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Antiretrovirals in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040633/prevalence-of-pre-antiretroviral-treatment-drug-resistance-by-gender-age-and-other-factors-in-hiv-infected-individuals-initiating-therapy-in-kenya-2013-2014
#1
Rachel A Silverman, Ingrid A Beck, Catherine Kiptinness, Molly Levine, Ross Milne, Christine J McGrath, Steve Bii, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Bhavna Chohan, Samah R Sakr, James N Kiarie, Lisa M Frenkel, Michael H Chung
Background: Pre-antiretroviral-treatment drug resistance (PDR) is a predictor of HIV treatment failure. We determined PDR-prevalence and correlates in a Kenyan cohort. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-eligible HIV-infected participants in 2013-2014 at three clinics. PDR was defined as ≥2% mutant-frequency in a participant's HIV-quasispecies at pol codons K103N, Y181C, G190A, M184 V, or K65R by oligonucleotide ligation assay...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040162/aids-defining-events-and-deaths-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-on-antiretrovirals-a-14-year-study-in-thailand
#2
Patrinee Traisathit, Tristan Delory, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Rosalin Somsamai, Pornchai Techakunakorn, Sookchai Theansavettrakul, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Jutarat Mekmullica, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Sathaporn Na-Rajsima, Marc Lallemant, Tim R Cressey, Gonzague Jourdain, Intira Jeannie Collins, Sophie Le Coeur
BACKGROUND: Data are scarce on the long-term clinical outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low/middle-income countries. We assessed the incidence of mortality before (early) and after (late) 6-month of ART and of the composite outcome of new/recurrent AIDS-defining-event or death >6 months after ART start (late AIDS/death) and their associated factors. METHODS: Study population was perinatally HIV-infected children (≤18 years) initiating ART within the Program for HIV Prevention and Treatment observational cohort (NCT00433030)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033797/white-matter-abnormalities-in-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure
#3
Marcin Jankiewicz, Martha J Holmes, Paul A Taylor, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Background: Due to changes in guidelines and access to treatment, more children start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infancy. With few studies examining the long-term effects of perinatal HIV infection and early ART on neurodevelopment, much is still unknown about brain maturation in the presence of HIV and ART. Follow-up studies of HIV infected (HIV+) children are important for monitoring brain development in the presence of HIV infection and ART. Methods: We use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) in 65 HIV+ and 46 control (HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed uninfected (HU)) 7-year-old children...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029130/alternative-sample-types-for-hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-testing
#4
Dolly Singh, Adit Dhummakupt, Lilly Siems, Deborah Persaud
Monitoring human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance is critical for assessing ART effectiveness and treatment outcomes for HIV-1-infected individuals, including children, worldwide. Traditionally, testing for HIV-1 drug resistance has primarily been performed on plasma samples, and with commercially available, clinically validated assays that are costly and difficult to access. While plasma is the preferred sample for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping, plasma analysis requires sophisticated laboratory equipment, personnel, space, and stringent storage conditions for maintenance of sample integrity and transport...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029056/time-to-switch-to-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-children-with-hiv-in-europe-and-thailand
#5
Intira Jeannie Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023355/utility-of-mobile-communication-devices-as-a-tool-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-infected-children-and-young-adults-in-argentina
#6
Erica Stankievich, Adriana Malanca, Irene Foradori, Silvina Ivalo, Marcelo Losso
BACKGROUND: Optimal adherence is critical to achieve the benefits of antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of the study is to evaluate the use of mobile devices as a strategy to improve adherence to ART, measured by Viral Load (VL) in HIV+ patients less than 25 years of age. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a cohort of HIV+ patients less than 25 years of age. HIV+ patients, on ART, VL >1000 copies/mL, using mobile devices and suboptimal adherence (SOA) were included...
October 7, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#7
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020335/hiv-drug-resistance-in-african-infants-and-young-children-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-a-multicounty-analysis
#8
Michael R Jordan, Martina Penazzato, Amandine Cournil, Adolfo Vubil, Ilesh Jani, Gillian Hunt, Sergio Carmona, Gugu Maphalala, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Christine Watera, Pontiano Kaleebu, Christine Chakanyuka Musanhu, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Janet Dzangare, Martine Peeters, Chunfu Yang, Neil Parkin, Silvia Bertagnolio
Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs have been scaled-up in many low- and middle-income countries; however, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) data amongst HIV-1-infected young children remain limited. Methods: Surveys of pre-treatment HIVDR amongst children younger than 18 months of age who were diagnosed with HIV through Early Infant Diagnosis were conducted in five sub-Saharan African countries (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe) between 2011 and 2014 following World Health Organization guidance...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020237/hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-chest-radiographic-and-high-resolution-computed-tomography-findings
#9
Sujal R Desai, Arjun Nair, Jamie Rylance, Hilda Mujuru, Kusum Nathoo, Grace McHugh, Edith Majonga, John Metcalfe, Katharina Kranzer, Rashida A Ferrand
Background: Chronic respiratory symptoms are common among children living with HIV. We investigated the radiological features of chronic lung disease in children aged 6 to 16 years taking antiretroviral therapy for at least six months in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods: Consecutive participants from a HIV clinic underwent clinical assessment and chest radiography (CXR). Participants with an abnormal CXR (assessed by a clinician) and/or those meeting a clinical case definition for chronic lung disease (CLD) underwent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016634/conventional-early-infant-diagnosis-in-lesotho-from-specimen-collection-to-results-usage-to-manage-patients-where-are-the-bottlenecks
#10
Appolinaire Tiam, Michelle M Gill, Heather J Hoffman, Anthony Isavwa, Mafusi Mokone, Matokelo Foso, Jeffrey T Safrit, Lynne M Mofenson, Thorkild Tylleskär, Laura Guay
INTRODUCTION: Early infant diagnosis is an important step in identifying children infected with HIV during the perinatal period or in utero. Multiple factors contribute to delayed antiretroviral treatment initiation for HIV-infected children, including delays in the early infant HIV diagnosis cascade. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate early infant diagnosis turnaround times in Lesotho. Trained staff reviewed records of HIV-exposed infants (aged-6-8 weeks) who received an HIV test during 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991913/diagnosis-disclosure-to-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-rural-kenya-improves-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-and-immunologic-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Gregg Joseph Montalto, Fredrick K Sawe, Argwings Miruka, Jonah Maswai, Ignatius Kiptoo, Appolonia Aoko, Chrispine Oreyo, Eunice Obiero, Sheila Korir, Stephen K Bii, Katherine X Song, Anjali N Kunz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emphasis on adolescent HIV has increased worldwide as antiretroviral treatment has greatly extended life expectancies of HIV-positive children. Few evidence-based guidelines exist on the optimal time to disclose to an adolescent living with HIV (ALHIV); little is known about the medical effects of disclosure. This study looked to determine whether disclosure is associated with improved medical outcomes in ALHIV. Prior work has tended to be qualitative, cross-sectional, and with an emphasis on psychosocial outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991889/trends-in-drug-resistance-prevalence-hiv-1-variants-and-clinical-status-in-hiv-1-infected-pediatric-population-in-madrid-1993-2015-analysis
#12
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Sara Domínguez, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Luis Prieto, Pablo Rojo, Pepa Mellado, Marisa Navarro, Rafael Delgado, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The expanded use of long-term antiretroviral treatments in infected children may exacerbate the problem of drug resistance mutations (HIVDR) selection, which can compromise treatment efficiency. OBJECTIVE: We describe the temporal trends of HIVDR and the HIV-1 variants during 23 years (1993-March 2016) in the Madrid cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected patients with at least one available HIV-1 pol sequence/genotypic resistance profile, establishing different groups according to the sampling year of first resistance data...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988435/triple-therapy-of-vincristine-bleomycin-and-etoposide-for-children-with-kaposi-sarcoma-results-of-a-study-in-malawian-children
#13
Marita Macken, Helen Dale, Dominic Moyo, Eunice Chakmata, Sarita Depani, Trijn Israels, Dalida Niyrenda, Simon Bailey, George Chagaluka, Elizabeth M Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common paediatric cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic countries of sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little research on management and outcomes. METHODS: Children with KS at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi treated between August 2012 and March 2015 with six courses of vincristine, bleomycin and etoposide combination chemotherapy, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) if HIV infected, were studied and outcomes compared with previously reported results...
October 8, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982364/utilization-of-dual-contraception-method-among-reproductive-age-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-selected-public-hospitals-of-northern-ethiopia
#14
Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot, Gedion Asnake Azeze, Carmen C Robles, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent among pregnant women in Africa. Among the incidence of HIV infection in children, 90% of the infection is attributable to their mothers. Ethiopia is one of the countries with an increasing risky sexual behavior and the most affected by the HIV epidemic. If prevention of mother to child transmission focuses on increasing contraception, it will prevent more than 29% of HIV infection at birth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess utilization of dual contraceptive  method and associated factors among reproductive age women on antiretroviral therapy in selected public hospitals of Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia...
October 5, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979264/thymic-output-and-cd4-t-cell-reconstitution-in-hiv-infected-children-on-early-and-interrupted-antiretroviral-treatment-evidence-from-the-children-with-hiv-early-antiretroviral-therapy-trial
#15
Joanna Lewis, Helen Payne, A Sarah Walker, Kennedy Otwombe, Diana M Gibb, Abdel G Babiker, Ravindre Panchia, Mark F Cotton, Avy Violari, Nigel Klein, Robin E Callard
OBJECTIVES: Early treatment of HIV-infected children and adults is important for optimal immune reconstitution. Infants' immune systems are more plastic and dynamic than older children's or adults', and deserve particular attention. This study aimed to understand the response of the HIV-infected infant immune system to early antiretroviral therapy (ART) and planned ART interruption and restart. METHODS: Data from HIV-infected children enrolled the CHER trial, starting ART aged between 6 and 12 weeks, were used to explore the effect of ART on immune reconstitution...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971710/women-s-decision-making-and-uptake-of-services-to-prevent-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-zambia
#16
Catherine Ford, Carla J Chibwesha, Jennifer Winston, Choolwe Jacobs, Mwansa Ketty Lubeya, Patrick Musonda, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Benjamin H Chi
Women's empowerment is associated with engagement in some areas of healthcare, but its role in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services has not been previously considered. In this secondary analysis, we investigated the association of women's decision-making and uptake of health services for PMTCT. Using data from population-based household surveys, we included women who reported delivery in the 2-year period prior to the survey and were HIV-infected. We measured a woman's self-reported role in decision-making in her own healthcare, making of large purchases, schooling of children, and healthcare for children...
October 3, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964291/hiv-status-and-hearing-loss-among-children-between-6-and-12-years-of-age-at-a-large-urban-health-facility-in-south-western-uganda
#17
Doreen Nakku, Victoria Nyaiteera, Evelyn Llowet, Dennis Nanseera, Gladys Nakalema, Brian Westerberg, Francis Bajunirwe
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric HIV infection and treatment may increase the risk for hearing loss (HL), both sensorineural (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL). There is limited data on this subject, especially from sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among HIV positive and negative children, to determine the types of hearing loss and whether Nevirapine (NVP) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with HL. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study at two tertiary health facilities in south western Uganda...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961675/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-colonization-and-impact-of-a-single-dose-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-indian-children-with-hiv-and-their-unvaccinated-parents
#18
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Feroze Ganaie, Arun Bhaskar, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, K L Ravikumar, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal
BACKGROUND: HIV infection increases risk of invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) prevent invasive disease and acquisition of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcus in the nasopharynx. OBJECTIVE: To look at the safety and impact of one dose of PCV13 on acquisition of VT pneumococcal carriage in Indian children with HIV. METHOD: We conducted a cohort study in families of HIV-infected children (CLH) and families of HIV-uninfected children (HUC) in West Bengal...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955330/perturbation-of-b-cell-gene-expression-persists-in-hiv-infected-children-despite-effective-antiretroviral-therapy-and-predicts-h1n1-response
#19
Nicola Cotugno, Lesley De Armas, Suresh Pallikkuth, Stefano Rinaldi, Biju Issac, Alberto Cagigi, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma, Savita Pahwa
Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected individuals with apparently similar clinical and immunological characteristics can vary in responsiveness to vaccinations. However, molecular mechanisms responsible for such impairment, as well as biomarkers able to predict vaccine responsiveness in HIV-infected children, remain unknown. Following the hypothesis that a B cell qualitative impairment persists in HIV-infected children (HIV) despite effective ART and phenotypic B cell immune reconstitution, the aim of the current study was to investigate B cell gene expression of HIV compared to age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and to determine whether distinct gene expression patterns could predict the ability to respond to influenza vaccine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953325/multicentre-analysis-of-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-infected-children-adolescents-at-high-risk-of-failure
#20
Ragna S Boerma, Torsak Bunupuradah, Dorothy Dow, Joseph Fokam, Azar Kariminia, Dara Lehman, Cissy Kityo, Victor Musiime, Paul Palumbo, Annelot Schoffelen, Sam Sophan, Brian Zanoni, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Job C J Calis, Kim C E Sigaloff
INTRODUCTION: The number of HIV-infected children and adolescents requiring second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, the effectiveness of paediatric second-line ART and potential risk factors for virologic failure are poorly characterized. We performed an aggregate analysis of second-line ART outcomes for children and assessed the need for paediatric third-line ART. METHODS: We performed a multicentre analysis by systematically reviewing the literature to identify cohorts of children and adolescents receiving second-line ART in LMIC, contacting the corresponding study groups and including patient-level data on virologic and clinical outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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