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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819501/hiv-infected-adolescents-have-low-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-cross-sectional-study-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#1
Naod Firdu, Fikre Enquselassie, Degu Jerene
INTRODUCTION: For antiretroviral therapy (ART) to work effectively, adherence is very crucial. However, most studies done on ART adherence are either on children or on adults. There is limited information on the level of adherence among adolescents. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we interviewed 273 HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART from three hospitals in Addis Ababa. We used a structured questionnaire to measure adherence levels using patient self-reports...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813256/parenting-and-hiv
#2
REVIEW
Tamsen Rochat, Elena Netsi, Stephanie Redinger, Alan Stein
With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#3
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807188/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-mortality-in-children-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#4
Peter J Dodd, Courtney M Yuen, Charalambos Sismanidis, James A Seddon, Helen E Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis in children is increasingly recognised as an important component of the global tuberculosis burden, with an estimated 1 million cases in 2015. Although younger children are vulnerable to severe forms of tuberculosis disease, no age-disaggregated estimates of paediatric tuberculosis mortality exist, and tuberculosis has never been included in official estimates of under-5 child mortality. We aimed to produce a global mortality burden estimate in children using a complementary approach not dependent on vital registration data...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800382/suboptimal-cotrimoxazole-prophylactic-concentrations-in-hiv-infected-children-according-to-the-who-guidelines
#5
C Pressiat, V Mea-Assande, C Yonaba, J-M Treluyer, D-L Dahourou, M Amorissani-Folquet, S Blanche, F Eboua, D Ye, G Lui, K Malateste, Y Zheng, V Leroy, D Hirt
AIMS: A clinical study was conduct in HIV-infected children to evaluate the prophylactic doses of cotrimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP)) advised by WHO. METHODS: Children received lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (200 mg of SMX/ 40 mg of TMP once daily). Nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach was used to analyze plasma concentrations. Factors that could impact the pharmacokinetic profile were investigate...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800335/an-overview-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-common-neurological-complications-does-aging-pose-a-challenge
#6
Anantha Ram Nookala, Joy Mitra, Nitish S Chaudhari, Muralidhar L Hegde, Anil Kumar
With increasing survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the manifestation of heterogeneous neurological complications is also increasing alarmingly in these patients. Currently, more than 30% of about 40 million HIV-1 infected people worldwide develop central nervous system (CNS)-associated dysfunction, including dementia, sensory, and motor neuropathy. Furthermore, the highly effective antiretroviral therapy has been shown to increase the prevalence of mild cognitive functions while reducing other HIV-1-associated neurological complications...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799999/features-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-in-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv
#7
Andrew W McCrary, Chidozie U Nduka, Saverio Stranges, Gerald S Bloomfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article addresses crucial issues in identifying risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with HIV in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). These issues are in need of urgent attention to advance our knowledge and inform actions to mitigate CVD in this population. We address CVDs in adults living with HIV as well as the unique aspects pertaining to children living with HIV (CLHIV), a group sorely under-represented in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: CVDs affecting adults such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and heart failure, in addition to myocardial dysfunction, vascular diseases, and autoimmune phenomena are also being reported in CLHIV...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789674/hiv-status-and-treatment-influence-on-fertility-desires-among-women-newly-becoming-eligible-for-antiretroviral-therapy-in-western-kenya-insights-from-a-qualitative-study
#8
James Ayieko, Angeline Ti, Jill Hagey, Eliud Akama, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Rena C Patel
BACKGROUND: Factors influencing fertility desires among HIV-infected individuals remain poorly understood. With new recommendations for universal HIV treatment and increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, we sought to evaluate how access to early ART influences fertility desires among HIV-infected ART-naïve women. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with a select subgroup of 20 HIV-infected ART-naïve women attending one of 13 HIV facilities in western Kenya between July and August 2014 who would soon newly become eligible to initiate ART based on the latest national policy recommendations...
August 8, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774873/a-growth-reference-for-mid-upper-arm-circumference-for-age-among-school-age-children-and-adolescents-and-validation-for-mortality-growth-curve-construction-and-longitudinal-cohort-study
#9
Lazarus Mramba, Moses Ngari, Martha Mwangome, Lilian Muchai, Evasius Bauni, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb, Gregory Fegan, James A Berkley
Objectives To construct growth curves for mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC)-for-age z score for 5-19 year olds that accord with the World Health Organization growth standards, and to evaluate their discriminatory performance for subsequent mortality.Design Growth curve construction and longitudinal cohort study.Setting United States and international growth data, and cohorts in Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.Participants The Health Examination Survey (HES)/National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) US population datasets (age 5-25 years), which were used to construct the 2007 WHO growth reference for body mass index in this age group, were merged with an imputed dataset matching the distribution of the WHO 2006 growth standards age 2-6 years...
August 3, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#10
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761601/childhood-tuberculosis-management-and-treatment-outcomes-among-children-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Zemene Tigabu Kebede, Belaynew Wasie Taye, Yohannes Hailu Matebe
INTRODUCTION: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) treatment is becoming a major challenge in the TB control efforts of the Ethiopian health system. This study assessed childhood tuberculosis management, and treatment outcomes among children who completed anti-TB treatment in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children who completed their anti-TB treatment in Gondar University Referral Hospital and 6 satellite health centers. Data from each child with tuberculosis were obtained from review of medical records...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758024/serum-lipid-and-glucose-profiles-in-hiv-positive-nigerian-children
#12
EDITORIAL
Olukemi O Ige, Christopher S Yilgwan, Augustine O Ebonyi, Ruth Adah, Idris Adedeji, Esther S Yiltok, Stephen Oguche, Fidelia Bode-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To describe the fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles of HIV-positive Nigerian children and determine the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out at the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic (PIDC) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) for HIV-positive children and at two primary schools in Jos for HIV-negative children as controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758017/towards-an-ideal-antiretroviral-regimen-for-the-global-hiv-epidemic
#13
EDITORIAL
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Lara E Coelho, Paula M Luz, Valdilea G Veloso
Currently, immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all individuals with HIV infection. However, among the 37 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS, only 17 million are actively on treatment. Optimal use of ART among HIV-infected and at-risk individuals reduces morbidity, mortality, transmission and acquisition of HIV infection. ART regimen choices are affected by factors such as economic differences between resource-rich and low- and middle-income countries (LIMC), drug availability, and considerations for use in special populations...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742829/community-burden-of-undiagnosed-hiv-infection-among-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-following-primary-healthcare-based-provider-initiated-hiv-testing-and-counselling-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Subathira Dakshina, Tsitsi Bandason, Grace McHugh, Shungu Munyati, Prosper Chonzi, Katharina Kranzer, Getrude Ncube, Collen Masimirembwa, Roslyn Thelingwani, Tsitsi Apollo, Richard Hayes, Helen A Weiss, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734516/pediatric-human-immunodeficiency-virus-continuum-of-care-a-concise-review-of-evidence-based-practice
#15
REVIEW
Megan E Gray, Phillip Nieburg, Rebecca Dillingham
Children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent a population that requires a unique approach to HIV care. Prevention, testing, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and retention and engagement in care are critical steps. Each step requires providers to address age-specific barriers, so that successful and prolonged viral suppression can occur. Adherence to ART, disclosure of HIV-positive status, and stigma are examples of struggles faced by youth, their families, and health care providers...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728348/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-art-on-change-in-fertility-intentions-of-hiv-positive-women-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#16
Hussen Mekonnen
Objectives: The study aimed to assess change in fertility intentions 12 months after ART initiation among HIV positive women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based follow up study was conducted, among 360 HIV positive women in Addis Ababa; from June 2012 to October 2013. Logistic regression model was used to assess the influence socio-demographic, reproductive health and clinical characteristics on the change in fertility intention of women. Results: Overall, 41...
July 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723333/enhanced-prophylaxis-plus-antiretroviral-therapy-for-advanced-hiv-infection-in-africa
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721963/pediatric-hiv-in-india-current-scenario-and-the-way-forward
#18
REVIEW
Anita Nath
In India, the prevention of parent-to-child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services for HIV-infected mothers and children have been rapidly scaled up over the recent years. Despite these advances, a large number of HIV-infected children are born in every year. A thorough literature review has been done by retrieving related studies (published from the year 2000 onward); using a Medline search and by extracting recent findings from the official websites of the National AIDS Control Organization, UNAIDS, UNICEF, and World Health Organization...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719610/a-decade-of-hiv-care-in-rural-tanzania-trends-in-clinical-outcomes-and-impact-of-clinic-optimisation-in-an-open-prospective-cohort
#19
Fiona Vanobberghen, Emilio Letang, Anna Gamell, Dorcas K Mnzava, Diana Faini, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Kim Mwamelo, George Sikalengo, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Hansjakob Furrer, Manuel Battegay, Tracy R Glass
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe trends in enrolment and clinical outcomes in the open, prospective Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in the Morogoro region of southern Tanzania, and identify strengths and areas for improvement in the care of HIV-positive individuals in rural Tanzania. METHODS: We included adults (≥15 years) and children (<15 years) enrolled in the cohort in 2005-2014. The cohort underwent significant changes from autumn 2012 to optimise care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719495/late-onset-hiv-encephalopathy-in-children-with-long-standing-virologic-suppression-followed-by-slow-spontaneous-recovery-despite-no-change-in-antiretroviral-therapy-four-case-reports
#20
Steve Innes, Ronald van Toorn, Kennedy Otwombe, Els Dobbels, Gert van Zyl, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton
We describe four CHER (Children with HIV Early antiRetroviral therapy) trial participants with late-onset HIV encephalopathy despite long-standing viral suppression in blood and undetectable HIV DNA and RNA PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Extensive investigations revealed no alternative etiology. Reassuringly, all four experienced slow spontaneous recovery despite no change in antiretroviral therapy. Virally-suppressed HIV-infected children remain at risk for fluctuating neurologic signs and symptoms.
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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