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Antiretrovirals in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#1
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210784/novel-aids-therapies-based-on-gene-editing
#2
REVIEW
Kamel Khalili, Martyn K White, Jeffrey M Jacobson
HIV/AIDS remains a major public health issue. In 2014, it was estimated that 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide, including 2.6 million children. Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in the 1990s, treatment has been so successful that in many parts of the world, HIV has become a chronic condition in which progression to AIDS has become increasingly rare. However, while people with HIV can expect to live a normal life span with cART, lifelong medication is required and cardiovascular, renal, liver, and neurologic diseases are still possible, which continues to prompt research for a cure for HIV...
February 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of-chronic-viral-illness
#3
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, or Hepatitis C desire to achieve pregnancy. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207891/factors-influencing-antiretroviral-treatment-suboptimal-adherence-among-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-in-thailand
#4
Luyi Xu, Kerim Munir, Cheeraya Kanabkaew, Sophie Le Coeur
BACKGROUND: Existing studies have suggested decreased adherence and rebound in mortality in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared to adults and young children. METHODS: We used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify factors influencing adherence among perinatally infected adolescents in Thailand. We analyzed data from 568 pairs of perinatally infected adolescents (aged 12-19) and their primary caregivers in the Teens Living With Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010-2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#5
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204517/incidence-of-tuberculosis-and-associated-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Nicolas Salvadori, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Chloé Duclercq, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Pornchai Techakunakorn, Achara Puangsombat, Julie Figoni, Jean-Yves Mary, Intira J Collins, Tim R Cressey, Sophie Le Cœur, Wasna Sirirungsi, Marc Lallemant, Kenneth McIntosh, Gonzague Jourdain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198792/child-growth-according-to-maternal-and-child-hiv-status-in-zimbabwe
#7
Adetayo O Omoni, Robert Ntozini, Ceri Evans, Andrew J Prendergast, Lawrence H Moulton, Parul S Christian, Jean H Humphrey
BACKGROUND: Growth failure is common among HIV-infected infants, but there are limited data on the effects of HIV exposure or timing of HIV acquisition on growth. METHODS: 14110 infants were enrolled in the ZVITAMBO trial in Zimbabwe before the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or co-trimoxazole. Anthropometric measurements were taken from birth through 12-24 months of age. Growth outcomes were compared between 5 groups of children: HIV-infected in utero (IU), intrapartum (IP) or postnatally (PN); HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU); and HIV-unexposed...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198789/sustained-responses-to-measles-revaccination-at-24-months-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-kenya
#8
Laura P Newman, Anne Njoroge, Amalia Magaret, Bhavna H Chohan, Veronicah W Gitomea, Anna Wald, Jonathan Gorstein, Julie Overbaugh, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Ruth Nduati, Carey Farquhar
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations. METHODS: We administered an additional measles vaccine to HIV-infected children 15 months to 12 years of age receiving ART in Nairobi, Kenya. Measles antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at enrollment, one month, 12 months, and 24 months post revaccination...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198788/high-rates-of-baseline-drug-resistance-and-virologic-failure-among-art-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-children-in-mali
#9
Claudia S Crowell, Almoustapha I Maiga, Mariam Sylla, Babafemi Taiwo, Niaboula Kone, Assaf P Oron, Robert L Murphy, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Ban Traore, Djeneba B Fofana, Gilles Peytavin, Ellen G Chadwick
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on drug resistance and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes in HIV-1 infected children in West Africa. We determined the prevalence of baseline resistance and correlates of virologic failure (VF) in a cohort of ART naïve HIV-1 infected children <10 years of age initiating ART in Mali. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase and protease genes were sequenced at baseline (before ART) and at 6 months. Resistance was defined according to the Stanford HIV Genotypic Resistance database...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194587/developing-a-safer-conception-intervention-for-men-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#10
Hazar Khidir, Christina Psaros, Letitia Greener, Kasey O'Neil, Mxolisi Mathenjwa, F N Mosery, Lizzie Moore, Abigail Harrison, David R Bangsberg, Jennifer A Smit, Steven A Safren, Lynn T Matthews
Within sexual partnerships, men make many decisions about sexual behavior, reproductive goals, and HIV prevention. There are increasing calls to involve men in reproductive health and HIV prevention. This paper describes the process of creating and evaluating the acceptability of a safer conception intervention for men living with HIV who want to have children with partners at risk for acquiring HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Based on formative work conducted with men and women living with HIV, their partners, and providers, we developed an intervention based on principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy to support men in the adoption of HIV risk-reduction behaviors such as HIV-serostatus disclosure and uptake of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy...
February 13, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192529/first-line-antiretroviral-drug-discontinuations-in-children
#11
Melony Fortuin-de Smidt, Reneé de Waal, Karen Cohen, Karl-Günter Technau, Kathryn Stinson, Gary Maartens, Andrew Boulle, Ehimario U Igumbor, Mary-Ann Davies
INTRODUCTION: There are a limited number of paediatric antiretroviral drug options. Characterising the long term safety and durability of different antiretrovirals in children is important to optimise management of HIV infected children and to determine the estimated need for alternative drugs in paediatric regimens. We describe first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) durability and reasons for discontinuations in children at two South African ART programmes, where lopinavir/ritonavir has been recommended for children <3 years old since 2004, and abacavir replaced stavudine as the preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in 2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187062/risk-factors-for-growth-retardation-in-hiv-infected-senegalese-children-on-antiretroviral-treatment-the-anrs-12279-maggsen-pediatric-cohort-study
#12
Cecile Cames, Lea Pascal, Aminata Diack, Helene Mbodj, Baly Ouattara, Ndeye Rama Diagne, Ndeye Fatou Diallo, Philippe Msellati, Ngagne Mbaye, Haby Sy Signate
OBJECTIVES: We described prevalence and risk factors for wasting and stunting among HIV-infected children with a median duration of 3 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of their enrollment in the cohort study. METHODS: Wasting and stunting at ART initiation and at enrollment were defined as weight-for-height/body mass index-for-age z-scores < -2 and height-for-age z-scores < -2, respectively. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for wasting and stunting...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181860/factors-associated-with-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-despite-overall-low-transmission-rates-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-rural-kenya
#13
Nicollate A Okoko, Kevin O Owuor, Jayne L Kulzer, George O Owino, Irene A Ogolla, Ronald W Wandera, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Lisa L Abuogi
Despite the availability of efficacious prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and improved access to preventive services in many developing countries, vertical HIV transmission persists. A matched case-control study of HIV-exposed infants between January and June 2012 was conducted at 20 clinics in Kenya. Cases were HIV-infected infants and controls were exposed, uninfected infants. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine characteristics associated with HIV infection...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178277/paucity-of-intact-non-induced-provirus-with-early-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-of-perinatal-hiv-infection
#14
Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Carrie Ziemniak, Douglas Watson, Katherine Luzuriaga, George Siberry, Ann Petru, YaHui Chen, Priyanka Uprety, Margaret McManus, Ya-Chi Ho, Susanna L Lamers, Deborah Persaud
The latent reservoir is a major barrier to HIV eradication. Reservoir size is emerging as an important biomarker to assess the likelihood of HIV remission in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may be reduced by earlier initiation of ART that restricts HIV spread into CD4+ T cells. Reservoir size is traditionally measured with a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) that induces replication-competent HIV production through in vitro stimulation of resting CD4+ T cells. However, the recent identification of replication-intact, non-induced proviral genomes (NIPG) suggests the QVOA significantly underestimates (by 62-fold) latent reservoir size in chronically-infected adults...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169874/impact-of-hiv-and-atiretroviral-therapy-on-neurocognitive-outcomes-among-school-aged-children
#15
Heena Brahmbhatt, Michael Boivin, Victor Ssempijja, Joseph Kagaayi, Godfrey Kigozi, David Serwadda, Avy Violari, Ronald H Gray
INTRODUCTION: The impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on neurocognitive outcomes among children aged 7 to 14 years was assessed. We hypothesized that ART would ameliorate neurocognitive sequelae of HIV infection. METHODS: HIV-positive and negative mother-child pairs from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) and ART clinics in Rakai, Uganda were followed prospectively over 4 years. Exposures were stratified as: Perinatally HIV Infected (PHIV), Perinatally HIV Exposed but Uninfected (PHEU), and HIV Unexposed and Uninfected (HUU)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164027/developmental-delay-and-behavioral-disorders-in-59-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#16
Véronique Reliquet, Cécile Brunet-Cartier, Elise Launay, François Raffi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV pregnant women has led to a dramatic decrease in the rate of HIV mother-to-child transmission but this benefit is counterbalanced with adverse effects related to in utero and neonatal exposure to ART. In 2013, some parents described neurodevelopmental disorders in their children. METHODS: A standardized letter was sent to the 133 women who delivered in Nantes hospital from 01/01/2003 to 31/12/2012 (167 births). RESULTS: Response rate was 33%...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160044/clinical-characteristics-of-pediatric-hiv-1-patients-treated-with-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-vietnam-a-nested-case-control-study
#17
Minh Diem Dang, Duc Minh Nguyen, Huu Bich Tran, Viet Hung Pham, Daryl Spak, Linh Chi Pham, Thi Quynh Phan, Thi Thanh Dinh, Thi Kim Anh Le, Van Lam Nguyen, Thanh Hai Le, Son Ngoc Hoang, Vu Phuong Linh Dang
OBJECTIVES: Over the past decades, Vietnam has made great strides in reducing the rate of mortality in HIV-related deaths, due to increased access of antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, given the significantly high level of treatment failure (TF), it is essential to identify markers that describe the failure of ART in HIV-1 infected children. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted with clinical data collected from 101 HIV-infected children [26 TF and 75 treatment success (TS)] at National Hospital of Pediatrics, Vietnam (2008-2012)...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158882/missed-opportunities-for-preventing-perinatal-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-florida-2007-2014
#18
Mary Jo Trepka, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Consuelo Beck-Sagué, Lorene M Maddox, Kristopher P Fennie, Diana M Sheehan, Maithri Prabhakar, Dan Thompson, Spencer Lieb
OBJECTIVES: Despite declining numbers of perinatally exposed infants, an increase in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from 2011 to 2013 prompted this study to identify missed perinatal HIV prevention opportunities. METHODS: Deidentified records of children born from 2007 through 2014, exposed to HIV perinatally, and reported to the Florida Department of Health were obtained. Crude relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with perinatal transmission, nondiagnosis of maternal HIV infection, and nonreceipt of antiretroviral medication were calculated...
February 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157463/use-of-antiretrovirals-in-hiv-infected-children-in-a-tuberculosis-prevention-trial-impaact-p1041
#19
B Zeldow, S Kim, G McSherry, M F Cotton, P Jean-Philippe, A Violari, R Bobat, S Nachman, L M Mofenson, S A Madhi, C Mitchell
SETTING: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1041, a tuberculosis (TB) prevention trial conducted among children enrolled from 2004 to 2008 during South Africa's roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To estimate TB incidence and mortality and the effect of ART. DESIGN: Children were pre-screened to exclude TB disease and exposure, actively screened 3-monthly for TB exposure and symptoms, and provided post-exposure isoniazid prophylaxis therapy (IPT)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152666/provision-of-critical-care-services-to-hiv-infected-children-in-an-era-of-advanced-intensive-care-and-availability-of-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Prakash M Jeena, Miriam Adhikari
Intensive care facilities are always in demand in the public sector and there is constant competition for beds. Appropriate allocation of children to these resources is based on the ethical principles of distributive justice and beneficence that is determined on the presumed short-term outcome of the acute illness, long-term outcome of the underlying chronic disease and the overall demand for these facilities. At the onset of the HIV epidemic in South Africa, HIV-infected children were refused admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) on the basis of poor ICU outcomes and the lack of provision of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) for survivors...
February 3, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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