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Antiretrovirals in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656449/regimen-durability-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-initiating-first-line-art-in-a-large-public-sector-hiv-cohort-in-south-africa
#1
Rachael Bonawitz, Alana T Brennan, Lawrence Long, Timothy Heeren, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Matthew P Fox
INTRODUCTION: In April 2010 tenofovir and abacavir replaced stavudine in public-sector first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children under 20 years old in South Africa. The association of both abacavir and tenofovir with fewer side-effects and toxicities compared to stavudine could translate to increased durability of tenofovir or abacavir-based regimens. We evaluated changes over time in regimen durability for pediatric patients 3 to 19 years of age at 8 public sector clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa...
April 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652972/-genetic-analysis-of-the-mutations-in-hiv-1-infected-population-in-ecuador
#2
Manuel González-González, Consuelo Correa-Sierra, Katherine Hermida-Álava, Ana Machado-Díaz, L Fernando Gómez-Andrade, Martha Castillo-Segovia, C Lissette Pérez-Santos, Vivian Kourí-Cardellá
Background The international recommendations of antiretroviral treatment include resistance tests to guide the treatment regimen in each patient, which is not available on a regular basis in Ecuador. Aim To describe mutations that confer resistance to antiretrovirals in a population of Ecuadorian patients. Methods Plasma samples from 101 HIV-1 patients with failure to antiretroviral therapy, divided into 15 children and 86 adults, were studied with the GS Junior (Roche) and the sequences were analyzed with the DeepChek program...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649264/age-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-and-cell-associated-hiv-1-dna-levels-in-hiv-1-infected-children
#3
Louise Kuhn, Maria Paximadis, Bianca Da Costa Dias, Shayne Loubser, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Stephanie Shiau, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams, Caroline T Tiemessen
BACKGROUND: The latent viral reservoir is the major obstacle to achieving HIV remission and necessitates life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected individuals. Studies in adults and children have found that initiating ART soon after infection is associated with a reduction in the size of the HIV-1 reservoir. Here we quantified cell-associated HIV-1 DNA in early-treated but currently older HIV-infected children suppressed on ART. METHODS: The study participants comprised of a cohort of 146 early-treated children with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml enrolled as part of a clinical trial in Johannesburg, South Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630031/elevated-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-in-filtered-plasma-is-associated-with-hiv-infection-and-inflammation
#4
Omair Arshad, Izabella Gadawska, Beheroze Sattha, Hélène C F Côté, Anthony Y Y Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Increased cell-free DNA levels are associated with poor health outcomes, and cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) has proinflammatory properties. Given that HIV infection is associated with chronic inflammation, we investigated the relationship between cf-mtDNA and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the context of HIV infection. We also optimized separation of cell-free plasma from blood. SETTING: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we collected blood, demographic information, and clinical data from 99 HIV-infected and 103 HIV-uninfected adults and children enrolled in the Children and Women: AntiRetrovirals and Markers of Aging pan-Canadian (CARMA) cohort...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629663/the-effect-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-use-among-hiv-positive-children-on-the-hazard-of-aids-using-calendar-year-as-an-instrumental-variable
#5
Andrew Anglemyer, Amy Sturt, Yvonne Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Instrumental variable (IV) analyses are a common causal inference technique used in the absence of randomized data. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was first introduced in 1996 and calendar periods have been used as a proxy for cART use. However, cART use misclassification can bias IV analyses. OBJECTIVE: We aim to highlight the differences in effects of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes between applications of traditional and adapted IV analysis techniques...
April 9, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626042/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-failure-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-in-amhara-regional-state-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#6
Malede Mequanent Sisay, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw, Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Melkitu Fentie Melak
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors of treatment failure among HIV/AIDS-infected children who were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted from January 2010 to March 2016. A total of 824 children under the age of 15 who had started ART were included in the study. Data were collected from children's medical charts and ART registration logbook using a standard checklist...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625591/neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-early-treated-hiv-infected-children-study-protocol
#7
Renate Strehlau, Tamryn van Aswegen, Joanne Potterton
OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of children at risk of not achieving their developmental potential, attributable largely to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic coupled with negative environmental factors. Childhood developmental stimulation programmes can mitigate adverse outcomes. METHODS: Neonates testing HIV positive at birth will be initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and receive an age-appropriate stimulation program, updated at 3 monthly intervals through the first year of life...
April 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623447/decreased-bone-turnover-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Stephanie Shiau, Michael T Yin, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileka Mbete, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Stephen M Arpadi
In this study, we evaluated the relationships between immune activation, bone turnover, and bone mass in virally suppressed HIV-infected children and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. We found that decreased bone mass may occur or persist independent of immune activation and altered bone turnover. PURPOSE: HIV-infected children and adolescents have deficits in skeletal growth which include decreases in bone mass and alterations in bone microarchitecture. However, the mechanism by which HIV infection compromises bone accrual in children and adolescents is unclear...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621302/factors-associated-with-death-and-loss-to-follow-up-in-children-on-antiretroviral-care-in-mingalardon-specialist-hospital-myanmar-2006-2016
#9
Kay Khaing Kaung Nyunt, Wai Wai Han, Srinath Satyanarayana, Petros Isaakidis, San Hone, Aye Aye Khaing, Hoa Nguyen Binh, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: Myanmar National AIDS programme's priority is to improve the survival of all people living with HIV by providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) care. More than 7200 children (aged <15 years) have been enrolled into ART care from 2005 to 2016. A previous study showed that ~11% children on ART care had either died or were lost to follow-up by 60 months. Factors associated with death and lost-to follow-up (adverse outcomes) have not been previously studied. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between demographic and clinical characteristics at enrollment into ART care with adverse outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617438/lipoatrophy-lipohypertrophy-outcomes-after-antiretroviral-therapy-switch-in-children-in-the-uk-ireland
#10
Steve Innes, Justin Harvey, Intira Jeannie Collins, Mark Fredric Cotton, Ali Judd
BACKGROUND: Following widespread use of stavudine, a thymidine analogue, in antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past three decades, up to a third of children developed lipoatrophy (LA) and/or lipohypertrophy (LH). Following phasing-out of stavudine, incidence of newly-diagnosed LA and LH declined dramatically. However, the natural history of existing cases should be explored, particularly with prolonged protease inhibitor exposure. METHODS: The Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study (CHIPS) is a multicentre cohort study of most HIV-infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616646/morbidity-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-togo
#11
A Mouhari-Touré, G Mahamadou, K Kombate, A S Akakpo, J N Teclessou, A Singo, P Pitché
the aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and morbidity of HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Togo. this is a retrospective study of HIV-infected children on HAART in the 25 largest centers of HIV/AIDS care in Togo. the study included 1861 children (sex-ratio=0.99). Among them, 35.6 % were in WHO clinical stages 3 or 4 at the beginning of HAART. The most common opportunistic infections were coughing and pneumonia (37.1 %), gastroenteritis (11.3 %), various bacterial infections (10...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604987/neuroaids-in-children
#12
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596110/cardiac-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children
#13
James D Wilkinson, Paige L Williams, Wendy Yu, Steven D Colan, Armando Mendez, Justin P V Zachariah, Russell B Van Dyke, William T Shearer, Renee E Margossian, Steven E Lipshultz
OBJECTIVES: To compare distributions of serum cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers between perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) children, to evaluate their associations with echocardiographic measures, and among PHIV youth, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV disease severity measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of temporally paired serum samples for biomarkers and echocardiograms in a prospective multicenter cohort study of PHIV and PHEU youth...
March 28, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587791/sexual-and-reproductive-health-behavior-and-unmet-needs-among-a-sample-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zambia-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Sumiyo Okawa, Sylvia Mwanza-Kabaghe, Mwiya Mwiya, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Masamine Jimba, Chipepo Kankasa, Naoko Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV face challenges, such as disclosure of HIV status, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH). These challenges affect their future quality of life. However, little evidence is available on their sexual behaviors and SRH needs in Zambia. This study aimed at assessing their sexual behaviors and SRH needs and identifying factors associated with marriage concerns and a desire to have children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from April to July 2014...
March 27, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587719/nurse-led-home-based-care-for-people-with-hiv-aids
#15
Elizabeth M Wood, Babalwa Zani, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: Home-based care is used in many countries to increase quality of life and limit hospital stay, particularly where public health services are overburdened. Home-based care objectives for HIV/AIDS can include medical care, delivery of antiretroviral treatment and psychosocial support. This review assesses the effects of home-based nursing on morbidity in people infected with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The trials studied are in HIV positive adults and children, regardless of sex or setting and all randomised controlled...
March 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579247/reduced-fecundity-in-hiv-positive-women
#16
A Gemmill, S E K Bradley, S van der Poel
STUDY QUESTION: Is HIV associated with increased time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: HIV-positive women who discontinue a contraceptive method to become pregnant have increased TTP, particularly among those who likely do not know their status. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: HIV-positive women have fewer children on average than their HIV-negative counterparts due to both behavioral and biological factors. There is a need to better describe and quantify fecundity patterns associated with HIV in the general population...
March 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576815/modification-of-initial-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-regimen-in-paediatric-hiv-patients
#17
Yee Shan Low, Farida Islahudin, Kamarul Azahar Mohd Razali, Shafnah Adnan
Background: Treatment options among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected children are limited as only a few Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) are approved worldwide for paediatric use. Among children, frequent changes in HAART regimen can rapidly exhaust treatment options, and information addressing this issue is scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with the modification of initial HAART regimen modification among HIV-infected children...
2018: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575050/impact-of-hiv-infection-and-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-on-b-cell-subpopulations-in-children
#18
Ravinder Singh, Aparna Mukherjee, Mohit Singla, Madhu Vajpayee, Neema Negi, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Bimal Kumar Das
Background B-cells play an important role in defending children against various infections. In view of scare data, we undertook this prospective cohort study to describe B cell compartment in HIV infected children (<5 years of age) and the effect of HAART on B cell subpopulations. Methods HIV infected children (<5 years) from Pediatric HIV services of the Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were recruited (April 2012 to December 2015). The enrolled HAART naive HIV-1 infected children (n = 59) were followed up regularly for 12 months; healthy controls (n = 51) included HIV uninfected children with no major illness...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547438/multi-type-violence-exposures-and-adolescent-antiretroviral-non-adherence-in-south-africa
#19
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Elona Toska, F Mark Orkin, Rebecca J Hodes, Lorraine Sherr
OBJECTIVE(S): HIV-positive adolescents have low ART-adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART-adherence with adolescent violence victimisation by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547434/in-utero-exposure-to-antiretrovirals-and-neurodevelopment-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-botswana
#20
Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
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