risk factors identified by time-to-event analysis for secondary TB differed among children, women and men...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303843/cognition-emotional-health-and-immunological-markers-in-children-with-long-term-nonprogressive-hiv
#18
Robert Paul, Tanakorn Apornpong, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Vonthanak Saphonn, Linda Aurpibul, Pope Kosalaraksa, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Wicharn Luesomboon, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Tulathip Suwanlerk, Kea Chettra, William T Shearer, Victor Valcour, Jintanat Ananworanich, Stephen Kerr
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected children with long-term nonprogressive disease (LTNPs) eventually convert to a progressive disease type, yet the extent to which these children experience the cognitive and emotional symptoms observed in typical progressive HIV (Progressors) is unknown. METHODS: Eighty-eight LTNPs, 53 Progressors, and 323 healthy controls completed annual assessments of cognitive and emotional health as part of a prospective study. The two HIV-infected groups and the healthy controls were matched on age and sex distribution at enrollment...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302563/hemiplegia-as-a-presentation-of-hiv-infection-in-children-a-report-of-3-cases
#19
Ira Shah, Sneha Nandy, Renu Kumari
Strokes are a rare neurological manifestation of HIV infection in children with multifactorial etiologies. We present three HIV-infected children who presented to us with stroke out of which two had cerebral infarcts and who responded to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Third patient had tuberculous meningitis who was lost to follow-up before ART could be initiated.
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302524/prevalence-of-hiv-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-mumbai-india-experience-from-1993-2004-and-2008
#20
Ira Shah, Mamatha Lala, Kaizad Damania
Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic from 1993 onward were tested for HIV infection by ELISA test after pretest counseling...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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